Edible mushroom

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White mushrooms ready for cooking. While common, they are just one of the many types of mushrooms cultivated and eaten.
Picked edible mushrooms in a basket

Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye). They can appear either below ground (hypogeous) or above ground (epigeous) where they may be picked by hand.[1] Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma.[2][3]

Edible mushrooms are consumed by humans as comestibles for their nutritional value and they are occasionally consumed for their supposed medicinal value. Mushrooms consumed by those practicing folk medicine are known as medicinal mushrooms. While hallucinogenic mushrooms (e.g. Psilocybin mushrooms) are occasionally consumed for recreational or religious purposes, they can produce severe nausea and disorientation, and are therefore not commonly considered edible mushrooms.[4]

Edible mushrooms include many fungal species that are either harvested wild or cultivated. Easily cultivatable and common wild mushrooms are often available in markets, and those that are more difficult to obtain (such as the prized truffle and matsutake) may be collected on a smaller scale by private gatherers. Some preparations may render certain poisonous mushrooms fit for consumption.

Before assuming that any wild mushroom is edible, it should be identified. Proper identification of a species is the only safe way to ensure edibility. Some mushrooms that are edible for most people can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, and old or improperly stored specimens can cause food poisoning. Deadly poisonous mushrooms that are frequently confused with edible mushrooms and responsible for many fatal poisonings include several species of the Amanita genus, in particular, Amanita phalloides, the death cap. Mushrooms growing in polluted locations can accumulate pollutants such as heavy metals.[5]

History of mushroom use[edit]

Mycophagy /mˈkɒfəi/, the act of consuming mushrooms, dates back to ancient times. Edible mushroom species have been found in association with 13,000 year old ruins in Chile, but the first reliable evidence of mushroom consumption dates to several hundred years BC in China. The Chinese value mushrooms for medicinal properties as well as for food. Ancient Romans and Greeks, particularly the upper classes, used mushrooms for culinary purposes.[4] Food tasters were employed by Roman Emperors to ensure that mushrooms were safe to eat.[6]

Mushrooms are also easily preserved, and historically have provided additional nutrition over winter.[citation needed]

Many cultures around the world have either used or continue to use psilocybin mushrooms for spiritual purposes as well as medicinal mushrooms in folk medicine.

Current culinary use[edit]

A fraction of the many fungi consumed by humans are currently cultivated and sold commercially. Commercial cultivation is important ecologically, as there have been concerns of depletion of larger fungi such as chanterelles in Europe, possibly because the group has grown so popular yet remains a challenge to cultivate.

Commercially cultivated[edit]

Commercial cultivated Japanese edible mushroom species. Clockwise from left, enokitake, buna-shimeji, bunapi-shimeji, king oyster mushroom and shiitake.

Mushroom cultivation has a long history, with over twenty species commercially cultivated. Mushrooms are cultivated in at least 60 countries[7] with China, the United States, Netherlands, France and Poland being the top five producers in 2000.

Commercially harvested wild edibles[edit]

Chanterelles in the wild
A collection of Boletus edulis of varying ages
Hericium coralloides
Clitocybe nuda

Some species are difficult to cultivate; others (particularly mycorrhizal species) have not yet been successfully cultivated. Some of these species are harvested from the wild, and can be found in markets. When in season they can be purchased fresh, and many species are sold dried as well. The following species are commonly harvested from the wild:

  • Boletus edulis or edible Boletus, native to Europe, known in Italian as Fungo Porcino (plural 'porcini') (Pig mushroom), in German as Steinpilz (Stone mushroom), in Russian as "white mushroom", in Albanian as (Wolf mushroom) and in French the cèpe. It also known as the king bolete, and is renowned for its delicious flavor. It is sought after worldwide, and can be found in a variety of culinary dishes.
  • Cantharellus cibarius (The chanterelle), The yellow chanterelle is one of the best and most easily recognizable mushrooms, and can be found in Asia, Europe, North America and Australia. There are poisonous mushrooms which resemble it, though these can be confidently distinguished if one is familiar with the chanterelle's identifying features.
  • Cantharellus tubaeformis, the tube chanterelle or yellow-leg
  • Clitocybe nuda - Blewit (or Blewitt)
  • Cortinarius caperatus the Gypsy mushroom (recently moved from genus Rozites)
  • Craterellus cornucopioides - Trompette de la Mort or Horn of Plenty
  • Grifola frondosa, known in Japan as maitake (also "hen of the woods" or "sheep’s head"); a large, hearty mushroom commonly found on or near stumps and bases of oak trees, and believed to have Macrolepiota procera properties.
  • Gyromitra esculenta this "False morel" is prized by the Finns. This mushroom is deadly poisonous if eaten raw, but highly regarded when parboiled (see below).
  • Hericium erinaceus, a tooth fungus; also called "lion's mane mushroom."
  • Hydnum repandum Sweet tooth fungus, hedgehog mushroom, urchin of the woods
  • Lactarius deliciosus Saffron milk cap - Consumed around the world and prized in Russia
  • Morchella species, (morel family), morels belong to the ascomycete grouping of fungi. They are usually found in open scrub, woodland or open ground in late spring. When collecting this fungus, care must be taken to distinguish it from the poisonous false morels, including Gyromitra esculenta.
  • Tricholoma matsutake the Matsutake, a mushroom highly prized in Japanese cuisine.
  • Tuber species, (the truffle), Truffles have long eluded the modern techniques of domestication known as trufficulture. Although the field of trufficulture has greatly expanded since its inception in 1808, several species still remain uncultivated. Domesticated truffles include

Other edible wild species[edit]

Many wild species are consumed around the world. The species which can be identified "in the field" (without use of special chemistry or a microscope) and therefore safely eaten vary widely from country to country, even from region to region. This list is a sampling of lesser-known species that are reportedly edible.

Lactarius salmonicolor
Auricularia auricula-judae

Conditionally edible species[edit]

Amanita muscaria, a conditionally edible species

There are a number of fungi that are considered choice by some and toxic by others. In some cases, proper preparation can remove some or all of the toxins.

  • Amanita muscaria is edible if parboiled to leach out toxins.[9] Fresh mushrooms cause vomiting, twitching, drowsiness, and hallucinations due to the presence of muscimol. Although present in A. muscaria, ibotenic acid is not in high enough concentration to produce any physical or psychological effects unless massive amounts are ingested.
  • Coprinopsis atramentaria is edible without special preparation. However, consumption with alcohol is toxic due to the presence of coprine. Some other Coprinus spp. share this property.
  • Gyromitra esculenta is eaten by some after it has been parboiled; however, mycologists do not recommend it. Raw Gyromitra are toxic due to the presence of gyromitrin, and it is not known if all of the toxin can be removed by parboiling.
  • Lactarius spp. - Apart from Lactarius deliciosus which is universally considered edible, other Lactarius spp. that are considered toxic elsewhere in the world are eaten in some Eastern European countries, and Russia after pickling or parboiling.[10]
  • Verpa bohemica - Considered choice by some, it even can be found for sale as a "morel", but cases of toxicity have been reported. Verpas contain toxins similar to gyromitrin[11] and similar precautions apply.

Use in traditional medicine[edit]

Reishi, a well-known mushroom
Chicken of the Woods, a mushroom used as a susbtitute for chicken meat
Common Morel

Medicinal mushrooms are mushrooms or extracts from mushrooms that are thought to be treatments for diseases, yet remain unconfirmed in mainstream science and medicine, and so are not approved as drugs or medical treatments.[12] Such use of mushrooms therefore falls into the domain of traditional medicine.

Preliminary research has shown some medicinal mushroom isolates to have cardiovascular, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. Currently, several extracts (polysaccharide-K,[13] polysaccharide peptide,[14] lentinan[15]) have widespread use in Japan, Korea and China, as potential adjuvants to radiation treatments and chemotherapy.[16][17]

The concept of a medicinal mushroom has a history spanning millennia in parts of Asia, mainly as traditional Chinese medicine.[18] Only a few mushroom extracts have been tested for potential efficacy. Preliminary research results for most other extracts are on isolated cell lines, animal research with rodents, or early-stage clinical human trials as pilot studies.[17]

Preparing wild edibles[edit]

A collection of dried mushrooms

Some wild species are toxic, or at least indigestible, when raw. As a rule all wild mushroom species should be cooked thoroughly before eating. Many species can be dried and re-hydrated by pouring boiling water over the dried mushrooms and letting them steep for approximately 30 minutes. The soaking liquid can be used for cooking as well, provided that any dirt at the bottom of the container is discarded.

One recipe for Auricularia auricula-judae is to collect it while still soft, wash it thoroughly and cut it into thin slices. The prepared slices should be stewed in stock or milk for around three-quarters of an hour, and then served with plenty of pepper. The result is crispy and not unlike seaweed.[19]

The difficult task of identifying mushrooms in the wild, for culinary or recreational purposes, can result in severe poisoning.[20]

Production[edit]

mushroom and truffle output in 2005
Mushroom and truffle producing countries in 2011[21]
Country Output
tonnes long tons short tons % of world output
 Albania 123 121 136 0.00160
 Algeria 220 220 240 0.00286
 Australia 49,696 48,911 54,780 0.646
 Austria 1,600 1,600 1,800 0.0208
 Azerbaijan 1,450 1,430 1,600 0.0188
 Belarus 5,934 5,840 6,541 0.0771
 Belgium 41,556 40,900 45,808 0.540
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 994 978 1,096 0.0129
 Brunei Darussalam 11 11 12 0.000143
 Bulgaria 2,171 2,137 2,393 0.0282
 Canada 78,930 77,680 87,010 1.03
 People's Republic of China 5,008,850 4,929,740 5,521,310 65.1
 Cyprus 730 720 800 0.00948
 Czech Republic 361 355 398 0.00469
 Denmark 10,304 10,141 11,358 0.134
 Estonia 125 123 138 0.00162
 Finland 1,668 1,642 1,839 0.0217
 France 115,669 113,842 127,503 1.50
 Germany 62,000 61,000 68,000 0.805
 Greece 3,255 3,204 3,588 0.0423
 Hungary 14,249 14,024 15,707 0.185
 Iceland 583 574 643 0.00757
 India 41,000 40,000 45,000 0.533
 Indonesia 45,851 45,127 50,542 0.596
 Iran 37,664 37,069 41,517 0.489
 Ireland 67,063 66,004 73,924 0.871
 Israel 10,001 9,843 11,024 0.130
 Italy 761,858 749,826 839,805 9.90
 Japan 60,180 59,230 66,340 0.782
 Jordan 1,123 1,105 1,238 0.0146
 Kazakhstan 558 549 615 0.00725
 Kyrgyzstan 201 198 222 0.00261
 Latvia 517 509 570 0.00672
 Lithuania 13,008 12,803 14,339 0.169
 Luxembourg 5 4.9 5.5 0.0000649
 Madagascar 2,087 2,054 2,301 0.0271
 Malta 947 932 1,044 0.0123
 Moldova 475 467 524 0.00617
 Mongolia 278 274 306 0.00361
 Morocco 2,045 2,013 2,254 0.0266
 Netherlands 304,000 299,000 335,000 3.95
 New Zealand 9,884 9,728 10,895 0.128
 North Korea 6,777 6,670 7,470 0.0880
 Philippines 571 562 629 0.00742
 Poland 198,235 195,104 218,517 2.57
 Portugal 1,240 1,220 1,370 0.0161
 Romania 7,661 7,540 8,445 0.0995
 Russia 4,200 4,100 4,600 0.0546
 Réunion 61 60 67 0.000792
 Serbia 4,851 4,774 5,347 0.0630
 Singapore 200 200 220 0.00260
 Slovakia 1,898 1,868 2,092 0.0247
 Slovenia 1,060 1,040 1,170 0.0138
 South Africa 12,568 12,370 13,854 0.163
 South Korea 30,574 30,091 33,702 0.397
 Spain 127,000 125,000 140,000 1.65
  Switzerland 8,465 8,331 9,331 0.110
 Thailand 6,791 6,684 7,486 0.0882
 Macedonia 2,784 2,740 3,069 0.0362
 Tunisia 122 120 134 0.00158
 Turkey 27,058 26,631 29,826 0.351
 Ukraine 14,000 14,000 15,000 0.182
 United Kingdom 69,300 68,200 76,400 0.900
 United States 390,902 384,728 430,896 5.08
 Uzbekistan 661 651 729 0.00859
 Vietnam 21,957 21,610 24,203 0.285
 Zimbabwe 613 603 676 0.00796
World 7,698,773 7,577,183 8,486,445 100

Vitamin D[edit]

The photochemistry of Vitamin D biosynthesis
Name Chemical composition Structure
Vitamin D1 ergocalciferol with lumisterol, 1:1[22]
Vitamin D2 ergocalciferol (made from ergosterol) Note double bond at top center.
Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol (made from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin). Cholecalciferol.svg

Mushrooms that have been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light contain large amounts of vitamin D2.[23][24][25] Mushrooms, when exposed to UV light, convert ergosterol, a chemical found in large concentrations in many mushrooms, to vitamin D2. This is similar to the reaction in humans, where Vitamin D3 is synthesized after exposure to UV light.

Testing showed an hour of UV light exposure before harvesting made a serving of mushrooms contain twice the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's daily recommendation of vitamin D, and 5 minutes of UV light exposure after harvesting made a serving of mushrooms contain four times the FDA's daily recommendation of vitamin D.[23] High performance liquid chromatography analysis has also demonstrated the effect sunlight has on mushroom vitamin D2 content.[26]

The ergocalciferol, vitamin D2, in UV-irradiated mushrooms is not the same form of vitamin D as is produced by UV-irradiation of human skin or animal skin, fur, or feathers (cholecalciferol, vitamin D3). Although vitamin D2 clearly has vitamin D activity in humans and is widely used in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, vitamin D3 is often used in dairy products.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chang, Shu-Ting; Phillip G. Miles (1989). Mushrooms: cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and Environmental Impact. CRC Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 0-8493-1043-1. 
  2. ^ Arora D (1986). Mushrooms demystified. Ten Speed Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-89815-169-4. 
  3. ^ Mattila P, Suonpää K, Piironen V. (2000). "Functional properties of edible mushrooms". Nutrition 16 (7–8): 694–6. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(00)00341-5. PMID 10906601. 
  4. ^ a b Boa E. (2004). Wild Edible Fungi: A Global Overview of their Use and Importance to People. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 92-5-105157-7. 
  5. ^ Kalač, Pavel; Svoboda, Lubomı́r (15 May 2000). "A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms". Food Chemistry 69 (3): 273–281. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00264-2. 
  6. ^ Jordan P. (2006). Field Guide to Edible Mushrooms of Britain and Europe. New Holland Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-84537-419-8. 
  7. ^ John Fereira. "U.S. Mushroom Industry". Usda.mannlib.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-30. 
  8. ^ T. mesenterium was first reported in Great Britain after the wet August 2008 - "New fungi species unearthed in UK". BBC News. 9 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
  9. ^ Rubel W, Arora D. (2008). "A study of cultural bias in field guide determinations of mushroom edibility using the iconic mushroom, Amanita muscaria, as an example" (PDF). Economic Botany 62 (3): 223–43. doi:10.1007/s12231-008-9040-9. 
  10. ^ Arora, David. Mushrooms Demystified, 2nd ed. Ten Speed Press, 1986
  11. ^ FDA IMPORT ALERT IA2502[dead link]
  12. ^ Sullivan R, Smith JE, Rowan NJ (2006). "Medicinal mushrooms and cancer therapy: translating a traditional practice into Western medicine". Perspect Biol Med 49 (2): 159–70. doi:10.1353/pbm.2006.0034. PMID 16702701. 
  13. ^ "Coriolus Versicolor". About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 
  14. ^ Ng, T. B. (1998). "A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae)". General Pharmacology: the Vascular System 30 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1016/S0306-3623(97)00076-1. PMID 9457474. 
  15. ^ http://www.mskcc.org/mskcc/html/69279.cfm
  16. ^ Sullivan, Richard; Smith, John E.; Rowan, Neil J. (2006). "Medicinal Mushrooms and Cancer Therapy: translating a traditional practice into Western medicine". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (2): 159–70. doi:10.1353/pbm.2006.0034. PMID 16702701. 
  17. ^ a b Borchers, A. T.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Keen, C. L.; Meyers, F. J.; Gershwin, M. E. (2008). "The Immunobiology of Mushrooms". Experimental Biology and Medicine 233 (3): 259–76. doi:10.3181/0708-MR-227. PMID 18296732. 
  18. ^ Hobbs CJ. (1995). Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, Healing & Culture. Portland, Oregon: Culinary Arts Ltd. p. 20. ISBN 1-884360-01-7. 
  19. ^ Mabey, Richard (1984), Food for Free., Pub. Fontana / Collins. ISBN 0-00-633470-9. P. 54.
  20. ^ Barbee G, Berry-Cabán C, Barry J, Borys D, Ward J, Salyer S (2009). "Analysis of mushroom exposures in Texas requiring hospitalization, 2005-2006". Journal of Medical Toxicology 5 (2): 59–62. doi:10.1007/BF03161087. PMID 19415588. 
  21. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States
  22. ^ Kalaras MD, Beelman RB, Holick MF, Elias RJ (2012). "Generation of potentially bioactive ergosterol-derived products following pulsed ultraviolet light exposure of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).". Food Chem 135 (2): 396–401. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.132. PMID 22868105. 
  23. ^ a b Bowerman S (March 31, 2008). "If mushrooms see the light". Los Angeles Times. 
  24. ^ Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Song CH, Cho KY, Pang G (April 2009). "Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation". J Agric Food Chem 57 (8): 3351–5. doi:10.1021/jf803908q. PMID 19281276. 
  25. ^ Lee GS, Byun HS, Yoon KH, Lee JS, Choi KC, Jeung EB (March 2009). "Dietary calcium and vitamin D2 supplementation with enhanced Lentinula edodes improves osteoporosis-like symptoms and induces duodenal and renal active calcium transport gene expression in mice". Eur J Nutr 48 (2): 75–83. doi:10.1007/s00394-008-0763-2. PMID 19093162. 
  26. ^ Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Song CH, Cho KY, Pang G (2009). "Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation". J Agric Food Chem 57 (8): 3351–5. doi:10.1021/jf803908q. PMID 19281276. 

External links[edit]