Ecosystem Management Decision Support

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The Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system is an application framework for knowledge-based decision support of ecological analysis and planning at any geographic scale.

EMDS integrates state-of-the-art geographic information system (GIS) as well as logic programming and decision modeling technologies in the Microsoft Windows environment to provide decision support for a substantial portion of the adaptive management process of ecosystem management.

EMDS uses Criterium DecisionPlus from InfoHarvest, Inc. and NetWeaver from Rules of Thumb, Inc. as core components. The NetWeaver component performs logic-based evaluation of environmental data, and logically synthesizes evaluations to infer the state of landscape features such as watersheds (e.g., watershed condition). The DecisionPlus component prioritizes landscape features with respect to user-defined management objectives (e.g., watershed restoration), using summarized outputs from NetWeaver as well as additional logistical information considered important to the decision maker(s). See the #Applications section below for a current list of published papers by application area.

EMDS was originally developed by the United States Forest Service, but is currently developed and maintained by The Redlands Institute of the University of Redlands.

Several citations provide extensive background on the EMDS system and its potential applications.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Applications [edit]

  1. EMDS, the book (March 2014).[13]
  2. Carbon sequestration[14]
  3. Conservation[15][16][17][18][19]
  4. Design and siting of ecological reserves[20][21][22]
  5. Ecosystem sustainability[23][24][25][26]
  6. Land classification[27][28][29]
  7. Landscape restoration[30][31][32][33][34][35][36]
  8. Pollution[37][38][39][40]
  9. Social issues in natural resource management[41]
  10. Soil impacts[42]
  11. Urban growth and development[43][44][45]
  12. Watershed analysis[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]
  13. Wetlands management[55]
  14. Wildlife habitat management[56][57][58][59][60][61][62]
  15. Wildland fire danger[63][64][65][66][67]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2001a. Using a logic framework to assess forest ecosystem sustainability. Journal of Forestry 99:26-30. PDF
  2. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2001b. Fuzzy logic knowledge bases in integrated landscape assessment: examples and possibilities. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-521. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 24 p. PDF
  3. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2002a. Landscape evaluation and planning with EMDS 3.0. 2002 ESRI User Conference. San Diego, CA. July 9–12, 2002. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute. PDF
  4. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2002b. Logic models as frameworks for thinking about compatibility. Pages 215-224 in Johnson, D.; Haynes, R., eds. Proceedings of the Wood Compatibility Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-563. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. PDF
  5. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2003. A logic approach to design specifications for integrated application of diverse models in forest ecosystem analysis. Pages 379-385 in: Amaro, A., Reed, D. and Soares, P. (eds). Modelling Forest Systems. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
  6. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2005b. Integrated decision support for sustainable forest management in the United States: fact or fiction? Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 49:6-23. PDF
  7. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2005c. EMDS 3.0: A Modeling Framework for Coping with Complexity in Environmental Assessment and Planning PDF
  8. ^ Reynolds, K.M., and P.F. Hessburg. 2014. An overview of the Ecosystem Management Decision-Support system. Chapter 1 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  9. ^ Saunders, M.C, and B.J. Miller. 2014 NetWeaver. Chapter 2 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  10. ^ Murphy, P.J. 2014. Criterium DecisionPlus. Chapter 3 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. [ PDF]
  11. ^ Paplanus, S., B. Miller, P. Murphy, K. Reynolds, and M.Saunders. 2014. EMDS 5.0 and Beyond. Chapter 13 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  12. ^ Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron. 2014. Synthesis and new directions. Chapter 14 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  13. ^ Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). 2014. Making Transparent Environmental Management Decisions: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. Available online
  14. ^ Wang, J., J. Chen, W. Ju, and M. Li. 2010. IA-SDSS: A GIS-based land use decision support system with consideration of carbon sequestration. Environmental Modelling & Software 25: 539–553. PDF
  15. ^ Manzuli, A.G. 2005. Knowledge-based monitoring and evaluation system of land Use: assessing the ecosystem conservation status in the influence area of a gas pipeline in Bolivia. Doctoral dissertation. Göttingen: Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. PDF
  16. ^ White, M.D., Heilman, G.E. Jr., and Stallcup, J.E. 2005. Science assessment for the Sierra Checkerboard Initiative. Conservation Biology Institute, Encinitas, CA.
  17. ^ Humphries, H.C., P.S. Bourgeron, and K.M. Reynolds. 2008. Suitability for conservation as a criterion in regional conservation network selection. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 467-492.online
  18. ^ Staus, N.L., J.R. Strittholt, and D.A. Dellasala. 2010. Evaluating areas of high conservation value in Western Oregon with a decision-support model. Conservation Biology 24: 711–720. PDF
  19. ^ White, M.D., and J.R. Strittholt. 2014. Forest conservation planning. Chapter 9 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  20. ^ Bourgeron, P.S., H.C. Humphries, and K.M. Reynolds. 2003. Conducting large-scale conservation evaluation and conservation area selection using a knowledge-based system and GIS framework. In: Parks, BO, Clarke KM, Crane MP, editors. 2003. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospectus, and Needs for Research. [CD-ROM, ISBN 0-9743307-0-1]. GIS/EM4 Conference; 2000 Sep 2-8; The Banff Centre, Banff, (AB) Canada. [Jointly published] Boulder: University of Colorado - Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Denver: US Geologic Survey - Center for Biological Informatics, and Boulder: NOAA National Geophysical Data Center - Ecosystem Informatics. PDF
  21. ^ Stoms, D.M., McDonald, J.M., and Davis, F.W. 2002. Fuzzy Assessment of Land Suitability for Scientific Research Reserves. Environmental Management 29:545-558. PDF
  22. ^ Stoms, D.M. 2014. Ecological research reserve planning. Chapter 8 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  23. ^ Reynolds, K.M., Johnson, K.N.; Gordon, S.N. 2003. The science/policy interface in logic‑based evaluation of forest ecosystem sustainability. Forest Policy and Economics 5:433-446. PDF
  24. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2005a. Decision support for evaluating the U.S. national criteria and indicators for forest ecosystem sustainability. In: Aguirre-Bravo, Celedonio, et al. Eds. Monitoring Science and Technology Symposium: Unifying Knowledge for Sustainability in the Western Hemisphere; 2004 September 20–24; Denver, CO. Proceedings RMRS-P-37CD. Odgen, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Published on CD-ROM. PDF
  25. ^ Reynolds, K.M., S.N. Gordon, and K.N. Johnson. 2008. Using logic to evaluate forest ecosystem sustainability. Forest Criteria and Indicators Analytical Framework and Report Workshop. 18–21 May 2008, Joensuu, Finland. Gen. Tech Rep. WO-GTR-81.PDF
  26. ^ Jensen, M., K. Reynolds, U. Langner, and M. Hart. 2009. Application of logic and decision models in sustainable ecosystem management. 2009. Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. Waikoloa, Hawaii. 5–8 January 2009. PDF
  27. ^ Cheng, C.-C. 2004. Chapter 2. Pages 94–104 in T. Partap, ed. Evolving sustainable production systems in sloping upland areas: land classification issues and options. Tokyo: Asian Productivity. PDF
  28. ^ Wang, S.-F., Y.-K. Chen, and C.-C. Cheng. 2004a. Establishment and application of forest ecosystem management decision support system. Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 52: 41-52. PDF (in Chinese)
  29. ^ Ray, D., K. Reynolds, J. Slade, and S. Hodge. 1998. A spatial solution to Ecological Site Classification for British Forestry using Ecosystem Management Decision Support. Proceedings of Third International Conference on GeoComputation Conference. Bristol, UK. September 17–19, 1998. Online
  30. ^ Hessburg, P. F. Reynolds, K. M., Salter, R. B., and Richmond, M. B. 2004. Using a decision support system to estimate departures of present forest landscape patterns from historical conditions: An example from the Inland Northwest Region of the United States. Chapter 12, In: Perera, A.H., L.J. Buse, and M.G. Weber, eds. Emulating Natural Forest Landscape Disturbances: Concepts and Applications. Columbia University Press, New York, NY. PDF
  31. ^ Reynolds, K.M., and Hessburg, P.F. 2005. Decision support for integrated landscape evaluation and restoration planning. Forest Ecology and Management 207:263-278. PDF
  32. ^ Stolle, L., C. Lingnau, ande J.E. Arce. 2007. Mapeamento da fragilidade ambiental em áreas de plantios florestais. Pages 1871–1873 in Anais XIII Simpósio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto, Florianópolis, Brasil, 21-26 abril 2007, INPE. PDF (in Portuguese)
  33. ^ Hessburg, P.F., K.M. Reynolds, R.B. Salter, J.D. Dickinson, W.L. Gaines, and R.J. Harrod. 2013. Landscape Evaluation for Restoration Planning on the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, USA. Sustainability 5: 805-840. PDF
  34. ^ Bourgeron, B., H. Humphries, C. Fisher, B. Bollenbacher, and K. Reynolds. 2014. The integrated restoration and protection strategy of USDA Forest Service Region 1: A road map to improved planning. Chapter 5 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  35. ^ Hessburg, P.F., R.B. Salter, K.M. Reynolds, J.D. Dickinson, W.L. Gaines, and R.J. Harrod. 2014. Landscape evaluation and restoration planning. Chapter 7 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  36. ^ O’Callaghan, Joan. 2014. Restoration Planning on the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest: Prescriptions for Resilient Landscapes. PNW Station Science Findings 162. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 6 pp. PDF
  37. ^ Lima, M.L., A. Romanelli, H.E. Massone. 2012. Decision support model for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing groundwater resources management in the wet Pampa plain, Argentina. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Oct 2012). Online
  38. ^ Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, T. Sullivan, N. Povak, T. McDonnell, B. Cosby, and W. Jackson. 2012. Spatial decision support for assessing impacts of atmospheric sulfur deposition on aquatic ecosystems in the Southern Appalachian Region. Proceedings of the 45th Hawaiian International Conference on System Sciences. 4–7 January 2012, Maui, Hawaii. PDF
  39. ^ Povak, N.A., P.F. Hessburg, K.M. Reynolds, T.J. Sullivan, T.C. McDonnell. 2013. Hurdle modeling to predict biogeochemical and climatic controls on streamwater acidity in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Water Resources Research 49: 1-16. PDF
  40. ^ Povak, N.A., P.F. Hessburg, T.C. McDonnell, K.M. Reynolds, T.J. Sullivan, R. B. Salter, and B.J. Cosby. 2014. Machine learning and linear regression models to predict catchment-level base cation weathering rates across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA, Water Resources Research 50: 2798–2814. PDF
  41. ^ Reynolds, K.M. 2002c. Social acceptability of natural resource decision-making processes. Pages 245-252 in Johnson, D.; Haynes, R., eds. Proceedings of the Wood Compatibility Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-563. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. PDF
  42. ^ Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, R.E. Miller, and R.T. Meurisse. 2011. Evaluating soil risks associated with severe wildfire and ground-based logging. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-840. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 27 p. PDF
  43. ^ Johnston, R.A., D.R. Shabazian, and S. Gao. 2002. UPlan, a versatile urban growth model for transportation planning. Transportation Research Record 1831: 202-209. PDF
  44. ^ Puente, C.R., I.F. Diego, J.J. Ortiz Santa María. A.P. Hernando, and P.z de Arróyabe Hernáez. 2007. The development of a new methodology based on GIS and fuzzy logic to locate sustainable industrial areas. 10th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science, Aalborg University, Denmark. PDF
  45. ^ Ruiz, C. 2014. Planning for Urban Growth and Sustainable Development. Chapter 11 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  46. ^ Bleier, C., Downie, S., Cannata, S., Henly, R., Walker, R., Keithley, C., Scruggs, M.; Custis, K., Clements, J. and R. Klamt. 2003. North Coast Watershed Assessment Program Methods Manual. California Resources Agency and California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California. 191 pages. PDF
  47. ^ Dai, J.J., S. Lorenzato, and D.M. Rocke 2004. A knowledge-based model of watershed assessment for sediment. Environmental Modelling & Software 19: 423–433. PDF
  48. ^ Gallo, Kirsten; Lanigan, Steven H.; Eldred, Peter; Gordon, Sean N.; Moyer, Chris. 2005. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 10 years (1994–2003): preliminary assessment of the condition of watersheds. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-647. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 133 p. Download page for PDF - in five parts
  49. ^ Gordon, S., and Gallo, K. 2011. Structuring expert input for a knowledge-based approach to watershed condition assessment for the Northwest Forest Plan, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 172(1): 643-661. PDF
  50. ^ Reeves, Gordon, H.; Hohler, David B.; Larsen, David P.; Busch, David E.; Kratz, Kim; Reynolds, Keith; Stein, Karl F.; Atzet, Thomas; Hays, Polly; Tehan, Michael. 2003. Aquatic and riparian effectiveness monitoring program for the Northwest Forest Plan. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-577. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 80 p. PDF
  51. ^ Reynolds, K.M.; Peets, S. 2001. Integrated assessment and priorities for protection and restoration of watersheds. Proceedings of the IUFRO 4.11 conference on forest biometry, modeling and information science. 26–29 June 2001, Greenwich, UK. PDF
  52. ^ Reynolds, K.M., Jensen, M., Andreasen, J., and Goodman, I. 2000. Knowledge-based assessment of watershed condition. Comput Electron Agr 27:315–334. online
  53. ^ Walker,R., C. Keithley, R. Henly, S. Downie, and S. Cannata. 2007. Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) applied to watershed assessment on California’s north coast. Pages 25-34 in Standiford, R.B., G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (eds.) Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What Does the Future Hold? 15–17 March 2004, Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-194. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. 553 p. PDF
  54. ^ Gordon, S.N. 2014. Use of EMDS in Conservation and Management Planning for Watersheds. Chapter 4 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  55. ^ Janssen, R., H. Goosena, M.L. Verhoevenb, J.T.A. Verhoevenb, A.Q.A. Omtzigta and E. Maltby. 2005. Decision support for integrated wetland management. Environmental Modelling and Software 30: 215-229. PDF
  56. ^ Girvetz, E., and Shilling, F. 2003. Decision Support for Road System Analysis and Modification on the Tahoe National Forest. Environmental Management 32:218-233. PDF
  57. ^ Heaton, J.S., K.E. Nussear, T.C. Esque, R.D. Inman, F.M. Davenport, T.E. Leuteritz, P.A. Medica, N.W. Strout, P.A. Burgess, and L. Benvenuti. 2008. Spatially explicit decision support for selecting translocation areas for Mojave desert tortoises. Biodiversity Conservation 17:575–590. PDF
  58. ^ Leuteritz, Thomas E.J. 2006. Tortoises on the march: modeling and GIS help relocate a threatened species. GeoWorld, May 2006.
  59. ^ Redlands Institute Decision Support Team. 2004. Desert Tortoise habitat potential knowledge base. Redlands Institute, Redlands, CA. 120 pp. PDF
  60. ^ Wang, S.-F., C.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chang. 2004b. Applying Ecosystem Management Decision Support System on wildlife habitat suitability assessment. Jour. Exp. For. Nat. Taiwan Univ. 19: 69-76. PDF (in Chinese)
  61. ^ Gordon, S.N., H. McPherson, L. Dickson, J. Halofsky, C. Snyder, and A.W. Brodie. 2014. Wildlife Habitat Management. Chapter 10 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  62. ^ Wainwright, T.C., P.W. Lawson, G.H. Reeves, L.A. Weitkamp, H.A. Stout, and JS. Mills. 2014. Measuring Biological Sustainability via a Decision Support System: Experiences with Oregon Coast Coho Salmon. Chapter 12 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF
  63. ^ Hessburg, P., Reynolds, K., Keane, R., James, K., Salter, R. 2008. Evaluating wildland fire danger and prioritizing vegetation and fuels treatments. Forest Ecology and Management 247:1-17. PDF
  64. ^ Gollnick-Waid, K., S. Goodman, B. Yohn, J. Wallace, K. VanHemelryck, and G. Barnes. 2009. Ecosystem Management and Decision Support, Summary of Fiscal Year 2009 Results, Prepared for the National Interagency Fuels Coordination Group. Boise, ID: US Department of the Interior. 28 p.
  65. ^ Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, R.E. Keane, and J.P. Menakis. 2009. Allocating fuel-treatment budgets: recent federal experience with decision support. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 2373–2381. PDF
  66. ^ Hessburg, P. F., K.M. Reynolds, R.E. Keane, K.M. James, R.B. Salter. 2010. Evaluating wildland fire danger and prioritizing vegetation and fuels treatments. Pages 329-352 in: Pye, J.M., H.M. Rauscher, Y. Sands, D.C. Lee, and J.S. Beatty, tech. eds. Advances in threat assessment and their application to forest and rangeland management. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-802. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest and Southern Research Stations. PDF
  67. ^ Keane, R.E., J. Menakis, P. Hessburg, K. Reynolds, and J. Dickinson. 2014. Evaluating Wildland fire hazard and risk for fire management applications. Chapter 6 in Reynolds, K.M., P.F. Hessburg, and P.S. Bourgeron (eds). Decision Support for Environmental Management: Applications of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System. Berlin: Springer. PDF

External links[edit]