Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk
|Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk|
Arms of Sir Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, KG
|Died||30 April 1513|
|Pretend from||16 June 1487|
|Monarchy abolished||1485, Battle of Bosworth Field|
|Last monarch||Richard III of England|
|Connection with||Richard III declared his older brother as his heir and head of the House of York|
|Royal House||House of York|
|Father||John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk|
|Mother||Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk|
|Predecessor||John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln|
|Successor||Richard de la Pole|
His mother was the second surviving daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. She was also a younger sister to Edward IV of England and Edmund, Earl of Rutland as well as an older sister to Margaret of York, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence and Richard III of England.
His paternal grandparents were William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Alice Chaucer. Suffolk was an important English soldier and commander in the Hundred Years' War, and later Lord Chamberlain of England. Alice Chaucer was a daughter of Thomas Chaucer, Speaker of the Commons on three occasions, Chief Butler of England for almost thirty years, and granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.
His eldest brother John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln (c. 1464-1487), was heir-apparent to his maternal uncle, Richard III of England, who gave him a pension and the reversion of the estates of Lady Margaret Beaufort. However, on the accession of Henry VII following the Battle of Bosworth Field, Lincoln took the oath of allegiance instead of claiming the throne for himself. In 1487, Lincoln joined the rebellion of Lambert Simnel and was killed at the Battle of Stoke.
After the death of his older brother, Edmund became the leading Yorkist claimant to the throne. Nevertheless, he succeeded to the title Duke of Suffolk in 1491, though in 1493 Edmund's title was demoted to the rank of Earl. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir Richard Scrope.
In 1501 the headstrong Edmund fled the Kingdom of England with the help of Sir James Tyrrell, who was subsequently executed for these actions. Edmund sought the help of Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1502 Maximillian agreed to a treaty not to back de la Pole should he make an attempt on the throne of England. In 1506, Maximilian's son, Philip of Burgundy, was blown off course while sailing, and reluctantly and unexpectedly became a guest of Henry VII. Needing to set sail again in order to claim his wife's inheritance (Castile), he was persuaded by Henry to hand over the Earl of Suffolk. Henry agreed to the proviso that Suffolk would not be harmed and restricted himself to imprisoning the Earl. The next king, Henry VIII, did not feel bound to this agreement and had Suffolk executed in 1513.
Montaigne, in his "Essays", said that Henry VII, in his will, instructed his son to put Suffolk to death immediately after his own decease, and he criticisd Henry for requiring that his son do what he himself would not do.
- Henry VII and the English nobility, T.B. Pugh, The Tudor nobility, ed. G.W.. Bernard, (Manchester University Press, 1992), 51.
- Henry VII and the English nobility, T.B. Pugh, The Tudor nobility, ed. G.W.. Bernard, 64.
- Handbook of British Chronology, ed. E. B. Pryde, D. E. Greenway, (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 484.
- S.B. Chrimes, Henry VII, (Yale University Press, 1977), 93.
- J. D. Mackie, The Earlier Tudors, 1485-1558, (Clarendon Press, 1952), 267. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Michel de Montaigne "Essays" (1580), Book One, Chapter 7 'That our actions should be judged by our intentions'.
- J. L. Laynesmith, The Last Medieval Queens: English Queenship 1445-1503, (Oxford University Press, 2004), 207 n143. – via Questia (subscription required)
|Peerage of England|
John de la Pole
|Duke of Suffolk