Economic development in India
The economic development in India followed socialist-inspired policies for most of its independent history, including state-ownership of many sectors; India's per capita income increased at only around 1% annualised rate in the three decades after Independence. Since the mid-1980s, India has slowly opened up its markets through economic liberalisation. After more fundamental reforms since 1991 and their renewal in the 2000s, India has progressed towards a free market economy.
In the late 2000s, India's growth reached 7.5%, which will double the average income in a decade. Analysts[who?] say that if India pushed more fundamental market reforms, it could sustain the rate and even reach the government's 2011 target of 10%. States have large responsibilities over their economies. The annualised 1999–2008 growth rates for Tamil Nadu (9.8), Gujarat (9.6%), Haryana (9.1%), or Delhi (8.9%) were significantly higher than for Bihar (5.1%), Uttar Pradesh (4.4%), or Madhya Pradesh (6.5%). India is the tenth-largest economy in the world and the third largest by purchasing power parity adjusted exchange rates (PPP). On per capita basis, it ranks 140th in the world or 129th by PPP.
The economic growth has been driven by the expansion of services that have been growing consistently faster than other sectors. It is argued that the pattern of Indian development has been a specific one and that the country may be able to skip the intermediate industrialisation-led phase in the transformation of its economic structure. Serious concerns have been raised about the jobless nature of the economic growth.
Favourable macroeconomic performance has been a necessary but not sufficient condition for the significant reduction of poverty amongst the Indian population. The rate of poverty decline has not been higher in the post-reform period (since 1991). The improvements in some other non-economic dimensions of social development have been even less favourable. The most pronounced example is an exceptionally high and persistent level of child malnutrition (46% in 2005–6).
The progress of economic reforms in India is followed closely. The World Bank suggests that the most important priorities are public sector reform, infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, reforms in lagging states, and HIV/AIDS. For 2012, India ranked 132nd in Ease of Doing Business Index, which is setback as compared with China 91st and Brazil 126th. According to Index of Economic Freedom World Ranking an annual survey on economic freedom of the nations, India ranks 123rd as compared with China and Russia which ranks 138th and 144th respectively in 2012.
India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 18.6% of the GDP in 2005, employed 60% of the total workforce and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. Yields per unit area of all crops have grown since 1950, due to the special emphasis placed on agriculture in the five-year plans and steady improvements in irrigation, technology, application of modern agricultural practices and provision of agricultural credit and subsidies since the green revolution.
India is the largest producer in the world of milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper. It also has the world's largest cattle population (193 million). It is the second largest producer of wheat, rice, sugar, groundnut and inland fish. It is the third largest producer of tobacco. India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production with first rank in the production of banana and sapota.
The required level of investment for the development of marketing, storage and cold storage infrastructure is estimated to be huge. The government has implemented various schemes to raise investment in marketing infrastructure. Amongst these schemes are Construction of Rural Go downs, Market Research and Information Network, and Development / Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardisation.
Main problems in the agricultural sector, as listed by the World Bank, are:
- India's large agricultural subsidies are hampering productivity-enhancing investment.
- Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty.
- Government interventions in labour, land, and credit markets.
- Inadequate infrastructure and services.
- Research and development
The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), established in 1905, was responsible for the research leading to the "Indian Green Revolution" of the 1970s. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the apex body in kundiure and related allied fields, including research and education. The Union Minister of Agriculture is the President of the ICAR. The Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute develops new techniques for the design of agricultural experiments, analyses data in agriculture, and specialises in statistical techniques for animal and plant breeding. Prof. M.S. Swaminathan is known as "Father of the Green Revolution" and heads the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation. He is known for his advocacy of environmentally sustainable agriculture and sustainable food security.
India is tenth in the world in factory output. Manufacturing sector in addition to mining, quarrying, electricity and gas together account for 27.6% of the GDP and employ 17% of the total workforce. Economic reforms introduced after 1991 brought foreign competition, led to privatisation of certain public sector industries, opened up sectors hitherto reserved for the public sector and led to an expansion in the production of fast-moving consumer goods. In recent years, Indian cities have continued to liberalise, but excessive and burdensome business regulations remain a problem in some cities, like Kochi and Kolkata.
Post-liberalisation, the Indian private sector, which was usually run by oligopolies of old family firms and required political connections to prosper was faced with foreign competition, including the threat of cheaper Chinese imports. It has since handled the change by squeezing costs, revamping management, focusing on designing new products and relying on low labour costs and technology. The Indian market offers endless possibilities for investors.
India is fifteenth in services output. Service industry employ English-speaking Indian workers on the supply side and on the demand side, has increased demand from foreign consumers interested in India's service exports or those looking to outsource their operations. India's IT industry, despite contributing significantly to its balance of payments, accounts for only about 1% of the total GDP or 1/50th of the total services.
During the Internet bubble that led up to 2000, heavy investments in undersea fibre-optic cables linked Asia with the rest of the world. The fall that followed the economic boom resulted in the auction of cheap fiber optic cables at one-tenth of their original price. This development resulted in widely available low-cost communications infrastructure. All of these investments and events, not to mention a swell of available talent, resulted in India becoming almost overnight the centre for outsourcing of Business process. Within this sector and events, the ITES-BPO sector has become a big employment generator especially amongst young college graduates. The number of professionals employed by IT and ITES sectors is estimated at around 1.3 million as on March 2006. Also, Indian IT-ITES is estimated to have helped create an additional 3 million job opportunities through indirect and induced employment.
GDP growth rate
Since the economic liberalisation of 1991, India's GDP has been growing at a higher rate.
|Year||Growth (real) (%)|
|121||Reliance Industries||Oil & Gas Operations||34.03||4.87||43.61||35.95|
|150||State Bank of India||Banking||22.63||2.23||255.86||12.75|
|152||Oil and Natural Gas Corporation||Oil & Gas Operations||24.04||4.95||35.35||28.91|
|207||Indian Oil Corporation||Oil & Gas Operations||51.66||1.97||33.64||10.20|
|508||Bharti Airtel||Telecommunications Services||6.73||1.59||12.28||23.63|
|582||Steel Authority of India Limited||Materials||9.82||1.89||10.54||6.14|
|689||Reliance Communications||Telecommunications Services||4.26||1.35||19.31||6.27|
India's resource consumption
India had about 5.6 billion barrels (890,000,000 m3) of proven oil reserves as of January 2007, which is the second-largest amount in the Asia-Pacific region behind China. Most of India's crude oil reserves are located in the western coast (Mumbai High) and in the northeastern parts of the country, although considerable undeveloped reserves are also located in the offshore Bay of Bengal and in the state of Rajasthan.
The combination of rising oil consumption and fairly unwavering production levels leaves India highly dependent on imports to meet the consumption needs. In 2006, India produced an average of about 846,000 barrels (134,500 m3) per day (bbl/d) of total oil liquids, of which 77%, or 648,000 bbl/d (103,000 m3/d), was crude oil. During 2006, India consumed an estimated 2.63 Mbbl/d (418,000 m3/d) of oil. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that India registered oil demand growth of 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d) during 2006. EIA forecasts suggest that country is likely to experience similar gains during 2007 and 2008.
- Sector organisation
India’s oil sector is dominated by state-owned enterprises, although the government has taken steps in past recent years to deregulate the hydrocarbons industry and support greater foreign involvement. India’s state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) is the largest oil company, and also the country’s largest company overall by market capitalisation. ONGC is the leading player in India’s upstream sector, accounting for roughly 75% of the country’s oil output during 2006, as per Indian government estimates.
As a net importer of oil, the Government of India has introduced policies aimed at growing domestic oil production and oil exploration activities. As part of the effort, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas crafted the New Exploration License Policy (NELP) in 2000, which permits foreign companies to hold 100% equity possession in oil and natural gas projects. However, to date, only a handful of oil fields are controlled by foreign firms. India’s downstream sector is also dominated by state-owned entities, though private companies have enlarged their market share in past recent years.
As per the Oil and Gas Journal, India had 38 trillion cubic feet (1.1×1012 m3) of confirmed natural gas reserves as of January 2007. A huge mass of India’s natural gas production comes from the western offshore regions, particularly the Mumbai High complex. The onshore fields in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat states are also major producers of natural gas. As per EIA data, India produced 996 billion cubic feet (2.82×1010 m3) of natural gas in 2004.
India imports small amounts of natural gas. In 2004, India consumed about 1,089×109 cu ft (3.08×1010 m3) of natural gas, the first year in which the country showed net natural gas imports. During 2004, India imported 93×109 cu ft (2.6×109 m3) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Qatar.
- Sector Organisation
As in the oil sector, India’s state-owned companies account for the bulk of natural gas production. ONGC and Oil India Ltd. (OIL) are the leading companies with respect to production volume, whilst some foreign companies take part in upstream developments in joint-ventures and production sharing contracts (PSCs). Reliance Industries, a privately owned Indian company, will also have a bigger role in the natural gas sector as a result of a large natural gas find in 2002 in the Krishna Godavari basin.
The Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL) holds an effective control on natural gas transmission and allocation activities. In December 2006, the Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas issued a new policy that allows foreign investors, private domestic companies, and national oil companies to hold up to 100% equity stakes in pipeline projects. Whilst GAIL’s domination in natural gas transmission and allocation is not ensured by statute, it will continue to be the leading player in the sector because of its existing natural gas infrastructure.
- Regulation, public sector, corruption
India ranked 133rd on the Ease of Doing Business Index in 2010, compared with 85th for Pakistan, 89th for People's Republic of China, 125th for Nigeria, 129th for Brazil, and 122nd for Indonesia.
Corruption in many forms has been one of the pervasive problems affecting India. For decades, the red tape, bureaucracy and the Licence Raj that had strangled private enterprise. The economic reforms of 1991 cut some of the worst regulations that had been used in corruption.
Corruption is still large. A 2005 study by Transparency International (TI) India found that more than half of those surveyed had firsthand experience of paying a bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. The chief economic consequences of corruption are the loss to the exchequer, an unhealthy climate for investment and an increase in the cost of government-subsidised services. The TI India study estimates the monetary value of petty corruption in 11 basic services provided by the government, like education, healthcare, judiciary, police, etc., to be around 21068 crore (US$3.2 billion). India still ranks in the bottom quartile of developing nations in terms of the ease of doing business, and compared with China, the average time taken to secure the clearances for a startup or to invoke bankruptcy is much greater.
The Right to Information Act (2005) and equivalent acts in the states, that require government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action, computerisation of services and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions have considerably reduced corruption or at least have opened up avenues to redress grievances. The 2006 report by Transparency International puts India at 70th place and states that significant improvements were made by India in reducing corruption.
India's labour force is growing by 2.5% every year, but employment is growing only at 2.3% a year. Official unemployment exceeds 9%. Regulation and other obstacles have discouraged the emergence of formal businesses and jobs. Almost 30% of workers are casual workers who work only when they are able to get jobs and remain unpaid for the rest of the time. Only 10% of the workforce is in regular employment. India's labour regulations are heavy even by developing country standards and analysts have urged the government to abolish them.
From the overall stock of an estimated 458 million workers, 394 million (86%) operate in the unorganised sector (of which 63% are self-employed) mostly as informal workers. There is a strong relationship between the quality of employment and social and poverty characteristics. The relative growth of informal employment was more rapid within the organised rather than the unorganised sector. This informalisation is also related to the flexibilisation of employment in the organised sector that is suggested by the increasing use of contract labour by employers in order to benefit from more flexible labour practices.
Children under 14 constitute 3.6% of the total labour force in the country. Of these children, 9 out of every 10 work in their own rural family settings. Around 85% of them are engaged in traditional agricultural activities. Less than 9% work in manufacturing, services and repairs. Child labour is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The Indian government is implementing the world's largest child labour elimination program, with primary education targeted for ~250 million. Numerous non-governmental and voluntary organisations are also involved. Special investigation cells have been set up in states to enforce existing laws banning employment of children (under 14) in hazardous industries. The allocation of the Government of India for the eradication of child labour was US$10 million in 1995–96 and US$16 million in 1996–97. The allocation for 2007 is US$21 million.
- Environmental degradation
About 1.2 billion people in developing nations lack clean, safe water because most household and industrial wastes are dumped directly into rivers and lakes without treatment. This contributes to the rapid increase in waterborne diseases in humans. Out of India's 3119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities (WHO 1992). 114 cities dump untreated sewage and partially cremated bodies directly into the Ganges River. Downstream, the untreated water is used for drinking, bathing, and washing. This situation is typical of many rivers in India as well as other developing countries. Globally, but especially in developing nations like India where people cook with fuelwood and coal over open fires, about 4 billion humans suffer continuous exposure to smoke. In India, particulate concentrations in houses are reported to range from 8,300 to 15,000 μg/m3, greatly exceeding the 75 μg/m3 maximum standard for indoor particulate matter in the United States. Changes in ecosystem biological diversity, evolution of parasites, and invasion by exotic species all frequently result in disease outbreaks such as cholera which emerged in 1992 in India. The frequency of AIDS/HIV is increasing. In 1996, about 46,000 Indians out of 2.8 million (1.6% of the population) tested were found to be infected with HIV.
- Economic survey of India 2007: Policy Brief. OECD.
- "A special report on India: Ruled by Lakshmi". The Economist. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
- NOVOTNÝ, J., RAMACHANDRAN, N. (2010): Alternative to jobless growth? All-India context and a case of participatory development scheme from rural Tamil Nadu. Geografie, 115, 3, 330–346. http://web.natur.cuni.cz/~pepino/Novotny_Ramachandran_2010_Alternative_to_jobless_growth.pdf
- CHATTERJEE, P. (2007): Child malnutrition rises in India despite economic boom. The Lancet, 369, No. 9571, pp. 1417–1418.
- India Country Overview 2008. World Bank
- "CIA — The World Factbook — India". CIA. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- Agriculture sector Indo British Partnership network, Retrieved on December 2007
- Lester R. Brown World's Rangelands Deteriorating Under Mounting Pressure Earth Policy Institute, Retrieved on- February 2008
- Indian agriculture Agribusiness Information Centre, Retrieved on- February 2008
- Agriculture marketing india.gov Retrieved on- February 2008
- India: Priorities for Agriculture and Rural Development. World Bank
- Objectives Indian agricultural research institute, Retrieved on December 2007
- MS Swaminathan Times Inc. Retrieved on- 21 February 2008
- "Economic structure". The Economist. 6 October 2003.[dead link]
- "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- "Indian manufacturers learn to compete". The Economist. 12 February 2004.[dead link]
- "Reasons to Invest in India". Engineeringfromindia.com.
- Gordon, Jim and Gupta, Poonam (2003). Understanding India's Services Revolution (PDF). 12 November 2003.
- What's Next for the Startup nation http://www.startup-nation.com/the-book/
- ITES and BPO Services india.gov Retrieved on- February 2008
- India – GDP – real growth rate (%).
- "Forbes Global 2000 (Ger-Ind)". Retrieved 6 March 2009.
- "Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Statistical agency of the U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
- International Petroleum Monthly 2005–2006
- "Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Statistical agency of the U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
- Centre for Media Studies (2005). India Corruption Study 2005: To Improve Governance Volume – I: Key Highlights. Transparency International India.
- DeLong, J. Bradford (2001). India Since Independence: An Analytic Growth Narrative (PDF).
- Example of a central government department's implementation of the Right to Information Act.
- "Transparency International Press release". Transparency.org. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
- Transparency International Press release[dead link]
- "Growing Unemployment Problem in India" (PDF). Retrieved 12 July 2009.
- Why India needs labour law reform. BBC
- SENGUPTA, A., KANNAN, K. P., RAVEENDRAN, G. (2008): India’s common people: who are they, how many are they and how do they live? Economic and Political Weekly, 43, No. 11, pp. 49–63..
- "Child Labour and India". Embassy of India, Washington, DC. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
- Gleick PH. 1993. Water in Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Russell Hopfenberg and David Pimentel HUMAN POPULATION NUMBERS AS A FUNCTION OF FOOD SUPPLY oilcrash.com Retrieved on- February 2008
- National Geographic Society. 1995. Water: A Story of Hope. Washington (DC): National Geographic Society
- Christiani DC. 1993. Urban and trans-boundary air pollution: Human health consequences. Pages 13–30 in Chivian E, McCally M, Hu H, Haines A, eds. Critical Condition: Human Health and the Environment. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
- Burns JF. 1996. Denial and taboo blind India to the horror of its AIDS scourge. New York Times, 22 September: A1.
- India and the Knowledge Economy – a World Bank Institute report.
- Finance Ministry of India
- Economy of India
- India in Business- Official website for Investment and Trade in India
- Reserve Bank of India's database on the Indian economy
- India Brand Equity Foundation
- Ernst & Young 2006 report on doing Business in India
- Department of Public Enterprises
- India Economy Watch – search engine
- CIA – The World Factbook – India
- Cheers! India is now a trillion dollar economy by Venkatesan Vembu, Daily News & Analysis
- Gross Domestic Product Growth – India
- Annual Inflation Rate – India
- Software on Indian Taxes Taxation software for all Indian Tax Needs
- Chindia: The next Decade Senior Business Week writer Pete Engardio, credited for having made the Chindia neologism famous, compares the rise of both China and India in this online video conference. (video)
- Will India Become a Superpower? Here are 12 Hints
- Development Economics in India lecture by Economist Tyler Cowen, October 2012