Economy of Kazakhstan
|Economy of Kazakhstan|
KazMunayGaz, the national oil and gas company
|Rank||53rd (PPP, 2012)|
|GDP||$231.3 billion (PPP, 2012 est.)|
|GDP growth||5.0% (Real, 2012 est.)|
|GDP per capita||$13,900 (PPP, 2012 est.)|
|GDP by sector||agriculture: 5.2%; industry: 37.9%; services: 56.95% (2011 est.)|
|Inflation (CPI)||5.2% (CPI, 2012 est.)|
below poverty line
|Gini coefficient||28.8 (2008, low)|
|Labour force||8.54 million (2012 est.)|
|agriculture: 25.8%; industry: 11.9%; services: 62.3% (2012 est.)|
|Main industries||oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials|
|Ease of Doing Business Rank||49th|
|Exports||$88.61 billion (2012 est.)|
|Export goods||oil and oil products 59%, ferrous metals 19%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal|
|Main export partners||China 16.8%, Italy 16.8%, Netherlands 8.2%, France 5.7%, Russia 7.3%, Austria 5.4% (2012 est.)|
|Imports||$42.82 billion (2012 est.)|
|Import goods||machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs|
|Main import partners||Russia 37.9%, China 27.2%, Ukraine 6.7%, Germany 5.1%, US 4.8% (2012 est.)|
|Gross external debt||$105.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)|
|Public debt||12% of GDP (2012 est.)|
|Revenues||$43.08 billion (2012 est.)|
|Expenses||$48.04 billion (2012 est.)|
|Foreign reserves||$28.29 billion (31 December 2012)|
The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia. It possesses enormous oil reserves as well as minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts; both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. The December 1996 signing of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz Field to the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's economy turned downward in 1998 with a 2.5% decline in GDP growth due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. A bright spot in 1999 was the recovery of international petroleum prices, which, combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest, pulled the economy out of recession.
Current GDP per capita shrank by 26% in the Nineties. However since 2000, Kazakhstan's economy grew sharply, aided by increased prices on world markets for Kazakhstan's leading exports—oil, metals and grain. GDP grew 9.6% in 2000, up from 1.7% in 1999. Since 2001, GDP growth has been among the highest in the world. In 2006, extremely high GDP growth had been sustained, and grew by 10.6%. Business with booming Russia and China, as well as neighboring Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) nations have helped to propel this amazing growth. The increased economic growth also led to a turn-around in government finances, with the budget moving from a cash deficit of 3.7% of GDP in 1999 to 0.1% surplus in 2000.
Macro-economic trend 
|Year||Gross Domestic Product||US Dollar Exchange||Inflation Index
|Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
For purchasing-power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 59.95 Tenges only. Mean wages comprised $6.93 per man-hour in 2009.
Kazakhstan has managed its monetary policy well. Its principal challenge in 2001 was to manage strong foreign-currency inflows without sparking inflation. Inflation had, in fact, stayed under control, registering 9.8% in 2000, and appeared likely to be under 10% in 2001. Because of its strong economic performance and financial health, Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic to repay all of its debt to the IMF by paying back $400 million in 2000; 7 years ahead of schedule. Overall foreign debt amounts to[when?] about $12.5 billion, $4 billion of it owed by the government. This amounts to 6.9% of GDP, well within manageable levels.
The upturn in economic growth, combined with the results of earlier reforms in taxation and in the financial sector, dramatically improved government finances from the 1998 budget deficit level of 4.2% of GDP to a slight surplus in 2000. Government tax-revenues grew from 16.4% of GDP in 1999 to 20.6% of GDP in 2000. In 2000, Kazakhstan adopted a new tax-code in an effort to consolidate these gains. Its strong financial position also allowed the government to reduce the value-added tax (VAT) from 20% to 16% and to reduce social (payroll) taxes as of July 2001. Kazakhstan's stronger budget-position and strong export-earnings earned it credit-rating upgrades from Moody's, S&P, and Fitch during 2001.
Kazakhstan instituted a pension reform program in 1998 that was partly based on the model of the Chilean pension system but included modifications. By July 2001, Kazakhstanis had contributed more than $1 billion to their own personal pension-accounts, mostly managed by the private sector. The National Bank oversees and regulates the pension funds. The pension funds' growing demand for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt-securities market. Pension-fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds, including Government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds. The Kazakhstani banking system is developing rapidly. Banking systems capitalization now[when?] exceeds $1 billion. The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. Several major foreign banks have branches in Kazakhstan, including ABN AMRO, Citibank, and HSBC. Kazakhstan is also a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).
According to the Republic of Kazakhstan Agency for Statistics, in January–March 2010 production of GDP amounted to 3,881.6 billion tenge and an increase of 7.1%.
Oil and gas is the leading economic sector. In 2000, Kazakhstan produced 35,252,000 metric tons of oil (700,000 barrels per day), a 17.4% increase over 1999's 30,025,000 tons. It exported 28,883,000 tons of oil in 2000, up 38.8% from 20,813,000 tons in 1999. Production in 2001 has been growing at roughly 20%, on target to meet the government's forecast of 40,100,000 tons of oil (800,000 barrels per day). In 2000, production reached 11.5 km³ of natural gas, up from 8.2 km³ in 1999.
Kazakhstan has the potential to be a world-class oil exporter in the medium term. The landmark foreign investment in Kazakhstan is the TengizChevroil joint venture, owned 50% by ChevronTexaco, 25% by ExxonMobil, 20% by the Government of Kazakhstan, and 5% by Lukarco of Russia. The Karachaganak natural gas and gas condensate field is being developed by BG, Agip, ChevronTexaco, and Lukoil. The Agip-led Offshore Kazakhstan Consortium has discovered potentially huge Kashagan oil field in the northern Caspian. Kazakhstan's economic future is linked to oil and gas development. GDP growth will depend on the price of oil, as well as the ability to develop new deposits.
It has also the largest silver, zinc and nickel markets in West Asia.
Sherin Suzhikova, Counselor of Kazakhstan's Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Chao yon-chuan, Secretary-General of the Taiwan External Trade Development Council, signed an agreement on 13 October 2006 in Taipei to improve economic relations through "exchanges of market information and visits by trade professionals." TAITRA has an office in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
In 2006, North Dakotan Lieutenant Governor Jack Dalrymple led an 18-member delegation of the North Dakota Trade Office representing seven North Dakota companies and Dickinson State University on a trip to Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Russia. North Dakota exports mostly machinery to Kazakhstan, the eighth largest destination for North Dakotan exports; machinery exports increased from $22,000 to $25 million between 2000 and 2005.
See also 
- Yerbolat Dosayev, Minister of Economy and Budget Planning
- Aset Isekeshev, Minister of Industry and Trade
- Sauat Mynbayev, Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources
- Asylzhan Mamytbekov, Minister of Agriculture
- CIA World Factbook: Field listing, Distribution of family income – Gini index
- "Doing Business in Kazakhstan 2013". World Bank. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami (15 April 2011). "How Fitch, Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- Uranium production in Kazakhstan as a potential source for covering the world uranium shortage, by Moukhtar Dzhakishev, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium 2004
- Taiwan, Kazakhstan sign agreement on economic cooperation Taiwan Headlines
- Lt. Gov. Dalrymple, N.D. Companies To Attend Trade Mission To Kazakhstan, Ukraine And Russia , KXnet.com, 16 October 2006
- U.S. Department of Energy Country Analysis Brief
- Kazakhstan Plans to Build Highway Connecting China and Europe
- Kazakh central bank misspells 'bank' on money
- International Business; China Pays Dearly for Kazakhstan Oil
- Kazakh President's Daughter Chides Steel Baron Mittal
- Commercial gold and copper discoveries in Kazakhstan
- Kazakhstan Changes Energy Strategy on the Way to WTO
- Kazakhstan to be top oil producer by 2011: Nazarbayev