The Crescent, Hertford Road - in Lower Edmonton.
Edmonton shown within Greater London
|Population||96,493 (Edmonton constituency, 2001 Census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||N9, N18|
|London Assembly||Enfield and Haringey|
- 1 Location
- 2 Demography
- 3 Edmonton today
- 4 Sites or buildings of historic interest
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Schools
- 7 Places of worship
- 8 Shopping
- 9 Politics
- 10 History
- 11 The Diverting History of John Gilpin
- 12 Industry
- 13 Railway and transport
- 14 Leisure and recreation
- 15 Theatre and the arts
- 16 Popular culture
- 17 Watercourses
- 18 Nearest places
- 19 Railway stations
- 20 Local newspapers
- 21 Notable residents
- 22 Notable people educated in Edmonton
- 23 Literature
- 24 Gallery
- 25 References
- 26 External links
- 27 Further reading
Edmonton is 8.6 miles (13.8 km) north-north-east of Charing Cross and stretches from just south of the North Circular Road where it borders Tottenham to its boundary with Ponders End to the north. Bush Hill Park, Winchmore Hill and Palmers Green adjoin the western boundary while the River Lee Diversion forms Edmonton's eastern boundary with Chingford. The northern part of Edmonton, N9 postal area is known as Lower Edmonton and the southern part as Upper Edmonton, N18 postal area.
The white groups made up 66.1% of the population and thirteen other ethnic groups the remainder.
Constituency profile April 2004
Edmonton has a young, ethnically diverse population. It has significantly higher proportions of Muslims than the borough average. It is clearly the most deprived part of Enfield and has the highest crime rate. Satisfaction with the area is as high as for Enfield as a whole with environmental concerns ranking highest.
Since the 1960s Edmonton has been transformed from a predominantly white, working class industrial suburb into a multicultural area by commonwealth immigration, asylum seekers  and with the expansion of the European Union in May, 2004.
The Edmonton Green area is currently being redeveloped by St. Modwen Properties. The £100 million project will include new housing, bus station, clinic and refurbishment of the shopping centre. In addition, a 73 room Travelodge hotel will be opened on the development.
Sites or buildings of historic interest
The mostly 15th-century church is located in Church Street. It is the oldest building in Edmonton.
A circa 1730 terrace of linked Grade II* Listed Buildings which were altered in the middle of the 19th century. 185, 187 and 189 were extensively restored in the 1980s to include the formation of an arch at 187 Angel Place with gardens behind. Set back from Fore Street, the A1010 road, and standing close to the junction with the A406 road, the buildings were adjacent to The Angel public house demolished to widen the North Circular Road.
Charles Lamb Institute
Edmonton Central Library
The former public library (closed 1991) opened in 1897 at Fore Street. Designed by Maurice B Adams with bequests provided by the John Passmore Edwards foundation. Today the Grade II listed building is used as a religious and community centre. (Inside the library by the main entrance were two portrait plaques of Charles Lamb and John Keats by George Frampton, 1908. The plaques can be viewed at Community House, 313 Fore Street, Edmonton).
Edmonton Federation Cemetery
The roughly triangular shaped Jewish cemetery was founded in 1889 with land given by Samuel Montagu. The walled cemetery is bordered by Salmons Brook which forms part of the Pymmes Brook Trail and a footpath which follows the course of the disused Lower Edmonton low level railway. Rabbi Eliezer Gordon is buried here. The entrance is in Montagu Road B137 road. The site also incorporates the Western Synagogue Cemetery founded in 1884 and adjoins the Tottenham Park Cemetery.
Edmonton Girls' Charity School
The simple yellow brick structure with red brick dressings is located on the south side of Church Street. Initially the school, founded in 1784, had been on a different site. However the benefactor, Obadiah Legrew, grew tired of the children close to his home. He had the original school demolished, drew £170 from the trust, and purchased another plot of land. In 1793 the new school was built afresh, away from his delicate ears. Pupils aged between 7 and 14 were clothed and educated, although the main purpose was to fit them for domestic service. The facade carries a figure of a charity girl and the words A structure of Hope founded in Faith on the basis of Charity. The school closed in 1904.
Formerly known as Bay Cottage. The cottage is believed to have been built in the 1680s and is located in the Church Street conservation area. Writers Charles and Mary Lamb occupied the house between 1833–34, and is where Charles Lamb died. The cottage was sold to its new owners in June 2008.
The late 18th-century house has been used as a workhouse school, hospital and a refugee centre before closing in 1971. The house re-opened as an arts centre in 1979 in a complex which encompasses the Millfield Theatre, Millfield Arts Centre and the former Weir Hall Library (closed 2008).
The hospital is located in Sterling Way, Upper Edmonton. Built in 1842 by the Edmonton Board of Guardians as the Edmonton Union Workhouse. A separate infirmary block was opened in 1910. Much of the building was taken over for use as a military hospital. it was returned to civilian use in 1920 and renamed The North Middlesex Hospital.
The house dates to the late 16th/early 17th century, and is the oldest building in Edmonton apart from All Saints' Church. The house which is located in Bury Street West, Lower Edmonton has been a private residence and a school before it was bought by Edmonton council in 1936. The building was established as an arts centre in 1957 (the first to be provided by a local authority in London). In 1992 it underwent a major restoration. The house is Grade II listed along with some of the surrounding walls.
A terrace of twenty five Georgian houses located in the Hertford Road. Built between 1826 and 1851 by a London solicitor. By the late 19th century the Crescent had been largely split into flats.
- Edmonton Incinerator the largest incinerator in the UK
For further details see article List of schools in the London Borough of Enfield
- Edmonton County School
- Aylward Academy formerly The Gladys Aylward School
- The Latymer School
- Nightingale Academy, formerly known as Turin grove and the Salisbury school.
- Eldon Schools,
- Hazelbury (J),
- Hazelbury (I)
- Latymer All Saints CE,
- St. John& St.James CE,
- Starks Field,
- Woodpecker Hall Primary Academy
Places of worship
- Edmonton Methodist Church. Located at 300 Fore Street, on the corner of Brettenham Road. There has been a Methodist church in Edmonton since the nineteenth century. The main part of the current building was erected in 1927.
- Edmonton Baptist Church. Located close to Edmonton Green, a short walk from Edmonton railway station. Built in 1976.
- All Saints' Church. A mainly 15th-century church located in Church Street.
- St Aldhelm's church. Is located in Silver Street Upper Edmonton. Built in 1903 and designed by William Douglas Caroe.
- St Alphege's church. Was erected in 1958 and designed by Sir Edward Maufe. The church can be found at the junction of the Hertford Road and Galliard Road.
- St Edmund's RC church. Built between 1905-1907 . The church is on the junction of the Hertford Road and Bounces Road.
- St. Mary with St. John's Church. Located on Dysons Road, close to the North Circular Road (A406), the church was built in 1906 together with a church hall and vicarage.
- Saint Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church. Located on the junction of Town Road and Logan Road. Greek Orthodox since 1977, formerly the Anglican Church of St. Martin. The Church was built in 1909 and consecrated in 1911.
- Mevlana Rumi Mosque. Located in Fore Street and opened in 2008 by the followers of Fethullah Gulen.
The old highway Ermine Street passed through what is today Edmonton. Ermine Street was the main Roman Road from London through Lincoln and on to York. Edmonton appears in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it is recorded as Adelmetone- 'a farmstead or estate of a man called Ēadhelm' from an Old English personal name and tūn.
Edmonton Hundred was a division of the historic county of Middlesex from Saxon times, an area of some 31,000 acres (125 km2) stretching up the west bank of the Lea from Tottenham to the county boundary south of Waltham Cross, and west into what is now Hertfordshire as far as South Mimms. Local government in the modern sense began in 1837 with the Edmonton Union, set up under the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. This also covered a wide district of 47,102 acres (191 km2), including the modern boroughs of Haringey and Enfield, plus Cheshunt, Waltham Abbey and Waltham Cross. The town hall was built in 1884 and extended in 1903.
The population of this area grew rapidly, reaching 445,875 by 1911 and would today be about 615,000. As the population mushroomed Middlesex was subdivided into many small local government areas, a much smaller Edmonton of 3894 acres (16 km2) eventually achieving the status of borough (main article Municipal Borough of Edmonton) in 1937. At the 1961 census the borough had a population of 91,956. This was absorbed into the London Borough of Enfield in 1965, and the former Town Hall and civic buildings were controversially demolished by Enfield Council in 1989.
Pymmes Park with its historic walled garden is Upper Edmonton's park. Pymmes Park originated as a private estate. In the late 16th century it was owned by the powerful Cecil family. In 1589 Robert Cecil, later 1st Earl of Salisbury, spent his honeymoon at Pymmes. The estate was eventually acquired by Edmonton Council and opened as a public park in 1906. Pymmes House was destroyed by fire during World War II and the remains were demolished. Robert Cecil was a protege of Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth I's chief spymaster and he succeeded him as Secretary of State in 1590.
In the 17th century the then rural Edmonton had a reputation for supernatural activities. In approximately 1600, a play entitled The Merry Devil of Edmonton was performed in London about a wizard who lived there.
In 1621 the villagers accused an old woman, Elizabeth Sawyer, of witchcraft and she was subsequently executed at Tyburn; her story was told in a pamphlet by Henry Goodcole, and in a 1621 play entitled The Witch of Edmonton.
John Keats, the poet, was apprenticed to surgeon Dr. Hammond in Church Street between 1810-1816. The house was demolished in 1931 to be replaced by Keats Parade. An extant shop carries a blue plaque in commemoration.
The Diverting History of John Gilpin
In his 1782 poem, The Diverting History of John Gilpin, William Cowper relates the comic tale of John Gilpin a linen draper of Cheapside London, who was probably based on a Mr Beyer, a linen draper of the Cheapside corner of Paternoster Row.
Gilpin's spouse decides she and her husband should spend their twentieth wedding anniversary at The Bell Inn, Fore Street, Edmonton. The journey is beset with misfortune from start to finish. Gilpin loses control of his horse which carries him on to the town of Ware ten miles (16 km) distant. On the return journey, Gilpin is still unable to handle his steed, as he once again he fails to stop at The Bell. The horse gallops back to Cheapside much to the dismay of his concerned spouse.
Gilpin is remembered in Edmonton by the statue at Fore Street, the Wetherspoons outlet the Gilpin's Bell public house opposite the site of the original inn and the 1950s council housing Gilpin House in Upper Fore Street.
Edmonton was home to many industries which included manufacturing of gas appliances, electrical components and furniture. Most of this was lost in the latter part of the 20th century. Other household names that produced goods here included MK electric, Ever Ready batteries, British Oxygen, Glover and Main gas appliances.
Eley Industrial Estate was named after Eley Brothers the firearms cartridge manufacturer. Its shot tower was a distinctive landmark on the skyline until being demolished the late 20th century. Due to its close proximity to the River Lee Navigation, timber was transported by barge from the London Docks and stored in riverside wharves. As a result many furniture makers including Nathans, Beautility and Homeworthy established factories. Today, Parker-Knoll products are manufactured at the former B&I Nathan factory on the Eley Industrial Estate. Today (2013), the area is dominated by the 100 metre Edmonton Incinerator chimney which was built in 1971. Other major employers include Coca Cola.
Railway and transport
The railway arrived in 1840 with the opening of the first section of the Lea Valley Line from Stratford to Broxbourne. A station was provided in Water Lane (Angel Road). As the station was badly sited and the trains were slow and expensive, few people used the railway in the early days, preferring the horse buses. In 1845 there were buses every 15 minutes along Fore Street, travelling alternately to Bishopsgate and Holborn.
The single-track line from a junction just north of Angel Road to Enfield Town opened on 1 March 1849, with an intermediate single-platform station at Lower Edmonton, located at the edge of the village green. The service was infrequent and often required a change of train at the junction. This, coupled with the train taking the long way round through Stratford to get to the terminus at Bishopsgate, meant that the railway offered little competition to the existing horse coaches and buses.
The direct line from London to Enfield Town was opened in four stages, from Bethnal Green to Stoke Newington on 27 May 1872; from Stoke Newington through to Lower Edmonton High Level on 22 July 1872, with stations in Edmonton at Silver Street and a new High Level station at Lower Edmonton, which was renamed Edmonton Green in 1992; the short section from Lower Edmonton High Level to Edmonton Junction (where the new line met the original Eastern Counties Railway route from Angel Road to Enfield Town via Lower Edmonton Low Level) on 1 August 1872; and the suburban platforms on the west side of Liverpool Street station on 2 February 1874.
The stations were well sited and offered exceptionally cheap workmen's fares of just 2d on trains arriving at Liverpool Street prior to 07:00, 3d on those arriving between 07:00 and 07:30, and half-price returns on those arriving between 07:30 and 08:00. A horse tramway along Fore Street opened in 1881. The tramway was re-constructed and electrified during 1905, lasting until 1938 when trolley buses took over.
Leisure and recreation
- Edmonton Cricket Club . The cricket club was founded in 1872 and is located in Church Street. The ground is also home to the Norsemen football club.
- Edmonton Leisure Centre located at Edmonton Green opened in August 2007. Facilities include a swimming pool and sports hall.
- Lee Valley Leisure Complex located at Picketts Lock and is part of the Lee Valley Park
- Pymmes Brook Trail crosses Edmonton to join the Lea Valley Walk at Pickett's Lock on the River Lee Navigation.
- Angling is allowed upstream and downstream of Picketts Lock.Information from the Lee Anglers' Consortium.
- The River Lee Navigation's towpath forms part of National Cycle Route 1 and the Lea Valley Walk.
Parks, gardens and open spaces
For further details see article Enfield parks and open spaces
- Bury Lodge gardens. The gardens are located in Bury Street West. Built on land belonging to Bury Lodge house (demolished 1935) and the nearby Salisbury House. The ornamental garden includes brick pillared pergolas, rose gardens and a pond. Other facilities are a playing field. The southern boundary of the park is bordered by Salmons Brook.
- Churchfields Recreation Ground. The recreation ground is located close to the A10 in Lower Edmonton. The grounds facilities include playing fields and children's play area. The site is the home to London's only complete World War II Civil Defence Centre.
- Craig Park TQ3448092570. The park is located in Upper Edmonton and lies close to Angel Road A406. Facilities include sports pitches, children's play area. and hardcourt.
- Jubilee Park. Covering 37 acres (150,000 m2) of land previously used for brick-making. The park opened on June 24, 1939 to commemorate King George V Silver Jubilee in 1935. Facilities include, the Henry Barrass stadium, formal gardens, pitch and putt, sports pitches, tennis courts and wildlife area.
- Montagu Road Recreation Ground TQ3511193199. The recreation ground is located in Montagu Road B137. The facilities include playing fields, children's play area and hard courts.
- Plevna Road Open Space.Open space close to Edmonton Green
- Pymmes Park. This historic park is located in Upper Edmonton and borders the North Circular Road
- Tatem Park and Hollywood Gardens. The park and the gardens opened in 1938 and were built on a former gravel pit which belonged to the Tatem sisters, who donated the site to Edmonton Borough Council in the 1930s, for use as a public park. The gardens are named after Alderman Hollywood, former Mayor of Edmonton. The ornamental gardens occupy a triangle between two main roads A10 and the A111. In 1983 a nature area was created with the accent on wildlife conservation.
Theatre and the arts
- In an episode of BBC, television, comedy Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em Frank Spencer played by Michael Crawford roller skates down the now demolished bridge at Edmonton Green, and in the same episode he skates at the indoor rink at the now demolished Picketts Lock Centre.
- The Empire Music Hall was the venue for Marie Lloyd's last stage performance in 1922. She was taken ill on stage and died several days later.
- The video for the Lostprophets song Shinobi vs. Dragon Ninja was filmed in a car park at Edmonton Green.
- Local musical duo Chas & Dave recorded a song titled Edmonton Green lamenting the changes that have occurred there.
- River Lee Diversion
- River Lee Navigation
- Pymmes Brook
- Salmons Brook
- The Overflow Channel TQ3622492939 flows along the western perimeter of the William Girling reservoir to merge with the River Lee diversion, close to the Lea Valley Viaduct.
- Saddlers Mill Stream  culverted throughout much of its course and flowing mostly underground. The stream was diverted in the early 21st century to alleviate flooding close to where it merges with Salmons Brook at Montagu Road.
- Tottenham to the south
- Palmers Green to the west
- Chingford to the east
- Ponders End to the north
- Winchmore Hill to the north
The local newspapers are as of 2011-
The following people were born in or lived in Edmonton:
- John Clayton Adams (landscape artist)
- Gladys Aylward (Protestant missionary)
- Tony Barber (musician)
- Percival Harry Barton (footballer)
- John Beck (footballer)
- Dudley Benjafield (racecar driver and alumnus of the University of London)
- Eddie Bovington (footballer)
- Jack Burkett (footballer)
- Albert Cadwell (footballer)
- Robert Cecil (statesman)
- Chipmunk (rapper)
- John Christie, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- Benjamin Clementine, (singer and poet)
- Charles Coward (world war II hero)
- Jimmy Dimmock (footballer)
- Florence Dugdale writer
- David Evans (British politician)
- Ray Evans (footballer)
- Wally Fielding (footballer)
- Bruce Forsyth (entertainer)
- John French (photographer)
- Michael Garner (actor)
- Akin Gazi (actor)
- Frederick Grace (boxer)
- Bobby Graham (musician)
- Florence Green (World War I veteran)
- Brian Harvey (singer)
- Kevin Higgins (poet)
- Chas Hodges (musician)
- David Jason (actor)
- John Keats (poet)
- Jo Kuffour (footballer)
- Charles Lamb (essayist)
- Larry Lamb (actor)
- Mary Lamb (writer)
- Derek Lampe (footballer)
- Ron Lewin (footballer)
- Derek Lewis (footballer)
- Tony Marchi (footballer)
- Peter Meaden (publicist)
- Les Medley (footballer)
- Dave Murray (musician)
- Malcolm Needs, (screenwriter)
- Kevin Nugent (footballer)
- Joe O'Cearuill (footballer)
- Ömer Rıza (footballer)
- Paul Rodgers (footballer)
- Leonard Roth (mathematician)
- Lee Smelt (footballer)
- Mike Smith (Dave Clark Five) (musician)
- Norman Smith (producer, musician)
- Jim Standen (footballer)
- Brook Taylor (mathematician)
- Leslie Welch (radio and TV personality)
- Chris Williams (Led Bib)
- B.J. Wilson (rock drummer)
Notable people educated in Edmonton
- Edmonton County School
- The Latymer School
- An Edmonton Boy by Terry Webb ISBN 1-903981-00-X Published by Biograph 2000
- A Poacher's Tale told by A.T Curtis.Related by Fred J Speakman ISBN 0-7135-0969-4 Published by George Bell & Sons 1960
- The Diverting History Of John Gilpin by William Cowper
- Blackhole by Kevin Higgins poem published in collection The Boy With No Face Salmon Poetry 2005 ISBN 9781903392447 
- The Veteran by Frederick Forsyth one of five short stories in the book of the same title Corgi 2002 ISBN 9780552149235
Edmonton Green market
- Enfield observatory census 2001 Retrieved February 27, 2008
- p.62 Asylum seekers and refugees in Edmonton Retrieved 23 November 2010
- EU immigration into the UK Retrieved 5 April 2013
- The Sun news report Retrieved April 7, 2008
- St. Modwen Plc Retrieved April 20, 2008
- Travelodge hotel Retrieved 11 June 2011
- Time For Action Retrieved 12 November 2008
- Unemployment in 2009 Retrieved 5 November 2009
- News report Retrieved 30 June 2011
- London Borough of Enfield - Olympic torch Retrieved 9 February 2012
- Church Street and Fore Street conservation areas Retrieved March 29, 2008
- Church Street Retrieved April 1, 2008
- Passmore Edwards Library Retrieved April 5, 2008
- Jewish history in Enfield Retrieved March 28, 2008
- Lower Edmonton low level railway Retrieved March 28, 2008
- Tottenham Park cemetery Retrieved March 28, 2008
- Montagu Road cemeteries conservation area Retrieved 12 August 2010
- Edmonton Girls' Charity School fn43 Retrieved April 8, 2008
- GodfreyA. (notes to) Old Ordnance Maps: London Sheet 1, Lower Edmonton 1894 Alan Godfrey Maps, ISBN 0-85054-966-3 Retrieved April 8, 2008
- Charles and Mary Lamb Retrieved March 29, 2008
- Lambs cottage details Retrieved March 29, 2008
- News report Retrieved 20 May 2009
- History of Enfield hospitals Retrieved March 31, 2008
- British history Retrieved April 1, 2008
- Salisbury House Retrieved April 1, 2008
- Godfrey A. (notes to) Old Ordnance Survey Maps: London Sheet 2, Edmonton (Pickett's Lock) 1894 Alan Godfrey Maps, ISBN 0-85054-967-1 Retrieved March 25, 2008
- Photos of The Crescent Retrieved March 25, 2008
- Edmonton Methodist Church Retrieved 8 February 2013
- Edmonton Baptist church Retrieved 21 September 2009
- St Aldhelms church Retrieved March 29, 2008
- Edmonton churches and places of worship Retrieved March 22, 2008
- St John's Church N18 Retrieved April 11, 2010
- Saint Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church Retrieved December 27, 2010
- History of St. Peter's Parish Retrieved December 27, 2010
- Edmonton Churches and Places of Worship Retrieved December 27, 2010
- Mevlana Rumi Mosque Retrieved 22 November 2010
- "Initial proposals for new Parliamentary constituency boundaries published". Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Mills, A, D, Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names (2001) p74 ISBN 0-19-860957-4 Retrieved 19 October 2008
- "Volume 5: Hendon, Kingsbury, Great Stanmore, Little Stanmore, Edmonton Enfield, Monken Hadley, South Mimms, Tottenham (1976), pp. 172-175". 'Edmonton: Social life', A History of the County of Middlesex. British History Online. 1976. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- Dalling, Graham (30 December 2005). "Lower Edmonton A History". History & Heritage. London Borough of Enfield. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- Census and boundary data from Vision of Britain - Edmonton Middlesex through time
- Short architectural description of the Town Hall Buildings of England pp425 London:4 North Bridget Cherry& Nikolaus Pevsner ISBN 0-14-071049-3 Retrieved December 2, 2007
- The poetical works of William Cowper, P 212,London: Frederick Warne and Co, 1892
- The Diverting History of John Gilpin Retrieved June 10, 2008
- http://www.krofire.com/Clients2.htm krofire.com
- http://www.cokecce.co.uk/cce/about_6.html cokecce.co.uk
- Edmonton Cricket Club Retrieved April 7, 2008
- Norsemen Football Club Retrieved April 7, 2008
- Edmonton Leisure Centre Retrieved March 22, 2008
- Angling downstream of Pickett's Lock Retrieved March 31, 2008
- Angling upstream of Pickett's Lock Retrieved March 31, 2008
- Bury Lodge gardens Retrieved March 11, 2008
- Photos of Bury Lodge Gardens and Churchfields Recreation Ground Retrieved March 11, 2008
- World War 2 Civil Defence Centre Retrieved March 11, 2008
- Jubilee Park Retrieved March 10, 2008
- Jubilee Park Management Plan 2007-2011 Retrieved March 10, 2008
- Tatem Park and Hollywood Gardens Retrieved March 11, 2008
- Face Front theatre company
- Some Mothers Do 'Av 'Em Retrieved March 10, 2008
- Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em - Video Retrieved April 10, 2008
- Marie Lloyd Retrieved March 10, 2008
- Lostprophets- The Videos Retrieved April 9, 2008
- Chas & Dave discography Retrieved April 10, 2008
- Saddlers Mill Stream Retrieved 8 October 2009
- Blackhole Retrieved 14 November 2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edmonton, London.|
- Lower Edmonton N9 Information
- Reports and Statistics for Edmonton and Enfield Borough
- Council Tax charges for Edmonton and Enfield Borough
- Edmonton in the early 1900s
- "The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland" (1868) at Genuki, UK and Ireland Genealogy. (A brief description and history of Edmonton from the 1868 Gazetteer)
- A brief history of Lower Edmonton on the Enfield Council Website. (A succinct account starting early 1800s)
- Edmonton: Economic History from British history Online. (This is detailed and starts in 1086)
- Jackson, Alan A. (1999). London's Local Railways (2nd Edition). Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-209-7.