# Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy
Classification and external resources
Laparoscopic view, looking from superiorly to inferiorly in the peritoneal cavity which has been pumped up with carbon dioxide gas to visualize the uterus (marked by blue arrows). On the left Fallopian tube there is an ectopic pregnancy and hematosalpinx (marked by red arrows). The right tube is normal.
ICD-10 O00
ICD-9 633
DiseasesDB 4089
MedlinePlus 000895
Patient UK Ectopic pregnancy
MeSH D011271

An ectopic pregnancy, or eccysis, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity.[1] With rare exceptions, ectopic pregnancies are not viable. Furthermore, they are dangerous for the mother, since internal haemorrhage is a life-threatening complication. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube (so-called tubal pregnancies), but implantation can also occur in the cervix, ovaries, and abdomen. An ectopic pregnancy is a potential medical emergency, and, if not treated properly, can lead to death.

Detection of ectopic pregnancy in early gestation has been achieved mainly due to enhanced diagnostic capability. Despite all these notable successes in diagnostics and detection techniques ectopic pregnancy remains a source of serious maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in countries with poor prenatal care.[2]

In a typical ectopic pregnancy, the embryo adheres to the lining of the fallopian tube and burrows into the tubal lining. Most commonly this invades vessels and will cause bleeding. This intratubal bleeding hematosalpinx expels the implantation out of the tubal end as a tubal abortion. Tubal abortion is a common type of miscarriage. There is no inflammation of the tube in ectopic pregnancy. The pain is caused by prostaglandins released at the implantation site, and by free blood in the peritoneal cavity, which is a local irritant.[citation needed] Sometimes the bleeding might be heavy enough to threaten the health or life of the woman. Usually this degree of bleeding is due to delay in diagnosis, but sometimes, especially if the implantation is in the proximal tube (just before it enters the uterus), it may invade into the nearby Sampson artery, causing heavy bleeding earlier than usual.

If left untreated, about half of ectopic pregnancies will resolve without treatment. These are the tubal abortions. The advent of methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancy has reduced the need for surgery; however, surgical intervention is still required in cases where the Fallopian tube has ruptured or is in danger of doing so. This intervention may be laparoscopic or through a larger incision, known as a laparotomy.

## Classification

### Tubal pregnancy

The vast majority of ectopic pregnancies implant in the Fallopian tube. Pregnancies can grow in the fimbrial end (5% of all ectopic pregnancies), the ampullary section (80%), the isthmus (12%), and the cornual and interstitial part of the tube (2%).[3] Mortality of a tubal pregnancy at the isthmus or within the uterus (interstitial pregnancy) is higher as there is increased vascularity that may result more likely in sudden major internal hemorrhage. A review published in 2010 supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur.[4]

### Nontubal ectopic pregnancy

Two percent of ectopic pregnancies occur in the ovary, cervix, or are intraabdominal. Transvaginal ultrasound examination is usually able to detect a cervical pregnancy. An ovarian pregnancy is differentiated from a tubal pregnancy by the Spiegelberg criteria.[5]

While a fetus of ectopic pregnancy is typically not viable, very rarely, a live baby has been delivered from an abdominal pregnancy. In such a situation the placenta sits on the intraabdominal organs or the peritoneum and has found sufficient blood supply. This is generally bowel or mesentery, but other sites, such as the renal (kidney), liver or hepatic (liver) artery or even aorta have been described. Support to near viability has occasionally been described, but even in third world countries, the diagnosis is most commonly made at 16 to 20 weeks gestation. Such a fetus would have to be delivered by laparotomy. Maternal morbidity and mortality from extrauterine pregnancy are high as attempts to remove the placenta from the organs to which it is attached usually lead to uncontrollable bleeding from the attachment site. If the organ to which the placenta is attached is removable, such as a section of bowel, then the placenta should be removed together with that organ. This is such a rare occurrence that true data are unavailable and reliance must be made on anecdotal reports.[6][7][8] However, the vast majority of abdominal pregnancies require intervention well before fetal viability because of the risk of hemorrhage.

### Heterotopic pregnancy

In rare cases of ectopic pregnancy, there may be two fertilized eggs, one outside the uterus and the other inside. This is called a heterotopic pregnancy. Often the intrauterine pregnancy is discovered later than the ectopic, mainly because of the painful emergency nature of ectopic pregnancies. Since ectopic pregnancies are normally discovered and removed very early in the pregnancy, an ultrasound may not find the additional pregnancy inside the uterus. When hCG levels continue to rise after the removal of the ectopic pregnancy, there is the chance that a pregnancy inside the uterus is still viable. This is normally discovered through an ultrasound.

Although rare, heterotopic pregnancies are becoming more common, likely due to increased use of IVF. The survival rate of the uterine fetus of an ectopic pregnancy is around 70%.[9]

### Persistent ectopic pregnancy

A persistent ectopic pregnancy refers to the continuation of trophoplastic growth after a surgical intervention to remove an ectopic pregnancy. After a conservative procedure that attempts to preserve the affected fallopian tube such as a salpingotomy, in about 15-20% the major portion of the ectopic growth may have been removed, but some trophoblastic tissue, perhaps deeply embedded, has escaped removal and continues to grow, generating a new rise in hCG levels.[10] After weeks this may lead to new clinical symptoms including bleeding. For this reason hCG levels may have to be monitored after removal of an ectopic pregnancy to assure their decline, also methotrexate can be given at the time of surgery prophylactically.

### Pregnancy of unknown location

Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) is the term used for a pregnancy where there is a positive pregnancy test but no pregnancy has been visualized using transvaginal ultrasonography.[11] Specialized early pregnancy departments have estimated that between 8 and 10% of women attending for an ultrasound assessment in early pregnancy will be classified as having a PUL.[11] The true nature of the pregnancy can be an ongoing viable intrauterine pregnancy, a failed pregnancy, an ectopic pregnancy or rarely a persisting PUL.[11]

Because of frequent ambiguity on ultrasonography examinations, the following classification is proposed:[11]

Condition Criteria
Definite ectopic pregnancy Extrauterine gestational sac with yolk sac and/or

embryo (with or without cardiac activity).

Pregnancy of unknown location - probable ectopic pregnancy Inhomogeneous adnexal mass or extrauterine sac-like structure.
"True" pregnancy of unknown location No signs of neither an intrauterine nor extrauterine pregnancy on transvaginal ultrasonography.
Pregnancy of unknown location - probable intrauterine pregnancy Intrauterine gestational sac-like structure.
Definite intrauterine pregnancy Intrauterine gestational sac with yolk sac and/or embryo (with or without cardiac activity).

In women with a pregnancy of unknown location, between 6% and 20% have an ectopic pregnancy.[11] In cases of pregnancy of unknown location and a history of heavy bleeding, is has been estimated that approximately 6% have an underlying ectopic pregnancy.[11] Between 30 and 47% of women with pregnancy of unknown location are ultimately diagnosed with an ongoing intrauterine pregnancy, whereof the majority (50 –70%) will be found to have failing pregnancies where the location is never confirmed.[11]

Persisting PUL is where the hCG level does not spontaneously decline and no intrauterine or ectopic pregnancy is identified on follow-up transvaginal ultrasonography.[11] A persisting PUL is likely either a small ectopic pregnancy that has not been visualized, or a retained trophoblast in the endometrial cavity.[11] Treatment should only be considered when a potentially viable intrauterine pregnancy has been definitively excluded.[11] A treated persistent PUL is defined as one managed medically (generally with methotrexate) without confirmation of the location of the pregnancy such as by ultrasound, laparoscopy or uterine evacuation.[11] A resolved persistent PUL is defined as serum hCG reaching a non-pregnant value (generally less than 5 IU/l) after expectant management, or after uterine evacuation without evidence of chorionic villi on histopathological examination.[11] In contrast, a relatively low and unresolving level of serum hCG indicates the possibility of an hCG-secreting tumour.[11]

## Signs and symptoms

Up to 10% of women with ectopic pregnancy have no symptoms, and one-third have no medical signs.[11] The symptoms are often non-specific and difficult to differentiate from those of other genitourinary and gastrointestinal disorders, including appendicitis, salpingitis, rupture of a corpus luteum cyst, miscarriage, ovarian torsion or urinary tract infection.[11] Clinical presentation of ectopic pregnancy occurs at a mean of 7.2 weeks after the last normal menstrual period, with a range of 4 to 8 weeks. Later presentations are more common in communities deprived of modern diagnostic ability.

Early signs include:

Less common features of ectopic pregnancy include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.[11]

In ruptured ectopic pregnancy, there may be abdominal distension and abdominal tenderness, peritonism and hemorrhagic shock.[11]

A patient may be excessively mobile with upright posturing, in order to avoid intrapelvic blood to swell further up the abdominal cavity and cause additional pain.[12]

## Causes

There are a number of risk factors for ectopic pregnancies. However, in as many as one third[13] to one half[14] no risk factors can be identified. Risk factors include: pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, use of an intrauterine device (IUD), previous exposure to DES, tubal surgery, intrauterine surgery (e.g. D&C), smoking, previous ectopic pregnancy, and tubal ligation.[15]

Although older texts suggest an association between endometriosis and ectopic pregnancy this is not evidence based and current research suggests no such association.[16]

### Cilial damage and tube occlusion

Tubal ligation can predispose to ectopic pregnancy. Seventy percent of pregnancies after tubal cautery are ectopic, while 70% of pregnancies after tubal clips are intrauterine[citation needed]. Reversal of tubal sterilization (Tubal reversal) carries a risk for ectopic pregnancy. This is higher if more destructive methods of tubal ligation (tubal cautery, partial removal of the tubes) have been used than less destructive methods (tubal clipping). A history of a tubal pregnancy increases the risk of future occurrences to about 10%.[3] This risk is not reduced by removing the affected tube, even if the other tube appears normal. The best method for diagnosing this is to do an early ultrasound.

### Other

Although some investigations have shown that patients may be at higher risk for ectopic pregnancy with advancing age, it is believed that age is a variable which could act as a surrogate for other risk factors. Also, it has been noted that smoking is associated with ectopic risk. Vaginal douching is thought by some to increase ectopic pregnancies.[3] Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero (also known as "DES daughters") also have an elevated risk of ectopic pregnancy, up to 3 times the risk of unexposed women[citation needed]. It has also been suggested that pathologic generation of nitric oxide through increased iNOS production may decrease tubal ciliary beats and smooth muscle contractions and thus affect embryo transport, which may consequently result in ectopic pregnancy.[23] The low socioeconomic status may be risk factors for ectopic pregnancy.[24]

## Diagnosis

An ectopic pregnancy should be considered as the cause of abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding in every woman who has a positive pregnancy test.[25] The primary goal of diagnostic procedures in possible ectopic pregnancy is to triage according to risk rather than establishing pregnancy location.[11]

### Transvaginal ultrasonography

An ultrasound showing a gestational sac with fetal heart in the fallopian tube has a very high specificity of ectopic pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasonography has a sensitivity of at least 90% for ectopic pregnancy.[11] The diagnostic ultrasonographic finding in ectopic pregnancy is an adnexal mass that moves separately from the ovary. In around 60% of cases, it is an inhomogeneous or a noncystic adnexal mass sometimes known as the "blob sign". It is generally spherical, but a more tubular appearance may be seen in case of hematosalpinx. This sign has been estimated to have a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 99% in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy.[11] In the study estimating these values, the blob sign had a positive predictive value of 96% and a negative predictive value of 95%.[11] The visualization of an empty extrauterine gestational sac is sometimes known as the "bagel sign", and is present in around 20% of cases.[11] In another 20% of cases, there is visualization of a gestational sac containing a yolk sac and/or an embryo.[11] Ectopic pregnancies where there is visualization of cardiac activity are sometimes termed "viable ectopic".[11]

The combination of a positive pregnancy test and the presence of what appears to be a normal intrauterine pregnancy does not exclude an ectopic pregnancy, since there may be either a heterotopic pregnancy or a "pseudosac", which is a collection of within the endometrial cavity that may be seen in up to 20% of women.[11]

A small amount of anechogenic free fluid in the rectouterine pouch is commonly found in both intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies.[11] The presence of echogenic fluid is estimated at between 28 and 56% of women with an ectopic pregnancy, and strongly indicates the presence of hemoperitoneum.[11] However, it does not necessarily result from tubal rupture, but is commonly a result from leakage from the distal tubal opening.[11] As a rule of thumb, the finding of free fluid is significant if it reaches the fundus or is present in the vesico-uterine pouch.[11] A further marker of serious intra-abdominal bleeding is the presence of fluid in the hepatorenal recess of the subhepatic space.[11]

Currently, Doppler ultrasonography is not considered to significantly contribute to the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.[11]

A common misdiagnosis is of a normal intrauterine pregnancy is where the pregnancy is implanted laterally in an arcuate uterus, potentially being misdiagnosed as an interstitial pregnancy.[11]

### Ultrasonography and β-hCG

Where no intrauterine pregnancy is seen on ultrasound, measuring β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels may aid in the diagnosis. The rationale is that a low β-hCG level may indicate that the pregnancy is intrauterine but yet too small to be visible on ultrasonography. While some physicians consider that the threshold where an intrauterine pregnancy should be visible on transvaginal ultrasound is around 1500 IU/ml of β-hCG, a review in the JAMA Rational Clinical Examination Series showed that there is no single threshold for the β-human chorionic gonadotropin that confirms an ectopic pregnancy. Instead, the best test in a pregnant woman is a high resolution transvaginal ultrasound.[25] The presence of an adnexal mass in the absence of an intrauterine pregnancy on transvaginal sonography increases the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy 100-fold (LR+ 111). When there are no adnexal abnormalities on transvaginal sonography, the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy decreases (LR- 0.12). An empty uterus with levels higher than 1500 IU/ml may be evidence of an ectopic pregnancy, but may also be consistent with an intrauterine pregnancy which is simply too small to be seen on ultrasound. If the diagnosis is uncertain, it may be necessary to wait a few days and repeat the blood work. This can be done by measuring the β-hCG level approximately 48 hours later and repeating the ultrasound. The serum hCG ratios and logistic regression models appear to be better than absolute single serum hCG level.[26] If the β-hCG falls on repeat examination, this strongly suggests a spontaneous abortion or rupture. The fall in serum hCG over 48 hours may be measured as the hCG ratio, which is calculated as:[11] $hCG~ratio = \frac{hCG~at~48h}{hCG~at~0h}$

An hCG ratio of 0.87, that is, a decrease in hCG of 13% over 48 hours, has a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97% for predicting a failing PUL.[11] The majority of cases of ectopic pregnancy will have serial serum hCG levels that increase more slowly than would be expected with an IUP (that is, a suboptimal rise), or decrease more slowly than would be expected with a failing PUL. However, up to 20% of cases of ectopic pregnancy have serum hCG doubling times similar to that of an IUP, and around 10% of EP cases have hCG patterns similar to a failing PUL.[11]

Algorithm of the management of a pregnancy of unknown location, that is, a positive pregnancy test but no pregnancy is found on transvaginal ultrasonography.[11] If serum hCG at 0 hours is more than 1000 IU/L and there is no history suggestive of complete miscarriage, the ultrasonography should be repeated as soon as possible.[11]

### Other diagnostic methods

A laparoscopy or laparotomy can also be performed to visually confirm an ectopic pregnancy. This is generally reserved for women presenting with signs of an acute abdomen and/or hypovolemic shock.[11] Often if a tubal abortion or tubal rupture has occurred, it is difficult to find the pregnancy tissue. A laparoscopy in very early ectopic pregnancy rarely shows a normal looking fallopian tube.

Culdocentesis, in which fluid is retrieved from the space separating the vagina and rectum, is a less commonly performed test that may be used to look for internal bleeding. In this test, a needle is inserted into the space at the very top of the vagina, behind the uterus and in front of the rectum. Any blood or fluid found may have been derived from a ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

Progesterone levels of less than 20 nmol/l have a high predictive value for failing pregnancies, whilst levels over 25 nmol/l are likely to predict viable pregnancies, and levels over 60 nmol/l are strongly so. This may help in identifying failing PULs that are at low risk and thereby needing less follow-up.[11] Inhibin A may also be useful for predicting spontaneous resolution of PUL, but is not as good as progesterone for this purpose.[11]

In addition, there are various mathematical models, such as logistic regression models and Bayesian networks, for the prediction of PUL outcome based on multiple parameters.[11] Mathematical models also aim to identify PULs that are low risk, that is, failing PULs and IUPs.[11]

Dilation and curettage is sometimes used to diagnose pregnancy location with the aim of differentiating between an EP and a non-viable IUP in situations where a viable IUP can be ruled out. Specific indications for this procedure include either of the following:[11]

• no visible IUP on transvaginal ultrasonography with a serum hCG of more than 2000 IU/ml
• an abnormal rise in hCG level. A rise of 35% over 48 hours is proposed as the minimal rise consistent with a viable intrauterine pregnancy.
• an abnormal fall in hCG level, such as defined as one of less than 20% in 2 days

## Treatment

### Expectant management

Most women with a PUL are followed up with serum hCG measurements and repeat TVS examinations until a final diagnosis is confirmed.[11] Low-risk cases of PUL that appear to be failing pregnancies may be followed up with a urinary pregnancy test after 2 weeks and get subsequent telephone advice.[11] Low-risk cases of PUL that are likely intrauterine pregnancies may have another TVS to access viability in 2 weeks.[11] High-risk cases of PUL require further assessment, either with a TVS within 48 h or additional hCG measurement.[11]

### Medical

Early treatment of an ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate is a viable alternative to surgical treatment[27] which was developed in the 1980s.[28] If administered early in the pregnancy, methotrexate terminates the growth of the developing embryo; this may cause an abortion, or the developing embryo may then be either resorbed by the woman's body or pass with a menstrual period. Contraindications include liver, kidney, or blood disease, as well as an ectopic embryonic mass > 3.5 cm.

Also, it may lead to the inadvertent termination of an undetected intrauterine pregnancy, or severe abnormality in any surviving pregnancy.[11] Therefore, it is recommended that methotrexate should only be administered when hCG has been serially monitored with a rise less than 35% over 48 hours, which practically excludes a viable intrauterine pregnancy.[11]

### Surgical

Surgical treatment: Laparoscopic view of an ectopic pregnancy located in the left Fallopian tube, hematosalpinx is present on the left, the right tube is of normal appearance
The left Fallopian tube containing the ectopic pregnancy has been removed (salpingectomy).

If hemorrhage has already occurred, surgical intervention may be necessary. However, whether to pursue surgical intervention is an often difficult decision in a stable patient with minimal evidence of blood clot on ultrasound.[citation needed]

Surgeons use laparoscopy or laparotomy to gain access to the pelvis and can either incise the affected Fallopian and remove only the pregnancy (salpingostomy) or remove the affected tube with the pregnancy (salpingectomy). The first successful surgery for an ectopic pregnancy was performed by Robert Lawson Tait in 1883.[29] It is estimated that an acceptable rate of PULs that eventually undergo surgery is between 0.5 and 11%.[11]

Although extremely rare, there have also been at least two successful cases of transplation of the fetus into the womb.[30][31] Both of these cases reportedly resulted in live births; therefore, it may not always be necessary to terminate the pregnancy. However, this has been rarely attempted, as there is much greater risk to the life of the mother, and it is only possible in very early stages of pregnancy.[32]

## Complications

Blood in Morrison's pouch between the liver and kidney due to a ruptured ectopic pregnancy

The most common complication is rupture with internal haemorrhage which may lead to hypovolemic shock. Death from rupture is rare in women who have access to modern medical facilities.[citation needed]

## Prognosis

When ectopic pregnancies are treated, the prognosis for the mother is very good in Western countries; maternal death is rare, but most fetuses die or are aborted. For instance, in the UK, between 2003 and 2005 there were 32,100 ectopic pregnancies resulting in 10 maternal deaths (meaning that 1 in 3,210 women with an ectopic pregnancy died).[33]

In the developing world, however, especially in Africa, the death rate is very high, and ectopic pregnancies are a major cause of death among women of childbearing age.

### Future fertility

Fertility following ectopic pregnancy depends upon several factors, the most important of which is a prior history of infertility.[34] The treatment choice does not play a major role; A randomized study in 2013 came to the result that the rates of intrauterine pregnancy 2 years after treatment of ectopic pregnancy are approximately 64% with radical surgery, 67% with medication, and 70% with conservative surgery.[35] In comparison, the cumulative pregnancy rate of women under 40 years of age in the general population over 2 years is over 90%.[36]

## Epidemiology

An opened oviduct with an ectopic pregnancy at about 7 weeks gestational age.

The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is between 1 and 2% live births in developed countries, though it is as high as 4% in pregnancies involving assisted reproductive technology.[11] Between 93 and 98% of ectopic pregnancies are located in a Fallopian tube.[11] Of these, in turn, 13% are located in the isthmus, 75% are located in the ampulla, and 12% in the fimbriae.[11]

Between 5 and 42% of women seen for ultrasound assessment with a positive pregnancy test have a pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), that is a positive pregnancy test but no pregnancy visualized at transvaginal ultrasonography.[11] Between 6 and 20% of PUL are subsequently diagnosed with actual ectopic pregnancy.[11]

## Society and culture

Salpingectomy as a treatment for ectopic pregnancy is one of the common cases when the principle of double effect can be used to justify accelerating the death of the embryo by doctors and patients opposed to outright abortions.[37]

There have been cases where ectopic pregnancy lasted many months and ended in a live baby delivered by laparotomy.

In July 1999, Lori Dalton gave birth by Caesarean section in Ogden, Utah, USA, to a healthy baby girl who had developed outside of the uterus. Previous ultrasounds had not discovered the problem. "[Sage Dalton]'s delivery was slated as a routine Cesarean birth at Ogden Regional Medical Center in Utah. When Dr. Naisbitt performed Lori’s Cesarean, he was astonished to find Sage within the amniotic membrane outside the womb […]."[38] "But what makes this case so rare is that not only did mother and baby survive — they're both in perfect health. John Dalton [(the father)] took home video inside the delivery room. Sage came out doing extremely well because even though she had been implanted outside the womb, a rich blood supply from a uterine fibroid along the outer uterus wall had nourished her with a rich source of blood."[39]

On 19 April 2008 an English woman, Jayne Jones (age 37) who had an ectopic pregnancy attached to the omentum, the fatty covering of her large bowel, gave birth to her son Billy by a laparotomy at 28 weeks gestation. The surgery, the first of its kind to be performed in the UK, was successful, and both mother and baby survived.[40]

On May 29, 2008 an Australian woman, Meera Thangarajah (age 34), who had an ectopic pregnancy in the ovary, gave birth to a healthy full term 6 pound 3 ounce (2.8 kg) baby girl, Durga, via Caesarean section. She had no problems or complications during the 38‑week pregnancy.[41][42]

In September 1999 an English woman, Jane Ingram (age 32) gave birth to triplets: Olivia, Mary and Ronan, with an extrauterine fetus (Ronan) and intrauterine twins. All three survived. The intrauterine twins were taken out first.[43]

## Other animals

Ectopic gestation exists in mammals other than humans. In sheep, it can go to term, with mammary preparation to parturition, and expulsion efforts. The fetus can be removed by caesarian section. Pictures of caesarian section of a euthanized ewe, 5 days after parturition signs.

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