Economy of Italy
|Economy of Italy|
Milan Stock Exchange
|Rank||9th (nominal) / 10th (PPP)|
|Currency||Euro (EUR), except in Campione d'Italia (CHF)|
|Fiscal year||calendar year|
|Trade organisations||EU, WTO (via EU membership), OECD|
|GDP||$2.014 trillion (2012) (nominal; 9th)
$1,833 trillion (2012) (PPP; 10th)
|GDP growth||-2.3% (Real, 2012)|
|GDP per capita||$33,115 nominal (2012)$30136 PPP (2012)|
|GDP by sector||agriculture: 1.8%; industry: 24.9%; services: 73.3% (2010 est.)|
|Inflation (CPI)||3.0% (CPI, 2012 est.)|
below poverty line
|8% 4814000 people below absolute line of poverty (about 520€/month)(2012)|
|Gini coefficient||36 (2009)|
|Labour force||25.28 million (2012 est.)|
|services (67.8%), industry (28.3%), agriculture (3.9%) (2011)|
|Unemployment||12.2% (May 2013)|
|Average gross salary||2,729 € / 3,436 $, (4th quarter 2012)|
|Average net salary||1,880 € / 2,368 $, (4th quarter 2012) Average net income monthly 1445€/1906$ (2012)|
|Main industries||tourism, communications, machinery, steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, home appliances, clothing, fashion|
|Ease of doing business rank||73rd|
|Exports||$483.3 billion (2012 est.)|
|Export goods||engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, and nonferrous metals|
|Main export partners|| Germany 12.8%
United States 6.6%
United Kingdom 5.0%
Spain 4.8% (2012 est.)
|Imports||$469.7 billion (2012 est.)|
|Import goods||engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobacco|
|Main import partners|| Germany 15.7%
Belgium 4.1% (2012 est.)
|FDI stock||$369.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)|
|Gross external debt||$2.493 trillion (31 December 2012)|
|Public debt||126.1% of GDP (2012 est.)|
|Revenues||$956.6 billion (2012 est.)|
|Expenses||$1.014 trillion (2012 est.)|
|Economic aid||donor: $2.48 billion, 0.15% of GDP (2004)|
|Credit rating||Standard & Poor's:
AAA (T&C Assessment)
|Foreign reserves||US$173.3 billion (31 December 2012)|
Italy has a diversified industrial economy with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and developed infrastructure. According to the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and The World Factbook, in 2012 Italy was the ninth-largest economy in the world, the fourth-largest in Europe and the third-largest in the Eurozone in terms of nominal GDP, and the tenth-largest economy in the world and fifth-largest in Europe in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP.
- 1 History
- 2 Overview
- 3 Economic sectors
- 4 Labor
- 5 Wealth
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The Unification of Italy in 1861–70 broke down the feudal land system that had survived in the South since Middle Ages, especially where land had been the inalienable property of aristocrats, religious bodies, or the king. The redistribution of land did not necessarily lead to small farmers in the South winding up with land of their own or land they could work and profit from. Many remained landless, and plots grew smaller and smaller and thus more and more unproductive as land was subdivided among heirs.
At the same time, the early industrialization process that characterized the northern and central parts of the country starting from the 1880s, completely excluded large areas in the North-East. The resulting Italian diaspora concerned nearly 25 million Italians, the most part immigrated in the period 1880–1914, and it is considered the biggest mass migration of contemporary times.
During the Great War, the Italian Royal Army increased in size from 15,000 men in 1914 to 160,000 men in 1918, with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war. This came at a terrible cost: by the end of the war, Italy had lost 700,000 soldiers and had a budget deficit of billions of lira.
Italy emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition. The National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. During the first years of the new regime, the Fascist pursued a laissez-faire economic policy: they initially reduced taxes, regulations and trade restrictions on the whole. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, laissez-faire and free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention and protectionism.
In 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. Trying to handle the crisis, the Fascist government nationalized the holdings of large banks which had accrued significant industrial securities, establishing the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale. A number of mixed entities were formed, whose purpose it was to bring together representatives of the government and of the major businesses. These representatives discussed economic policy and manipulated prices and wages so as to satisfy both the wishes of the government and the wishes of business.
This economic model based on a partnership between government and business was soon extended to the political sphere, in what came to be known as corporatism. At the same time, the aggressive foreign policy of Mussolini led to an increasing military expenditure. After the invasion of Ethiopia, Italy intervened to support Francisco Franco's nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. By 1939, Italy had the highest percentage of state-owned enterprises after the Soviet Union.
Italy's involvement in World War II as a member of the Axis powers required the establishment of a war economy. The Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 eventually caused the Italian political structure – and the economy – to rapidly collapse. The Allies, on the one hand, and the Germans on the other, took over the administration of the areas of Italy under their control. By the end of the war, Italian per capita income was at its lowest point since the beginning of the 20th century.
Post-war economic miracle
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2011)|
After the end of World War II, Italy was in rubble and occupied by foreign armies, like Germany and other Axis powers, a condition that worsened the chronic development gap towards the more advanced European economies. However, the new geopolitical logic of the Cold War made possible that the former enemy Italy, a hinge-country between Western Europe and the Mediterranean, and now a new, fragile democracy threatened by the proximity of the Iron Curtain and the presence of a strong Communist party, was considered by the USA as an important ally for the Free World, and received under the Marshall Plan US$1,204 million from 1947 to 1951.
The end of aid through the Plan could have stopped the recovery but its end coincided with a crucial point in the Korea War whose demand for metal and manufactured products was a further stimulus of Italian industrial production. In addition, the creation in 1957 of the European Common Market, with Italy as a founding member, provided more investment and eased exports.
These favorable developments, combined with the presence of a large and cheap labour force, laid the foundation for spectacular economic growth that lasted almost uninterrupted until the "Hot Autumn's" massive strikes and social unrest of 1969–70, which then combined with the later 1973 oil crisis and put an abrupt end to the prolonged boom. It has been calculated that the Italian economy experienced an average rate of growth of GDP of 5.8% per year between 1951–63, and 5.0% per year between 1964–73. Italian rates of growth were second only, but very close, to the German rates, in Europe, and among the OEEC countries only Japan had been doing better.
From stagflation to stagnation
The 1970s were a period of economic, political turmoil and social unrest in Italy. Unemployment rose sharply, especially among the young. By 1977 there were one million unemployed people under age 24. Inflation continued, aggravated by the increases in the price of oil in 1973 and 1979. The budget deficit became permanent and intractable, averaging about 10 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), higher than any other industrial country. The lira fell steadily, from 560 lira to the U.S. dollar in 1973 to 1,400 lira in 1982.
The economic recession went on into the mid-1980s until a reduce of public costs and spendings, tighter budgets and deficits, a steady economic growth, and a lowered inflation rate meant that by the recovery plan of 1983, Italy left recession. This plan led to an increasing GDP growth, lower inflation, and increased industrial/agricultural/commercial produce, exports and output, yet made the unemployment rate rise. A decrease in energy prices and lowered value of the dollar led to foreign exchange being liberalised and the economy to re-grow rapidly.
As a matter of fact, in 1987, Italy had a period when it surpassed the British economy (an event known as il sorpasso), becoming the fifth in the world. On 15 May 1991 Italy became for a while the fourth worldwide economic power, overcoming France, with a GDP of US$1.268 trillion, compared to France's GDP of US$1.209 trillion and Britain's of US$1.087 trillion. Despite this, however, Italy's alleged 1987 GDP growth of a phenomenal 18%, it was shortly re-overtaken by both France and the United Kingdom during the 1990s, when Italy's economic growth was particularly stagnant, with an average of 1.23% compared to an EU average of 2.28%.
Late 2000s recession
Italy was hit hard by the economic crisis of 2007–2011. The national economy shrunk by 6.76% during the whole period, totalizing seven-quarters of recession. According to the EU's statistics body Eurostat, Italian public debt stood at 116% of GDP in 2010, ranking as the second biggest debt ratio after Greece (with 126.8%). However, the biggest chunk of Italian public debt is owned by national subjects, and relatively high levels of private savings and low levels of private indebtedness are seen as making it the safest among Europe's struggling economies.
As a result of austerity measures passed in December 2010, Italy is targeting a public budget deficit of 3.9% in 2011 and 2.7% in 2012, both among the lowest in the European Union. In Autumn 2011, Standard & Poor's and Moody's downgraded Italian sovereign debt rating because of "Italy's weakening economic growth prospects." Italy also has a weak coalition government which would "limit the government's ability to respond decisively" to events. Both rating agencies give a negative outlook on the debt, meaning further downgrades are possible.
The government had adopted austerity measures on 15 July and 14 September 2011, together meant to save 124 billion euro. Nonetheless, by 8 November 2011 the Italian bond yield was 6.74 percent for 10-year bonds, nearing a 7 percent level where Italy is thought to lose access to financial markets, but it was under 5.0% in February 2012. As a result of austerity measures passed in 2011, Italy is targeting a public budget deficit of 1.5% in 2013.
In the post-war period, Italy was transformed from an agricultural based economy which had been severely affected by the consequences of World War II, into one of the world's most industrialized nations, and a leading country in world trade and exports. According to the Human Development Index, the country enjoys a very high standard of living, and, according to The Economist, has the world's 8th highest quality of life.
From the last Eurostat data, Italian per capita GDP at purchasing power parity remains approximately equal to the EU average, while the unemployment rate (8.5%) stands as one of the EU's lowest. Italy owns the world's 3rd largest gold reserve. The country is also well known for its influential and innovative business economic sector, an industrious and competitive agricultural sector (Italy is the world's largest wine producer), and for its creative and high-quality automobile, industrial, appliance and fashion design.
Despite these important achievements, the country's economy today suffers from many and relevant problems. After a strong GDP growth in 1945–1990, the last two decades's average annual growth rates lagged well below the EU average; moreover, Italy was hit particularly hard by the late-2000s recession. The stagnation in economic growth, and the political efforts to revive it with massive government spending from the 1980s onwards, eventually produced a severe rise in public debt. In addition, Italian living standards have a considerable north-south divide: the average GDP per capita in Northern and Central Italy exceeds by far the EU average, whilst some regions and provinces in Southern Italy are dramatically below. Between 2000 and 2006, Italy received €27.4 billion from the European Development Fund for investments in depressed areas of the South.
More specifically, Italian economy is weakened by the lack of infrastructure development, market reforms and research investment, and also high public deficit. In the Index of Economic Freedom 2011, the country ranked only 87th in the world, in particular due to the high rate of corruption, an excessive state interventionism, and a strong labor law. In addition, the most recent data show that Italy's spending in R&D in 2011 was equal to 1.1% of GDP (12th in the world by expenditures), below the European average of 1.7% and the Lisbon Strategy target of devoting 3% of GDP to research and development activities.
Italy has a smaller number of global multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size, but there is a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, as in the Northern "industrial triangle" (Milan-Turin-Genoa), where there is an area of intense industrial and machinery production, notably in their several industrial districts, which are the backbone of the Italian industry. This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of niche market and luxury products, that on one side is less capable of competing on quantity, but on the other side is more capable of facing the competition from emerging economies based on lower labor costs, with higher quality products.
The country was the world's 7th largest exporter in 2009. Italy's major exports and companies by sector are motor vehicles (Fiat, Aprilia, Ducati, Piaggio, Iveco); tyre manufacturing (Pirelli); chemicals and petrochemicals (Eni); energy and electrical engineering (Enel, Edison); home appliances (Candy, Indesit); aerospace and defense technologies (Finmeccanica, Alenia Aeronautica, AgustaWestland, Oto Melara); firearms (Beretta, Benelli); fashion (Armani, Valentino, Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Roberto Cavalli, Benetton, Prada, Luxottica); food processing (Ferrero, Barilla Group, Martini & Rossi, Campari, Parmalat); sport and luxury vehicles (Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini, Pagani); yachts (Ferretti, Azimut). Italy's closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. Its largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany (12.9%), France (11.4%), and Spain (7.4%).
Starting with the unification of Italy in 1861, a wide and increasing economic divide has been noticeably growing between the northern provinces and the southern half of the Italian state. In the early decades of the new kingdom, the lack of an effective land reform, heavy taxes and other economic measures imposed on the South, together with the removal of protectionist tariffs on agricultural goods, made the situation virtually impossible for many tenant farmers and land owners. Multitudes chose to emigrate rather than try to eke out a meager living, especially from 1892 to 1921.
In addition, the surge of brigandage and the mafia provoked widespread violence, corruption and illegality. After the rise of Benito Mussolini, the "Iron Prefect" Cesare Mori tried to defeat the already powerful criminal organizations flourishing in the South with some degree of success. Fascist policy aimed at the creation of an Italian empire and Southern Italian ports were strategic for all commerce towards the colonies. Naples enjoyed a demographic and economic rebirth, mainly thanks to the interest of King Victor Emmanuel III who was born there. With the invasion of Southern Italy, the Allies restored the lost authority of the mafia families during the Fascist period and used their influence to maintain public order.
In the 1950s the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno was set up as a huge public master plan to help industrializing the South, aiming to do this in two ways: through land reforms creating 120,000 new smallholdings, and through the "Growth Pole Strategy" whereby 60% of all government investment would go to the South, thus boosting the Southern economy by attracting new capital, stimulating local firms, and providing employment. However, the objectives were largely missed, and as a result the South became increasingly subsidized and state dependent, incapable of generating private growth itself.
Even at present, huge regional disparities persist. Problems in Southern Italy still include widespread political corruption, pervading organized crime and very high unemployment rates. It is estimated that about 80% of the businesses in the Sicilian cities of Catania and Palermo regularly pay protection money. The Confesercenti reported that organized crime generated €140 billion in gross sales, an estimated annual profit of €100 billion, and boasted estimated cash reserves of €65 billion.
Regional economic differences
|NUTS-1 region||mil. €||€ per cap.||% of the EU average|
|Region||mil. €||€ per cap.||NUTS-1 region|
|Valle d' Aosta||4,312||33,700||North-West|
- The regions highlighted in red are autonomous and have special financial privileges.
Energy and natural resources
Italy has few natural resources. There are no substantial deposits of iron, coal, or oil. Proven natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic, have grown in recent years and constitute the country's most important mineral resource. Most raw materials needed for manufacturing and more than 80% of the country's energy sources are imported. The energy sector is highly dependent on imports from abroad: in 2006 the country imported more than 86% of its total energy consumption (99.7% of the solid fuels demand, 92.5% of oil, 91.2% of natural gas and 15% of electricity).
In the last decade, Italy has became one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy, ranking as the world's fifth largest solar energy producer in 2009 and the sixth largest producer of wind power in 2008.
Italy has managed four nuclear reactors until the 1980s, but in 1987, after the Chernobyl disaster, a large majority of Italians passed a referendum opting for phasing out nuclear power. The government responded by closing existing nuclear power plants and stopping work on projects underway, completely putting a halt to the national nuclear program. Currently, the majority of Italian electricity is produced gas, oil, coal, and hydro. Italy also imports about 16% of its electricity need from France for 6.5 GWe, which makes it the world's biggest importer of electricity. Due to its reliance on expensive fossil fuels and imports, Italians pay approximately 45% more than the EU average for electricity.
In 2004, a new Energy Law brought the possibility of joint ventures with foreign companies to build nuclear power plants and import electricity. Public opinion on nuclear power was positive, as Italy's younger generations embraced nuclear energy[dubious ]. In 2005, Italy's power company, ENEL made an agreement with Electricite de France for 200 MWe from a nuclear reactor in France and potentially an additional 1,000 MWe from new construction. As part of the agreement, ENEL received a 12.5% stake in the project and direct involvement in design, construction, and operation of the plants. In another move, ENEL also bought 66% of the Slovak Electric utility that operates six nuclear reactors. As part of this agreement, ENEL will pay the Slovak government EUR 1.6 billion to complete a nuclear power plant in Mochovce, which has a gross output of 942 MWe. With these agreements, Italy has managed to access nuclear power without placing reactors on Italian territory.
The northern part of Italy produces primarily maize corn, rice, sugar beets, soybeans, meat, fruits and dairy products, while the South specializes in wheat and citrus fruits. Italy is the first or the second largest producer of wine in the world, and one of the leading in olive oil, fruits (apples, olives, oranges, lemons, pears, apricots, peaches, cherries, strawberries and kiwi), flowers and vegetables.
According to the Agriculture Census, there were 2.6 million farms in 2000 (down from 3 million in 1990,) covering 19.6 million hectares. The vast majority (94.7%) are family-operated and small, averaging only 5 hectares in size. Of the total surface area in agricultural use (forestry excluded,) grain fields take up 31%, olive tree orchards 8.2%, vineyards 5.4%, citrus orchards 1%, other orchards 3.8%, sugarbeets 1.7%, and horticulture 2.4%. The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures (25.9%) and feed grains (11.6%.) Livestock includes 6 million head of cattle, 8.6 million head of swine, 6.8 million head of sheep, and 0.9 million head of goats.
The most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan Chianti and Pinot grigio. Other famous wines are Barbaresco, Barolo and Barbera (Piedmont), Brunello di Montalcino (Tuscany), Montepulciano d'Abruzzo (Abruzzo) and Nero d'Avola (Sicily). Quality goods in which Italy specialises are often DOC or 'of controlled origin'. This DOC certificate, which is attributed by the European Union, ensures that the origins and work that goes into a product are recognised. This certification is considered important by producers and consumers alike, in order to avoid confusion with low-quality mass-produced ersatz products.
In 2004 the transport sector in Italy generated a turnover of about 119.4 billion euros, employing 935,700 persons in 153,700 enterprises. Regarding to the national road network, in 2002 there were 668,721 km (415,612 mi) of serviceable roads in Italy, including 6,487 km (4,031 mi) of motorways, state-owned but privately operated mainly by Atlantia company. In 2005, about 34,667,000 passenger cars (equal to 590 cars per 1,000 people) and 4,015,000 road good vehicles circulated on the national road network.
The railway network in Italy totalled 16,862 kilometres (2008) of which 69% are electrified and on which 4,937 locomotives and railcars circulate. It is the 15th largest in the world, and is operated by Ferrovie dello Stato. High speed trains include ETR-class trains, with the ETR 500 reaching 300 km/h (190 mph). The rail tracks and infrastructure are managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana
In 1991 Treno Alta Velocità SpA was created for the planning and construction of high-speed rail lines along Italy's most important and saturated transport routes. One of the focuses of the project is to turn the rail network of Italy into a modern high-tech passenger rail system in accordance with updated European rail standards. A secondary purpose is to introduce high-speed rail to the country's high-priority corridors, namely the Milan-Naples and Turin-Milan-Venice lines.
When demand on regular lines is lessened with the opening of dedicated high-speed lines, those regular lines will be used primarily for low-speed regional rail service and freight trains. With these plans realised, the Italian rail network would be integrated with other European rail networks, particularly the French TGV, German ICE, and Spanish AVE systems.In 2005, about 34,667,000 passenger cars (equal to 590 cars per 1,000 people) and 4,015,000 road good vehicles circulated on the national road network.
The national inland waterway network comprised 1,477 km (918 mi) of navigable rivers and channels in 2002. In 2004 there were approximately 30 main airports (including the two hubs of Malpensa International in Milan and Leonardo Da Vinci International in Rome) and 43 major seaports including the seaport of Genoa, the country's largest and the second largest in the Mediterranean Sea after Marseille. In 2005 Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about 389,000 units and a merchant fleet of 581 ships.
Banking in Italy has, as of the 11 October 2008, an average assets/liabilities ratio of 12 – 1, while the banks's short-term liabilities are equal to 86% of the Italian GDP or 43% of the Italian national debt. This is a list of the top 10 Italian banks ranked by market capitalization.
|2||Intesa Sanpaolo||Turin||47.7 billion|
|3||Monte dei Paschi di Siena||Siena||36.6 billion|
|4||UBI Banca||Bergamo||9.8 billion|
|5||Banco Popolare||Verona||9.4 billion|
|6||Banca Nazionale del Lavoro||Rome||7.5 billion|
|8||Banca Popolare dell'Emilia Romagna||Modena||4.6 billion|
|10||Banca Popolare di Milano||Milan||4.0 billion|
Following the 2003 "Biagi law", a controversial labour reform, unemployment has been steadily decreasing, reaching 6.2% in 2007, the lowest rate since the 1970s. In the south the average unemployment rate is far higher than the national average, but, in recent years, progress was made nonetheless, with the unemployment rate falling from 23.7% in 1999 to 11.2% in 2007 for Campania, and from 24.5% to 13% for Sicily. There is a significant underground economy, especially in the south where it partially offsets the high official unemployment rate, absorbing substantial numbers of people, working for low wages and without standard social benefits and protections. Italy maintains a good self employment rate at 25.5%.
Unions claim to represent 40% of the work force. Most Italian unions are grouped in three major confederations: the CGIL, the CISL, and the UIL, which together claim 35% of the work force. These confederations formerly were associated with important political parties (respectively the Italian Communist Party, the Christian Democracy and the Italian Socialist Party), but they have formally terminated such ties. Nowadays, the three often coordinate their positions before confronting management or lobbying the government. The three major confederations have an important consultative role on national social and economic issues.
Among their major agreements are a 4-year wage moderation agreement signed in 1993, a reform of the pension system in 1995, and an employment pact, introducing steps for labor market flexibility in economically depressed areas, in 1996. The CGIL, CISL, and UIL are affiliates of the International Trade Union Confederation. Of the three unions, CGIL is the strongest in numbers. CGIL once single-handedly organized a three-million people rally in Rome. Italy's employers are represented by Confindustria, the Italian Employers' Federation.
The average standard of living in Italy is very high. As noted by Mario B. Mignone:
“In the official economy, the Italian worker is well rewarded with high wages, good benefits, and many paid holidays, but he or she cannot escape from the heavy burden of taxes.”
A quarterly report prepared by the Economist Intelligence Unit on behalf of Barclays Wealth in 2007 estimated that there were 280,000-dollar millionaires in Italy.In 2013 in Italy according to CapGemini-RBC there are 176000 millionaires (first house not included criteria).Italy is ranked 10th in the world with this criteria. The richest man in Italy is Michele Ferrero, who, according to Forbes, has a net worth of US$20.4 billions. Other billionaires include Giorgio Armani, Miuccia Prada, Ennio Doris, the Benetton family, the Agnelli family and Silvio Berlusconi, to name but a few. According to the Banca d'Italia the average net wealth per capita in 2013 was above 140000 €.The Italian is ranked 10th in the world as net wealth per capita in 2013 according to the Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report with 195925 $ (241383 $ per adult,13th).According to Allianz AG Global Wealth Report 2013 the net financial wealth per capita is 45770 € in Italy that is ranked 14th in the world. Italy as developed country owns the 5th largest net wealth (it owns the 4.92% of the net wealth in the world) and the 6th largest net financial wealth in the world according to the Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report 2013.Italy owns more tha 1.4 millions people with more than 1 million $ as net wealth.With a national wealth of 11.857 trillions $ is member of the G7.
- "Nominal 2012 GDP for the world and the European Union.". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2012. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "CIA World Factbook; Italy; Economy". CIA. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- A value of 0 represents absolute equality, and a value of 100 absolute inequality. Inequality in income or expenditure / Gini index, Human Development Report 2007/08, UNDP, accessed on 3 February 2008. Note: Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution data are not strictly comparable across countries.
- "Wages and Taxes for the Average Joe in the EU 2" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- "Doing Business in Italy 2013". World Bank. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Export Partners of Italy". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- "Import Partners of Italy". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- "Biggest aid donors". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami (15 April 2011). "How Fitch, Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- McDonald, J.S. (October 1958). "Some Socio-Economic Emigration Differentials in Rural Italy, 1902–1913". Economic Development and Cultural Change 7 (1): 55–72. doi:10.1086/449779. ISSN 00130079.
- Favero, Luigi e Tassello, Graziano. Cent'anni di emigrazione italiana (1861–1961) Introduction
- Clark, Martin. “Modern Italy: 1871–1982.” Longman History of Italy. London and New York: Longman. Pp. 186
- Sheldon Richman, "Fascism".
- Patricia Knight, Mussolini and Fascism, Routledge 2003 page 64
- William G. Welk, "Fascist economy policy; an analysis of Italy's economic experiment", Harvard University Press, 1938. pp. 166
- Gaetano Salvemini, "Italian Fascism". London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1938.
- Patricia Knight, Mussolini and Fascism, Routledge (UK), ISBN 978-0-415-27921-5, p. 65
- Adrian Lyttelton (editor), "Liberal and fascist Italy, 1900–1945", Oxford University Press, 2002. pp. 13
- Michael J. Hogan (1987). The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947–1952. Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0-521-37840-0.
- Nicholas Crafts, Gianni Toniolo (1996). Economic growth in Europe since 1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 428. ISBN 0-521-49627-6.
- Ennio Di Nolfo (1992). Power in Europe? II: Great Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, and the Origins of the EEC 1952–57. Berlin: de Gruyter. p. 198. ISBN 3-11-012158-1.
- "Italy since 1945". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- "Economic development – Morocco – product, growth, area, annual, economic growth, infrastructure, policy, sector". Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- "Abbiamo Superato Anche La Francia Secondo Business International". Ricerca.repubblica.it. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- "Light on the shadows". The Economist. 1 May 1997. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- Eurostat. "Real GDP growth rate – Growth rate of GDP volume – percentage change on previous year". Retrieved 10 May 2009.
- http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?queryid=350 Quarterly National Accounts: Quarterly Growth Rates of real GDP, OECD. Accessed on 4 September 2010.
- "Europolitics". Europolitics.info. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "Could Italy Be Better Off than its Peers?". CNBC. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
- "Italian deficit narrows in third quarter". Financial Times. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- "Standard and Poor's downgrades Italy debt rating". 20 September 2011.
- "Euro falls after Moody's downgrades Italy". 5 October 2011.
- "Moody's cuts Italy's rating three notches". 4 October 2011.
- EU austerity drive country by country, BBC, 22 September 2011, retrieved 9 November 2011
- Italy parliament gives final approval to austerity plan, Reuters, 14 September 2011, retrieved 9 November 2011
- "Berlusconi to resign after parliamentary setback", Reuters, 8 November 2011, retrieved 9 November 2011
- "Gross domestic product". OECD. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Hobsons Careers in Europe | Country profiles". Careersineurope.hobsons.com. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality-of-life index, Economist, 2005
- "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
-  Ocse, tasso di disoccupazione stabile nell'eurozona
- "Please login to download – World Gold Council, the information resource for gold, investment, jewellery, science and technology, historical and culture". Gold.org. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- "Italy – Economics". Dev.prenhall.com. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "UK tops world wine imports table". BBC. 14 January 2009.
- "EUROPA – Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU27, GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average in Nord-Est in Romania to 336% in Inner London". Europa. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- "European Cohesion Policy in Italy" (PDF). Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- "Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Battelle Memorial Institute. "2011 Global R&D Funding Forecast". Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Knowledge Economy Forum 2008: Innovative Small And Medium Enterprises Are Key To Europe & Central Asian Growth". The World Bank. 19 May 2005. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
- "2010 Press Releases – Trade to expand by 9.5% in 2010 after a dismal 2009, WTO reports – Press/598". WTO. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
- "CIA – The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Mignone, Mario B. (2008). Italy today: Facing the Challenges of the New Millennium. New York: Lang Publishing. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-4331-0187-8.
- Dennis Mack Smith (1997). Modern Italy; A Political History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10895-4, pp. 209–210.
- "Victor Emmanuel III (king of Italy)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- Newark, Tim (2007). Mafia Allies: The True Story of America's Secret Alliance with the Mob in World War II. London: MBI Publishing Company. pp. 123–135. ISBN 978-0-7603-2457-8.
- "Naples (Italy) :: The economy". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- T. Astarita, Between Salt Water and Holy Water: A History of Southern Italy, 2005
- Kiefer, Peter (22 October 2007). "Mafia crime is 7% of GDP in Italy, group reports". New York Times.
- "Mafia Italy's 'top bank' amid economic woes", 774 ABC Melbourne (Reuters), 11 January 2012
- Squires, Nick (10 January 2012). "Mafia is Italy's biggest business". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Regional GDP per capita in the EU in 2010" (PDF). Eurostat. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- Eurostat. "Energy, transport and environment indicators". Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- Eurostat. "Panorama of energy". Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- REN21 (15 July 2010). "Renewables 2010 Global Status Report". REN21. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Photovoltaic energy barometer 2010 – EurObserv’ER". Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- Global installed wind power capacity (MW) Global Wind Energy Council 6.2.2008
- “Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.” Australian Uranium Association. April 2008
- "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations data". Faostat.fao.org. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- "Ferrovie dello Stato" (in Italian). Retrieved 2008-08-20.
- European Commission. "Panorama of Transport" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Floyd Norris (10 October 2008). "Off the Charts – The World's Banks Could Prove Too Big to Fail or to Rescue". Iceland: NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- "World Economic Outlook Database; Unemployment rate". International Monetary Fund. 10-2008. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- "Unemployment rate, by NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- (page 7)[dead link]
- "The World's Billionaires". Forbes.com. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- Banca d'Italia (Italy's Central Bank)
- Italian National Institute of Statistic (ISTAT)
- Ministry of Economic Development
- OECD's Italy country web page
- (Italian) Ufficio Italiano Brevetti e Marchi (Italian Patents and Trademarks Office)
- Comprehensive current and historical economic data