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Eco-nationalism is an emerging form of nationalism that manifests in both economic and ecological spheres. Economic nationalism (also pejoratively called protectionism) can manifest as a desire to protect the working class of a nation from job loss from globalization-related trends, such as immigration and trade agreements. Ecological nationalism manifests as a desire to eliminate reliance on foreign sources of fuel and energy by promoting alternate energy sources that can be adequately created and maintained with a nation's boundary. Brazil displayed an example of this by becoming completely energy self-reliant.

According to J. Dawson, eco-nationalism is the rise of social movements that closely connect problems of environment protection with nationalist concerns. In former Soviet Union citizens perceived environmental degradation as both a systemic fault of socialism and a direct result of Moscow's desire to weaken a particular nation by destroying its natural base, and exploiting its resources. Estonian, Lithuanian and Ukrainian independence movements drew great strength from environmental activism, especially from an antinuclear stance. In 1985-1991, eco-nationalism was one of symptoms and at the same time a new impulse for disintegration of the Soviet Union.


  • Dawson J. I. Eco-Nationalism: Anti-Nuclear Activism and National Identity in Russia, Lithuania, and Ukraine. - Duke University Press Books, 1996. - 240 p.
  • Efremenko D. Eco-nationalism and the Crisis of Soviet Empire (1986-1991) // Irish Slavonic Studies. – vol. 24. – Dublin: IARCEES, 2012. – pp. 17–20.
  • Josephson P., Dronin N., Mnatsakanyan R., Cherp A., Efremenko D., Larin A. An Environmental History of Russia. – New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. – 341 p.