Economy of Oceania
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|Economy of Oceania|
|GDP||PPP: US$720 billion (2003)|
GDP per capita
|During 2003 unless otherwise stated. Most numbers are from the UNDP from 2002, some numbers exclude certain countries for lack of information.
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
The economy of Oceania comprises more than 14 separate countries and their associated economies.
On a total scale the region has approximately 34,700,201 inhabitants who are spread among 30,000 islands in the South Pacific bordered between Asia and the Americas. This region has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial market of Australia to the much less developed economies that belong to many of its island neighbours. New Zealand is the only other 1st world nation in the region, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world.
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Australia and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations. Australia and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia Summit (EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS.
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Below is a list of the currencies of Oceania, with exchange rates between each currency and both the Euro and US Dollars as of 28 October 2007. Australian figures are accurate as of 19 April 2012.
Table correct as of 28 February 2008, Australian figures correct as of 19 April 2012
The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States and South Korea. The majority of people living in Australia and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in mining, electrical and manufacturing sectors also.
The manufacturing of clothing is a major industry in some parts of the Pacific, especially Fiji, although this is decreasing.
Australia boasts the largest amount of manufacturing in the region. Producing cars, electrical equipment, machinery and clothes.
Tourism has become a large source of income for many in the Pacific; tourists come from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the United Kingdom and the USA. Fiji currently draws almost half a million tourists each year; more than a quarter from Australia. This contributes $1 billion or more since 1995 to Fiji's economy but the Government of Fiji islands underestimate these figures due to invisible economy inside tourism industry.
Agriculture and fishing
Agriculture and natural resources constitutes only 5% to 10% of Oceania's total jobs, but contributes substantially to export performance. The most populous two nations, Australia and New Zealand, are also the most developed and have majority service industries. This dilutes the data from the less developed Pacific Island nations who have major agricultural economies. Most of the Pacific countries (excluding Australia and New Zealand) the primary industry is agriculture. Many nations are still quintessentially agricultural; for example, 80% of the population of Vanuatu and 70% of the population of Fiji works in agriculture. The main produce from the pacific is copra or coconut, but timber, beef, palm oil, cocoa, sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of the Pacific. Fishing provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Natural Resources, such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, are mined in Australia and the Solomon Islands. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea and the European Union.
International aid and charity
Oceanian donor nations
Oceania's most populous nations, Australia and New Zealand, are both highly developed nations and are large international aid donors. These two wealthy nations share the region with less developed nations which still rely on foreign aid for development. In the 2007/08 financial year Australia provided $3.155 billion worth of official development assistance, of which $2.731 billion will be managed by AusAID. Every week, each Australian puts in around $2.40 to pay for Australia's aid program, amounting to around 1% of the Australian Federal Government expenditure compared to the 42% spent on social security and welfare.
Oceanian recipient states
Global trade relations
This region consists of many trading relations because of the small amount of land and limited resources they have. Many have trading economies and are transitioning to a developed economy and infrastructure.
- "Internet Usage and Population in Oceania". Retrieved 2010-01-15.