Edmund Rice (1638)
Edmund Rice (c. 1594 – 3 May 1663), was an early immigrant to Massachusetts Bay Colony who was born in Suffolk, England, and lived in Stanstead, Suffolk and Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire before sailing with his kin to America. He landed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in summer or fall of 1638, thought to be first living in the town of Watertown, Massachusetts. Shortly thereafter he was a founder of Sudbury in 1638, and later in life, was one of the thirteen petitioners for the founding of Marlborough in 1656. He was a Deacon in the Puritan Church, and served in town politics as a selectman and judge, as well as serving five years as a member of the Great and General Court, the combined colonial legislature and judicial court of Massachusetts.
Edmund Rice's rough birth date of 1594 is reckoned from a 3 April 1656 court deposition in Massachusetts in which he stated that he was 62 years old. His likely birthplace, somewhere in Suffolk in East Anglia, is found through the town of his marriage and of his earliest children's birth. Many of the church records from 1594 in Suffolk are lost, so any record of his birth or the names of his parents or any of his forebears is unknown.[nb 1] Edmund Rice had a presumed brother, Henry, who married Elizabeth Frost (sister of Edmund's wife Thomasine) on 12 November 1605 at St. James Church, Stanstead, Suffolk . Repeated attempts to find record of Edmund Rice's birth or the birth of his presumed brother Henry in church or civil records of the Stanstead, Sudbury, Haverhill, and Bury St. Edmunds region of Suffolk have not been successful.
Considerable information about the early life of Edmund Rice in England can be gleaned from his children's baptismal records and land ownership and other public records in Stanstead, Suffolk and Berkhamsted, Hertsfordshire. He moved from Stanstead to Berkhamsted sometime in 1626, based upon the baptismal dates of his children Thomas and Lydia. That same year as a newcomer in town, Rice was named as a joint trustee along with Rev. Thomas Newman[nb 2] of a £50 grant for the benefit of the poor from King Charles I given on the occasion of his coronation. As a result of a royal inquisition held on 1 April 1634, funds remaining in the custody of Rice and Newman were to be transferred to the bailiff and burgesses of Berkhamsted as part of an effort to consolidate several royal charity grants for administration under civil authority.[nb 3] While living in Berkhamsted, Rice acquired and was taxed on 3 acres (12,000 m2) of land in 1627, and on 15 acres (61,000 m2) from 1633 to 1637.
There is no surviving record of Edmund Rice's voyage to America with his family,[nb 4] but it is known to have occurred between the 13 March 1638 baptism of his son Joseph in Berkhamsted and the petition to the Great and General Court to found Sudbury, Massachusetts 6 September 1638, showing all the Sudbury founders residing in Watertown, MA.[nb 5] However, the 1638 petition to the General Court to found Sudbury did not explicitly mention Rice's name, so there is in actuality poor documentation of Rice's presumed short-term residence in Watertown. The first documented record of his presence in Massachusetts is in the Township Book of the Town of Sudbury in the year 1639.
Between 1638 and 1657, Rice resided in Sudbury where he became a leader in the community. Sumner Chilton Powell wrote, in his 1964 Pulitzer Prize winning Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town, "Not only did Rice become the largest individual landholder in Sudbury, but he represented his new town in the Massachusetts legislature for five years and devoted at least eleven of his last fifteen years to serving as selectman and judge of small causes."  He was appointed on 4 September 1639 by the General Court to lay out the roads and lots of Sudbury, and he was granted 4 acres (16,000 m2) of land near the original Sudbury meetinghouse . He served as a selectman in Sudbury in 1639 and subsequently for several years between 1644 and 1656. He was designated a freeman on 13 May 1640, and was elected as a deputy (representative) of the Great and General Court in October 1640. He was later appointed as a Judge of Small Causes by the Massachusetts General Court for the Sudbury district on 2 June 1641. In 1648, Rice was ordained as a Deacon in the Puritan Church at Sudbury. He was reelected as a deputy of the Massachusetts General Court in 1652 through 1654.
Edmund Rice was particularly successful in his real estate transactions. After selling his 4 acres (16,000 m2) of land and homestead near the Sudbury meetinghouse on 1 September 1642 to John Moore,[nb 6] Rice established his residence on 13 September 1642 on land leased from Henry Dunster near the Old Connecticut Path in southeastern Sudbury. Within a year, Philemon Whale and Thomas Axtell, former town mates (and probably kin) from Berkhamstead, England established their homesteads on adjacent lots nearby. [nb 7] In October 1643 Rice sold Philemon Whale 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land and a house near the Old Connecticut Path in southern Sudbury and also that same month he sold 6 acres (24,000 m2) of adjacent land to Thomas Axtell.[nb 8] But only three years later in 1646, Rice purchased back the land from the Axtell estate, pledging to care for the "widow Axtell." And by 1659, Rice had acquired about 600 acres (2.4 km2) of land in southeastern Sudbury (present day Wayland and Cochituate), including nine acres of land and the homestead purchased back from Philemon Whale (see image of the homestead), and the probated estate of Henry Dunster.
The issue of land tenure was highly contentious in 17th Century Massachusetts Bay Colony and in Sudbury in particular. Open field or communal farming was practiced in most of Sudbury, following traditions of the commons and governance practices brought from central and western England during the early 17th Century. Rice and twelve other dissenters from Sudbury who were interested in 'closed field' or owner-operator farming as it was practiced in southeastern England petitioned the Great and General Court in 1656 to create the town of Marlborough where individual ownership of farmland was to be exclusively practiced. The tract of land was 8 square miles (21 km2) west of Sudbury that, in addition to becoming Marlborough, eventually became Northborough, Westborough, Southborough, and Hudson as well. Rice was elected as selectman of Marlborough in 1657 as the town was being established. The town was formally chartered on 12 June 1660 by the General Court. Upon being granted a maximum allotment of 50 acres (200,000 m2) of land in Marlborough, Rice was one of the three largest initial landholders of the new town. According to Powell (1963) the founding of Marlborough with exclusive closed-field land tenure was a seminal event in establishing the predominant freehold or fee simple land tenure system of America. Rice was reelected as selectman in Marlborough every year after 1657 until his death.
Edmund Rice died on 3 May 1663 in Marlborough, Massachusetts, and is presumed to be buried at the Old North Cemetery (site of the first Sudbury Meeting House) in what is now Wayland, Massachusetts . Probate records show that his wife, Mercy, was executrix and that his estate including lands and homes in both Sudbury and Marlborough was valued at £743, 8s, & 4p, which was a considerable sum for the time.[nb 9]
Family data 
- Mary Rice, baptized 23 August 1619 at St. James Church Stanstead, Suffolk, England (possibly =Mary Axtell, married John Maynard 16 June 1646 after death of first husband Thomas Axtell that year at Sudbury, MA).[nb 10]
- Henry Rice, baptized 13 February 1620 O.S./1621 N.S. at St. James Church, Stanstead, Suffolk, died 10 February 1710/11 at Framingham, married Elizabeth Moore 1 February 1643/44
- Edward Rice, baptized 20 October 1622 at St. James Church, Stanstead, Suffolk, died 15 August 1712 at Marlborough, MA, married Agnes Bent in 1646
- Thomas Rice, baptized 26 January 1625/26 at St. James Church, Stanstead, Suffolk, died 16 November 1681 at Sudbury, MA, married Mary King 1652
- Lydia Rice, baptized 9 March 1627/28 at St. Peter's Church, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, died 5 April 1675, at Boston, MA, married Hugh Drury 1645.
- Matthew Rice, baptized 28 February 1628/29 at St. Peter's Church, Berkhamsted, died 1717 at Sudbury, MA, married Martha Lamson 2 November 1654.
- Daniel Rice, baptized 1 November 1632 at St. Peter's Church, Berkhamsted, died 10 November 1632 at Berkhamsted.
- Samuel Rice, baptized 12 November 1634 at St. Peter's Church, Berkhamsted, died 25 February 1684/85 at Marlborough, MA, married (1) Elizabeth King 8 November 1655, (2) Mary (Dix) Browne September 1668, and (3) Sarah (White) Hosmer 13 December 1676
- Joseph Rice, baptized 13 March 1637/38, at St. Peter's Church, Berkhamsted, died 23 December 1711 at Stow, MA, married (1) Mercy King 4 May 1658, (2) Mary Beers in 1670, and (3) Sarah (Prescott) Wheeler on 22 February 1677/78.
- Benjamin Rice, born 31 May 1640 at Sudbury, MA, died 19 December 1713 at Sudbury, MA, married (1) Mary Browne on 2 June 1661, and (2) Mary (Chamberlain) Graves in 1 April 1691
After the death of Thomasine Frost Rice on 13 June 1654 in Sudbury, MA, Edmund Rice married Mercy Brigham (ca1618-1693) on 1 March 1655 in Sudbury, MA. Mercy Brigham was the widow of Thomas Brigham (1603–1653). This marriage began the long association between the Rice and Brigham families. The maiden name of Mercy Brigham, often cited as Hurd, is uncertain due to lack of any primary documentation. Two daughters were born to Edmund and Mercy Rice as follows:
- Lydia Rice, born circa 1657 at Sudbury, MA, died 26 May 1718, married James Hawkins circa 1678
- Ruth Rice, born 29 September 1659 at Marlborough, MA, died 30 March 1742 at Glastonbury, Connecticut, married Capt. Samuel Welles, grandson of Thomas Welles on 20 June 1683
Edmund Rice's descendants 
Descendants of Edmund Rice had been meeting annually at the old Rice homestead in Wayland since 5 Sept 1851. Documentation of Edmund Rice’s descendants began with the 1858 publication of Andrew Henshaw Ward’s genealogical history of the Rice family. Its publication was funded by a committee formed at the 1856 annual reunion consisting of five Rice descendants, including Edmund Rice (1813-1888) (father of stage producer Edward E. Rice), Anson Rice (1798-1875) (postmaster of Northborough and grandfather of author Wallace Rice), and U.S. Congressman Constantine C. Esty (1824-1912). Despite the difficulties of communication and transportation in the 1850s, Ward was able to document over 6,200 Edmund Rice descendents, mostly in the New England region. On 29 August 1912, shortly after the old family homestead in Wayland had been lost by fire, Rice descendants in Massachusetts formally organized the Edmund Rice (1638) Association (ERA). Eustace Bond Rice (1871-1938) a professor of music theory at the New England Conservatory who had grown up in the old Rice homestead was elected as the association’s first president. Beginning in the early 20th Century, and partially aided by the compilation and publication of Massachusetts vital records by Franklin Pierce Rice (1852-1919), the ERA undertook the task of building upon Ward’s pioneering genealogy by verifying and better documenting Edmund’s descendants. In the early 1930s, Alexander Hamilton Rice, Jr. commissioned genealogist Mary Lovering Holman to examine existing information on Edmund Rice and produce an updated genealogy. In 1938, the ERA published Elsie Hawes Smith's Edmund Rice and his Family,[nb 11] and through the mid to late 20th Century, the ERA continued to publish several genealogical volumes documenting Edmund Rice's descendants. By 2011, the ERA electronic database of known Edmund Rice descendants into the 14th generation had exceeded 175,000 individuals.
Since 2002, the ERA has conducted extensive haplotype DNA testing on males known to or believed to have descended from seven sons of Edmund. The data have served to support conclusions of Edmund's birth in Suffolk, East Anglia and provide additional evidence to dispel a misleading early 20th Century claim that Edmund Rice was descended from Welsh royalty. The 111 tested (Y-STR) Y-chromosome markers (e.g. DYS391 = 10; DYS392 = 11; DYS393 = 10; DYS426 = 11; DYS447 = 23; DYS454 = 11; DYS455 = 8; YCA-IIa,b = 19, 21) from known descendants of Edmund are consistent with Haplogroup I1-M253 that is exceedingly rare among the Welsh and relatively common among inhabitants of East Anglia.
The genetic testing of Edmund Rice descendents has also served to confirm two different direct male descendant lines in which there had been a change in surname. Data showed direct male-line descendants with the surname King, confirming a name change had occurred with Samuel Rice 1667-1713 (aka Lt. Samuel Rice King). Notable direct descendants of Edmund with the surname of King include William H. King (1863–1949) and his son, David S. King (1917–2009), who were U.S. Congressmen from Utah. Likewise some individuals with the surname of Royce also have been found to have Y-STR genetic markers identical to Edmund Rice confirming a name change by Alpheus Rice 1787-1871 (aka Capt. Alpheus Royce). A notable direct male-line descendant of Edmund with the surname of Royce is George E. Royce (1829-1903), a businessman and state legislator from Vermont. 
The genetic testing further revealed Y-STR genetic markers of Edmund Rice among several male members of the Mohawk nation who have the surname of Rice. The tested individuals are most probably descended from Silas Rice,  one of four Rice boys who were captured during Queen Anne's War by Mohawks on 8 August 1704 in Marlborough (later Westborough), Massachusetts, carried off and raised in Kahnawake, Canada. Actress Alexandrea Kawisenhawe Rice (b. 1972) of Kahnawake Mohawk ancestry is a notable descendant of Edmund Rice. 
- Several internet-based genealogical sources claim royal ancestry of Edmund and his descendants. These claims of royal ancestry with connection to Wales and Buckinghamshire are most certainly in error. All these claims of royal ancestry have been traced to a 1911 book By the Name of Rice written and self-published by Charles Elmer Rice of Alliance, Ohio.
- Rev. Thomas Newman served as rector of St. Peter's Church in Berkhamsted for over 40 years (1598-1639) and served for a time as a Chief Burgess of Berkhamsted and mayor in 1631. According to parish records Newman was the second husband of Bridget (Dryden) Marbury, who was mother of Anne Marbury Hutchinson by way of her first husband Francis Marbury. Despite being a staunch Anglican, by 1645 Newman fell into political disfavor by being barred from the rectory of St. Peter's by Act of Parliament for a payment delinquency.
- Documents regarding the royal grant and the transfer of funds to civil officials never refer to Edmund Rice as "Mr. Rice" as was customary for men of high status. In Berkhamsted, Edmund was considered an ordinary yeoman farmer.
- It is possible to estimate the cost of passage of Edmund and his family to America based upon other families of comparable size traveling at that time during the Great Migration. According to Powell (1963), Edmund's Sudbury town mate, Peter Noyes and his family sailed from England aboard the ship Jonathan on 12 April 1639 in a party consisting of 10 people along with provisions and family effects. The bill of passage was £76.8.0.
- The original 1638 grant of lands by the Great and General Court to form Sudbury included lands that in addition to Sudbury, eventually became the present day towns of Wayland and Maynard as well.
- John Moore (1602-1673) was married to Elizabeth Rice (Whale)(1612-1690) the daughter of Edmund's presumed brother Henry and stepdaughter of Philemon Whale. Moore was the father of Elizabeth Moore (ca1628-1705), who married Edmund's eldest son Henry on 1 February 1642 in Sudbury.
- Philemon Whale (1599-1676) was married on 24 January 1621/22 at St. Mary's Church, Bury St. Edmunds to Elizabeth (Frost) Rice, sister of Edmund Rice's wife Thomasine and widow to Edmund's presumed brother Henry Rice. Whale and his wife Elizabeth arrived in Sudbury in 1643 from Berkhamsted, the same year that Thomas and Mary Axtell (possibly Edmund's eldest daughter) arrived from the same town.
- According to Sudbury Land Records dated 23 October 1643, "Philemon Whale bought of Edmund Rice 9 acres of upland be the same more or less lyinge on the south syde of the towne bound of Sudbury between the lande of John Hayme on the south side of it and ioyninge to the springe runninge from his new dwelling house to the river on the west side of it."
- During Edmund’s time, the English pound was by definition valued at the price of sterling silver. During the 17th and 18th Centuries, the price of silver was relatively stable at about $300 per troy ounce in 2010 dollars. Given the conversion factors of 12 troy ounces to a pound, and 20 shillings to a pound and 12 pence to a shilling, Edmund’s probate inventory (mostly his land holdings) valued at £743, 8s, & 4p would be worth about US$2.67 million today.
- Further circumstantial evidence for Mary Axtell Maynard being the daughter of Edmund Rice beyond those presented by Marilyn Axtell Cheney (1988) includes the fact that the three children of Thomas and Mary Axtell were named Mary (1639-1704), Henry (1641-1676) and Lydia (1644-1717), all matching in names of Edmund's children from the previous generation, with two of these children (Mary & Henry) born in Berkhamsted prior to the 1643 Axtell immigration to Sudbury, and with Lydia born one year before the marriage of her presumed aunt Lydia Rice to Hugh Drury in Sudbury.
- Elsie Hawes Smith served as president of the ERA from 1937 to 1939. She was appointed as the historian of the association in 1940 and she served in that capacity until her death on 30 January 1963. She was instrumental in compiling records of thousands of Rice descendants later published by the ERA.
- "ERA Newsletter p. 2 Fall 1980". Edmund Rice 1638 Association. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Who was Edmund Rice?". The Edmund Rice (1638) Association, Inc. Retrieved 2009-April-13.
- Powell, Sumner Chilton. (1963). Puritan Village. The Formation of a New England Town. Middletown CT: Wesleyan University Press. 215pp. ISBN 0-8195-6014-6
- Rice, Charles E. (1911). By the Name of Rice: An Historical Sketch of Deacon Edmund Rice The Pilgrim 1594-1663 and His Descendants to the Fourth Generation. Williams Printing, Alliance Ohio. 84pp. web version
- Holman, Mary Lovering. (1934). English notes on Edmund Rice. The American Genealogist 10:133-137.
- Jacobus, Donald Lines. (1936). English Ancestry of Edmund Rice, Sudbury, Massachusetts. The American Genealogist 11:14-21.
- "St. James Church, Stanstead". Suffolk Churches. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- Martin, Joanna (1999). Report on parish records from Suffolk, England (summary). Edmund Rice (1638) Association Newsletter, Fall 1999. (See: http://www.edmund-rice.org/ancestors.htm); Dr. Martin's full 1999 report was deposited in the Rice Family Collections, Goodnow Library, Sudbury, MA
- "Edmund Rice Biography in the Sudbury Archives". Town of Sudbury, Massachusetts. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- "Deed of sale from Edmund Rice to Edmund Rice, his son, 1796 February 22 (manuscript copy, 1796 March 11)". Dunster, Henry, 1609-1659 Papers of Henry Dunster and the Dunster and Glover families. UAI 15.850 Box 3, Folder 22, Harvard University Archives. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- p.28 in Powell (1963) op. cit.
- Meredith B. Colket and Edward N. Dunlop. (1936). The English ancestry of Anne Marbury Hutchinson and Katherine Marbury Scott: including their descent and that of John Dryden, poet-laureate, from Magna Charta sureties with notes on the English connections of the settlers William Wentworth and Christopher Lawson of New Hampshire and Francis Marbury of Maryland. Magee Publishing Company, Philadelphia. 60pp.
- pp. 373-376. In: William Urwick (1884). Nonconformity in Herts: being lectures upon the nonconforming worthies of St. Albans, and memorials of Puritanism and Nonconformity in all the parishes of the County of Hertford. Hazell, Watson, and Viney Publishers, London. 875pp.
- p. 197, The Charities of Hertfordshire, In: Middlesex and Hertfordshire Notes and Queries, Volume IV. F.E. Robinson Publishers, London. 1898.
- p. 45 In: Cobb, John W. (1883). Two Lectures on the History and Antiquities of Berkhamsted. Nichols and Sons, London.
- p. 198, The Charities of Hertfordshire, In: Middlesex and Hertfordshire Notes and Queries, Volume IV. F.E. Robinson Publishers, London. 1898.
- Berkhamsted land records, Appendix III, p. 178 in Powell (1963) op. cit.
- p. 20 In: Powell (1963) op. cit.
- p. 74, in Powell (1963). op. cit.
- "History of Sudbury --the Early Land Grants". Town of Sudbury, Massachusetts. Retrieved 27 Jan 2013.
- "Who was Edmund?". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- p. 21 in Powell (1963) op. cit.
- Lucias R. Paige, List of Freemen of Massachusetts 1631–1691 (1849, 1978 edition), p17. ISBN 0-8063-0806-0
- Hudson, Alfred Sereno. (1889). The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts. Town of Sudbury. 661pp.Download PDF
- p. 1 in: Ward, Andrew Henshaw. 1858. A genealogical History of the Rice Family: Descendants of Deacon Edmund Rice, Boston: C. Benjamin Richardson, Publisher. 379pp. Download PDF
- p. 3 In: Bolton, Ethel Stanwood. 1904. Some Descendants of John Moore of Sudbury, Massachusetts. Press of David Clapp and Son, Boston. 22pp. online version
- Dunster, Henry 1609-1659? Papers of Henry Dunster and the Dunster and Glover families. Agreement between Henry Dunster and his farmer, Edmund Rice, 1642 September 13. UAI 15.850 Box 1, Folder 8, Harvard University Archives. web access
- p. 41 In: Hudson (1889). op. cit.
- p. 189 In: Powell (1963) op. cit.
- "Elizabeth Frost (1587-1647)". richardpyoung.org. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Philemon Whale notes". Mayflower Families. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- p. 41 In: Hudson (1889). op. cit.
- p. 33. in: Smith, Elsie Hawes. (1938). Edmund Rice and His Family. Edmund Rice (1638) Association, Inc. 100pp.
- "Dunster, Henry, 1609-1659 Papers of Henry Dunster and the Dunster and Glover families. Deeds of sale from Henry Dunster to Edmund Rice and Benjamin Rice, 1658 and quit claim from Elizabeth Dunster to Edmund and Benjamin Rice, 1660 (eighteenth-century manuscript copy).". UAI 15.850 Box 2, Folder 26, Harvard University Archives, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- p. 116 In: Powell (1963) op cit.
- "1656 Petition to Establish Marlborough". Marlborough Colonial Records. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- p. 160 in Hudson (1889) op. cit.
- "Minutes of the Meeting of Marlborough Proprietors 25th day, 12th month of 1656". Marlborough Colonial Records. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "Marlborough Town Meeting Minutes of 26 November 1660". Marlborough Colonial Records. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "Marlborough History". Marlborough Tercentennial Commission/Roots Web. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- pp.133-138. In: Powell (1963) op. cit.
- "Excerpts of Town Meeting Minutes". Colonial Records of Marlborough. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- "p. 6 ERA Newsletter, Summer 1968". Edmund Rice 1638 Association. Retrieved 13 Mar 2013.
- Edmund Rice Probate records (1663), Probate File Index #18696, Middlesex County, Massachusetts.
- p. 34 in: Smith (1938). op. cit.
- "On the Wealth of Edmund Rice, by Michael A. Rice". Edmund Rice (1638) Association Newsletter, Fall, 2007 Vol 81: no. 4 p. 19. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- "Edmund Rice in the Edmund Rice Six-Generation Database". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 2009-April-12.
- ""A Myth Put to Rest", by Marilyn Axtell Cheney (1988)". Axtell Genealogy Website. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "John Maynard genealogy". Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- "Henry Rice". Find a Grave. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Edward Rice". Find a Grave. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "Find a Grave: Thomas Rice". Retrieved 20 August 2009.
- "Find a Grave: Lydia Rice Drury". Retrieved 19 August 2009.
- "Samuel Rice". Find a Grave. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Joseph Rice at Find a Grave". Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Brigham, W.I.T., E.E. Brigham, and W.E. Brigham (1907). The history of the Brigham family; a record of several thousand descendants of Thomas Brigham the emigrant, 1603-1653. The Grafton Press, New York. 810pp. pdf
- "Mercy Brigham Rice Hunt at Find a Grave". Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "Ruth (Rice) Welles". Find a Grave. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "p4. ERA Newsletter". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. December, 1960. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- p. viii Publication. in: Ward, Andrew Henshaw. 1858. A Genealogical History of the Rice Family: Descendants of Deacon Edmund Rice, Boston: C. Benjamin Richardson, Publisher. 379pp. Download PDF
- Ward (1858) p. 343 op. cit.
- "p.1 ERA Newsletter November, 1961". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- "Edmund Rice (1638) Association". Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- "p3. ERA Newsletter April, 1961". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
- "p. 2 ERA Newsletter March, 1963". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
- "ERA Books". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 15 ay 2013.
- "Fall, 2011 ERA Newsletter p. 7., Report of Annual Meeting September 17, 2011". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "Rice Family Y-DNA Project". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "Edmund Rice reconstructed Y-chromosome haplotype". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 12 Dec 2012.
- "Haplogroup data and Edmund Rice’s non-Welsh Ancestry". ERA Newsletter vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 7-10 (Spring 2013), Edmund Rice 1638 Association. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Lt. Samuel Rice King". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "Thomas King of Sudbury (ca1602 – 1676): The King Family Connection to the Edmund Rice Family". Edmund Rice (1638) Association Newsletter vol 87 no.1, pp. 10-19 (Winter 2013). Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Analysis of Edmund Rice genetic data". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- Edmund Rice (1638) Association, 2012. Descendants of Edmund Rice: The First Nine Generations. (CD-ROM)
- "Capt. Alpheus Royce". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- >McAleer, Beth and Robert V. Rice.(2005). Y-DNA Secures Identity of Rice Mohawk Native American with Edmund Rice Haplotype, New England Ancestors 6(4):48-50.
- Parkman, Ebenezer. (1769). The Story of the Rice Boys: Captured by the Indians 8 August 1704. Published in 1906 by the Westborough Historical Society, Westborough, MA. 7pp. Download PDF
- Edmund Rice (1638) Association
- Edmund Rice at Find a Grave
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