He was a member of the North Carolina State Senate 1806–1811, 1813, 1814, 1820, 1821, and 1826–1828 and served as a justice of the peace. He was elected to the 21st United States Congress (March 4, 1829 – March 3, 1831) as an Anti-Jacksonian, was defeated for reelection in 1830. He ran again as a Whig in 1832 and served in the 23rd through the 28th Congresses (March 4, 1833 – March 3, 1845), becoming chairman of the Agriculture Committee. He did not run in 1844 but was elected to one final term in the 31st Congress (March 4, 1849 – March 3, 1851) after which he retired from politics.
Deberry resumed his former agricultural and business pursuits and died at his home in Pee Dee Township, Montgomery County, North Carolina, in 1859. He is interred in the family cemetery on his plantation near Mount Gilead.