Echo vowel

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In speech, an echo vowel, also known as a synharmonic vowel, is a paragogic vowel that repeats the final vowel in a word. For example, in Chumash, when a word ends with a glottal stop and comes at the end of an intonation unit, the final vowel is repeated after the glottal stop, but is whispered and faint, as in [jaʔḁ] for /jaʔ/ "arrow" (written ya). In Rukai (Taiwan), echo vowels are pronounced as full vowels. However, they are not only predictable, but disappear when under reduplication or when a suffix beginning with /a/ is added to the word.

Rukai echo vowels and phonemic vowels
Agent focus suffix reduplication
echo vowel wa-uŋulu uŋul-a ara uŋul-uŋulu
drinks drink! don't drink
phonemic vowel wa-kanə kanə-a ara kanə-kanə
eats eat! don't eat

Echo vowels are also found in writing, especially with syllabaries. For example, a word kab may be written as if it were kaba, and keb would be written as if it were kebe. Such as system is found in Maya, though with complications depending on the quality of the preceding vowel. In Linear B, such final consonants were simply not written. However, consonant clusters were separated with echo vowels, for example writing the city Knossos as if it were Konoso (Linear B: 𐀒𐀜𐀰, ko-no-so). In Ainu, some writers write final /r/ with a subscript kana for ra, re, ri, ro, or ru, depending on the preceding vowel, whereas others use a subscript ru in all cases.

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References[edit]

Chumash Glossary