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The ectotympanic, or tympanicum, is a bony ring that holds the eardrum, or tympanic membrane.[1] Its position and attachment to the skull vary within mammals, and particularly primates, and can be either intrabullar or extrabullar.[2][3]

It is homologous with the angular.


  1. ^ Ankel-Simons, F. (2007). Primate Anatomy (3rd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 435–436. ISBN 0-12-372576-3. 
  2. ^ Archibald, J.D. (1977). "Ectotympanic bone and internal carotid circulation of eutherians in reference to anthropoid origins". Journal of Human Evolution 6 (7): 609–622. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(77)80134-6. 
  3. ^ Sellers, W.I. "Strepsirhine/Haplorhine Split" (PDF). Retrieved 18 August 2010. 

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