Ecological systems of Montana

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Multiple ecosystems in Gallatin National Forest

There are 62 named Ecological Systems found in Montana[1] These systems are described in the Montana Field Guides-Ecological Systems of Montana.[2]

An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight.[3] It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment.[3]

Forest and Woodland Systems[edit]

Alpine Systems[edit]

Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems[edit]

Grassland Systems[edit]

Sparse and Barren Systems[edit]

Open Water/Wetland and Riparian Systems[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Comer, P.; D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, M. Pyne, M. Reid, K. Schulz, K. Snow, and J. Teague (2003). Ecological Systems of the United States: A Working Classification of U.S. Terrestrial Systems. Arlington, Virginia: NatureServe. 
  • Noss, Reed F.; Edward T. LaRoe III, J. Michael Scott (1995). Endangered Ecosystems of the United States: A Preliminary Assessment of Loss and Degradation (Report). National Biological Service. Unpublished report. http://biology.usgs.gov/pubs/ecosys.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
  • Management of riparian and wetland forested ecosystems in Montana: fourth annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop, September 5-7, 1990. Missoula, Montana: School of Forestry, University of Montana. 1990. 
  • Schmitz, Oswald J. (2010). Resolving Ecosystem Complexity. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12848-1. 

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Ecological Systems Field Guide Help". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  2. ^ "Montana Field Guides". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  3. ^ a b ”Biology Concepts & Connections Sixth Edition”, Campbell, Neil A. (2009), page 2, 3 and G-9. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  4. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Mesic Montane Mixed Conifer Forest". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  5. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine Mesic Spruce-Fir Forest and Woodland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  6. ^ "Montana Field Guide- Great Plains Ponderosa Pine Woodland and Savanna". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  7. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Dry-Mesic Montane Mixed Conifer Forest". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  8. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Foothill Limber Pine - Juniper Woodland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  9. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Foothill Woodland-Steppe Transition". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  10. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine Forest". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  11. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Montane Douglas-Fir Forest and Woodland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  12. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Ponderosa Pine Woodland and Savanna". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  13. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Poor Site Lodgepole Pine Forest". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  14. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine Dry-Mesic Spruce-Fir Forest and Woodland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  15. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine Woodland and Parkland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  16. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Aspen Forest and Woodland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  17. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Wooded Draw and Ravine". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  18. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Mountain Mahogany Woodland and Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  19. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Aspen Mixed Conifer Forest-Woodland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  20. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Alpine Dwarf Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  21. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Alpine Turf". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  22. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Alpine Bedrock and Scree". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  23. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Alpine Fell-Field". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  24. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Alpine Ice Field". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  25. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  26. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Lower Montane-Foothill Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  27. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Montane-Foothill Deciduous Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  28. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine Deciduous Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  29. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Big Sagebrush Steppe". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  30. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Montane Sagebrush Steppe". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  31. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Big Sagebrush Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  32. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Low Sagebrush Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  33. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Mat Saltbush Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  34. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Mixed Salt Desert Scrub". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  35. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Mixedgrass Prairie". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  36. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Sand Prairie". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  37. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Lower Montane, Foothill and Valley Grassland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  38. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Mesic Meadow". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  39. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Upper Montane Grassland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  40. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Active and Stabilized Dune". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  41. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Badlands". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  42. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Shale Badland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  43. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Cliff and Outcrop". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  44. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Cliff, Canyon and Massive Bedrock". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  45. ^ "Montana Field Guide- Wyoming Basins Cliff and Canyon". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  46. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Fen". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  47. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Closed Depressional Wetland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  48. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Open Freshwater Depression Wetland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  49. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Prairie Pothole". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  50. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Saline Depression Wetland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  51. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Wooded Vernal Pool". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  52. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Greasewood Flat". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  53. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Floodplain". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  54. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Great Plains Riparian". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  55. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Northern Rocky Mountain Lower Montane Riparian Woodland and Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  56. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Lower Montane-Foothill Riparian Woodland and Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  57. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Shrubland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  58. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Woodland". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  59. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rocky Mountain Conifer Swamp". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  60. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Emergent Marsh". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  61. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Geysers and Hot Springs". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  62. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Open Water". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  63. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Alpine-Montane Wet Meadow". Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2011-06-14.