Eduard Shevardnadze

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Eduard Shevardnadze
ედუარდ შევარდნაძე
Eduard shevardnadze.jpg
2nd President of Georgia
In office
26 November 1995 – 23 November 2003
Preceded by Position restored;
himself as the Head of State of Georgia
Succeeded by Nino Burjanadze (acting)
Chairman of the Parliament - Head of State of Georgia
In office
6 November 1992 – 26 November 1995
(Chairman of the Parliament from 4 November 1992)
Preceded by Position established;
himself as the Chairman of the State Council of Georgia
Succeeded by Position abolished;
Zurab Zhvania as the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia
Chairman of the State Council of Georgia
In office
10 March 1992 – 4 November 1992
Preceded by Position established; Military Council as the interim head of state
Succeeded by Position abolished; himself as the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia
Minister of External Relations of the Soviet Union
In office
19 November 1991 – 26 December 1991
Premier Ivan Silayev
Preceded by Boris Pankin
Succeeded by Position abolished
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union
In office
2 July 1985 – 20 December 1990
Premier Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Ryzhkov
Preceded by Andrei Gromyko
Succeeded by Aleksandr Bessmertnykh
First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party
In office
29 September 1972 – 6 July 1985
Preceded by Vasil Mzhavanadze
Succeeded by Jumber Patiashvili
Minister of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR
In office
1967–1972
Preceded by Vladimir Janjgava
Succeeded by Dilar Habuliani
Personal details
Born (1928-01-25)25 January 1928
Mamati, Guria, Transcaucasian SFSR, Soviet Union
Died 7 July 2014(2014-07-07) (aged 86)
Tblisi, Georgia
Nationality Soviet (1928–1991) and Georgian (1991–2014)
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union
(1948-1991)
Independent
(1991-1995)
Union of Citizens of Georgia
(1995-2003)
Spouse(s) Nanuli Shevardnadze
Children 2
Religion Georgian Orthodox Church
Military service
Service/branch MVD
Years of service 1964–1972
Rank RAF A F6MajGen since 2010par.svg
Major General
Commands Ministry of Public Order of the Georgian SSR (1965-1968)
Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR (1968-1972)
Awards Serp i molot.jpg
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order october revolution rib.png Order gpw2 rib.png Orderredbannerlabor rib.png
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg Ukraine-republic007.png Order of the State of Republic of Turkey.png

Eduard Shevardnadze (Georgian: ედუარდ შევარდნაძე, Georgian pronunciation: [ɛduard ʃɛvardnad͡zɛ]; Russian: Эдуа́рд Амвро́сиевич Шевардна́дзе, tr. Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat. He served as First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party (GPC, the de facto leader of Soviet Georgia) from 1972 to 1985 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Shevardnadze was responsible for many key decisions on Soviet foreign policy during the Gorbachev Era. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, he was President of Georgia (or in equivalent posts) from 1992 to 2003. He was forced to retire in 2003 as a consequence of the bloodless Rose Revolution.

Shevardnadze's political career started in the late 1940s as a leading member of his local Komsomol organisation. He was later appointed its Second Secretary, and then First Secretary. His rise up the Georgian Soviet hierarchy continued until 1961 when he was demoted after he insulted a senior official. After spending two years in obscurity, Shevardnadze returned as a First Secretary of a Tbilisi city district, and was able to charge the Tbilisi First Secretary at the time for corruption. His anti-corruption work quickly garnered the interest of the Soviet government, and Shevardnadze was appointed to First Deputy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR. He would later become the head of the internal affairs ministry and was able to charge First Secretary (leader of Soviet Georgia) Vasil Mzhavanadze with corruption.

As First Secretary, Shevardnadze started several economic reforms which would spur economic growth in the republic, an uncommon occurrence in the Soviet Union because the country was experiencing a nationwide economic stagnation. Shevardnadze's anti-corruption campaign continued until he resigned from his office as First Secretary. Mikhail Gorbachev appointed Shevardnadze to the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs. From then on, with the exception of a brief period between 1990 and 1991, only Gorbachev would outrank Shevardnadze in importance in Soviet foreign policy.

In the aftermath of the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 Shevardnadze returned to a newly independent Georgia. He became the country's head of state following the removal of the country's first president, Zviad Gamsakhurdia. He was formally elected president in 1995. His presidency was marked by rampant corruption and accusations of nepotism. After allegations of apparent electoral fraud during the 2003 legislative election Shevardnadze was forced to resign following a series of public protests and demonstrations colloquially known as the Rose Revolution. He later lived in relative obscurity, but published his memoirs.

Early life and career[edit]

Shevardnadze was born in Mamati, Lanchkhuti, Transcaucasian SFSR, Soviet Union, on 25 January 1928. Ambrose, his father, worked as a teacher and was a devoted communist and party official. His mother however had little respect for the communist government and opposed both Shevardnadze's and his father's party career.[1] He was a cousin of the Georgian painter and intellectual Dimitri Shevardnadze who was purged during Stalinist repressions.[2] In 1937, during the Great Purge, his father, who had abandoned Menshevism for Bolshevism in the mid-1920s, was arrested but was released due to the intervention of an NKVD officer who had been his pupil.[3] The father of his wife, Nanuli Shevardnadze, was killed by the authorities at the height of the purge. At first Nanuli rejected Shevardnadze's marriage proposal, fearing that her family background would ruin Shevardnadze's party career. These fears were well justified as many other couples had lost their life for the very same reason.[4] The two married in 1951.

He joined the Georgian Communist Party (GCP) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1948 at the age of twenty. He rose steadily through the ranks of the Georgian Komsomol, and eventually became its First Secretary after serving a term as Second Secretary.[5] It was during his Komsomol First Secretaryship that Shevardnadze would meet Mikhail Gorbachev for his first time.[6] Shevardnadze claims that he grew disillusioned with the Soviet political system following Nikita Khrushchev's "Secret Speech" to the 20th CPSU Congress. Like many Soviets, the crimes perpetrated by Joseph Stalin horrified Shevardnadze, and the Soviet government's response to the 1956 Georgian demonstrations shocked him even more.[7] He was demoted in 1961 by the Politburo of the Georgian Communist Party after offending a senior official.[5] His demotion led him to endure several years of obscurity before returning to attention as a First Secretary of a city district in Tbilisi.[8] Shevardnadze challenged Tbilisi First Secretary Otari Lolashvili, and later charged him for corruption. Shevardnadze left party work after getting appointed to First Deputy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR in 1964. It was his successful attempt at putting Lolashvili behind bars which got him promoted to the First Deputyship. In 1965 he was appointed Minister of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR. After initiating a successful anti-corruption campaign supported by the Soviet government Shevardnadze was voted-in as Second Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party.[9] Shevardnadze's anti-corruption campaign increased public enmity against him.[10] However, it was these campaigns which garnered the interest of the Soviet government,[11] and in turn, his promotion to the First Secretaryship after Vasil Mzhavanadze's resignation.[9]

First Secretary of the GCP (1972–1985)[edit]

Original CIA file on Shevardnadze, seized from the former United States Embassy in Tehran

Shevardnadze was appointed to the First Secretaryship of the Georgian Communist Party by the Soviet government with the task of suppressing the grey and black-market capitalism that had grown under Vasil Mzhavanadze's rule.[12]

Corruption campaigns[edit]

Shevardnadze's rapid rise in Soviet Georgia's political hierarchy was the result of his campaign against corruption.[9] By the time Shevardnadze had become leader Georgia had become the most corruption-infested republic in the Soviet Union. The reign of Vasil Mzhavanadze, Shevardnadze's predecessor in office, had been characterised by weak leadership, nepotism, despotism, bribery and corruption at the upper echelons of power.[9] Throughout most of his leadership, anti-corruption campaigns were central to his authority and policy. In Georgia corruption had been allowed to grow nearly freely. This had led to serious deformations in the system, an example being that only 68 percent of Georgian goods were exported legally, while goods exported legally from other Soviet Republics amounted close to 100 percent. Shevardnadze rallied up support for his corruption campaigns by establishing the Study of Public Opinion.[13] To combat corruption he indulged himself in subterfuge after halting all external export by dressing up as a peasant, and driving a car filled with tomatoes through the border.[14] After his personal subterfuge the entire Georgian border police was purged. While never proven, it is said that Shevardnadze after taking office, asked all leading officials to show their left hands; he then ordered those who used Western produced watches to replace them with Soviet ones. This story portrayed Shevardnadzes as an active battler against corruption.[15] His campaign against corruption was largely unsuccessful and when he returned to Georgia in 1992, corruption was still an epidemic problem.[16]

Economic policy[edit]

Under Shevardnadze's rule Georgia was one of only a handful of Soviet Republics which did not experience economic stagnation, instead experiencing rapid economic growth. By 1974 industrial output had increased by 9.6 percent while agricultural output had increased by 18 percent. The shortage economy which had evolved into a prevalent problem in other parts of the Soviet Union had in Georgia nearly disappeared. This positive trend can be proven by the fact that the long food queues in Tbilisi had shortened while those in Moscow had lengthened. Some of Shevardnadze's economic policies were adopted by the Soviet government on a national level.[17]

In 1973 Shevardnadze launched an agricultural reform in Abasha, popularly referred to as the "Abasha experiment". This reform was inspired by János Kádár's agricultural policy in the People's Republic of Hungary which returned the agricultural decision-making to the local level of governance. Shevardnadze merged all Abasha agricultural institutions in one single entity and established a new remuneration system. If a farmer fulfilled the five-year plan early he would be awarded a share of the crops. The policy had a positive effect on the Georgian economy, and because of the large increase of agricultural output in Abasha, the reform was introduced elsewhere in the republic. The agricultural reform in Georgia became the model of the nationwide Agricultural-Industrial Organisations established by a decree in 1982.[18]

Shevardnadze took much of the credit for Georgia's economic performance under his rule. Seven months before his promotion to the Soviet Foreign Affairs Ministership Shevardnadze claimed that there were thirty, or more, economic experiments operating in Georgia which he claimed would further democratise the economic management.[19]

Political experimentation and nationalism[edit]

Shevardnadze was a strong supporter of political reform in the Georgian SSR. Under his rule he created agencies attached to the Central Committee of the Georgian Communist Party whose main task was studying, analysing and molding public opinion. These agencies worked closely with Georgia's communications networks, such as television, and government ministers and Shevardnadze himself were regularly interviewed live on television.[15] Shevardnadze criticised flattery in Georgia, and felt that he along with his government's activities, needed to be criticised more often, especially during party congresses.[20] He also proved himself, even before Mikhail Gorbachev's rise to power, to be a firm supporter of people's democracy (i.e. power from below).[21]

The previous Soviet Georgian rulers had given away to nationalist favoritism to the Georgians, Shevardnadze was however, against this policy of favoritism. Therefore his nationalistic policy is seen as highly controversial in today's Georgia.[22] At the 25th Congress of the Georgian Communist Party Shevardnadze told the congress; "for Georgians, the sun rises not in the east, but in the north—in Russia".[23] Shevardnadze saw "extreme nationalism", coupled with corruption and inefficiencies within the system, as one of the main obstacles to economic growth. During his rule he condemned what he saw as "national narrow-mindedness and isolation" and writers who published works with nationalistic overtones. The 1970s saw an increase in nationalistic tendencies in Georgian society. When the 1978 Georgian demonstrations were sparked when the Soviet government decided to amend the Georgian constitution and removing the Georgian language as the sole state language in the republic. While at first standing at the same side as the Soviet government Shevardnadze quickly reiterated his position and was able to make a compromise with the Soviet government and the demonstrators. The Georgian language was kept as the sole official language of the republic, however, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union passed a legislation which called for an increasing the level of Russian language training in the non-Russian republics.[24]

There was another problem facing Shevardnadze during the 1978 demonstrations, some leading Abkhaz intellectuals were writing to Leonid Brezhnev in the hope that he would let the Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic secede from Georgia and merge into the Russian SFSR. To halt this development the Georgian government gave away to concessions made by the secessionists. These concessions includes establishing an Abhkaz university, the expansion of Abkhaz publications and creating an Abkhaz television station. Shevardnadze would prove however to be an active supporter of defending minority interests.[25]

National politics and resignation[edit]

At the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1976 Shevardnadze held a speech in which he called General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev "vozhd" (leader), a term previously reserved for Joseph Stalin. His adulation was only surpassed by those of Andrei Kirilenko and Heydar Aliyev. As Yegor Ligachev later noted, Shevardnadze never contradicted a General Secretary.[26] During Brezhnev's last days Shevardnadze had publicly endorsed Konstantin Chernenko's candidacy for the General Secretaryship and called him a "great theoretician". However, when it became clear that the secretaryship would not go to Chernenko, but instead Yuri Andropov, Shevardnadze swiftly reiterated his position and gave his support for Andropov. Shevardnadze's became the first Soviet republican head to offer his gratitude to the newly elected leader, in turn, Andropov quickly signaled his appreciation and his support for some of the reforms launched by Shevardnadze. According to Andropov's biographers the anti-corruption campaigned launched by him was inspired by Shervardnadze's Georgian anti-corruption campaign. When Andropov died Shevardnadze became yet again an avid supporter for Chernenko's candidacy for the General Secretaryship.[27] When Chernenko died Shevardnadze's had become a strong supporter Mikhail Gorbachev's leadership candidacy.[28] He became a member of the Central Committee (CC) of the CPSU in 1976 and in 1978 was promoted to the rank of non-voting candidate member of the Soviet Political Bureau (Politburo).[29] His chance came in 1985 when the veteran Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, Andrei Gromyko, left that post for the largely ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The de facto leader, Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, appointed Shevardnadze to replace Gromyko as Minister of Foreign Affairs, thus consolidating Gorbachev's circle of relatively young reformers.[6]

Minister of Foreign Affairs Soviet Union (1985–1991)[edit]

Shevardnadze with US Secretary of State George Shultz, 1987

He subsequently played a key role in the détente which marked the end of the Cold War.[30][31] He negotiated nuclear arms treaties with the United States.[31] He helped end the war in Afghanistan.[30][31] He allowed the reunification of Germany.[30] He removed Soviet forces from Eastern Europe and from the Chinese border.[31] He earned the nickname "The Silver Fox".[30]

During the late 1980s, as the Soviet Union descended into crisis, Shevardnadze became increasingly became increasing unpopular and in conflict with Soviet hard-liners who dislike his reforms and his soft line with the West.[32] He criticised a campaign of Soviet troops to put down an uprising in his native Georgia in 1989. In protest over the growing influence of hardliners under Gorbachev, Shevardnadze suddenly resigned in December 1990, announcing famously that "Dictatorship is coming."[32] A few months later, his fears were partially realised when an unsuccessful coup by Communist hardliners precipitated the collapse of the Soviet Union. Shevardnadze returned briefly as Soviet Foreign Minister in November 1991 but resigned with Gorbachev the following month when the Soviet Union was formally dissolved.[32]

In 1991, Shevardnadze was baptized into the Georgian Orthodox Church.[33]

President of Georgia (1995–2003)[edit]

Shevardnadze on official visit to the United States with President Bill Clinton
Shevardnadze meeting Russian President Putin, President Aliyev of Azerbaijan and President Kocharyan of Armenia

Rise to power[edit]

The newly independent Republic of Georgia elected as its first president a leader of the national-liberational movement, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, a famous scientist and writer, who had been imprisoned by Shevardnadze's government in the late 1970s. However, Gamsakhurdia's rule ended abruptly in January 1992 when he was deposed in a bloody coup d'état.[30] Shevardnadze was appointed Speaker of the Georgian parliament in March 1992[34] and as speaker of parliament in November; both of these posts were equivalent to that of president. When the presidency was restored in November 1995, he was elected with 70% of the vote. He secured a second term in April 2000 in an election that was marred by widespread claims of vote-rigging.[32]

Rule[edit]

Shevardnadze's career as Georgian President was in some respects even more challenging than his earlier career as Soviet Foreign Minister. He faced many enemies, some dating back to his campaigns against corruption and nationalism in Soviet times. A civil war in western Georgia broke out in 1993 between supporters of Gamsakhurdia and Shevardnadze but was ended by Russian intervention on Shevardnadze's side[32] and the death of ex-President Gamsakhurdia on 31 December 1993.

Shevardnadze survived three assassination attempts in 1992, 1995, AND 1998.[32] He escaped a car bomb in Abkhazia in 1992.[31] Then in August 1995 he survived another car bomb attack outside the parliament building in Tbilisi.[35] In 1998 his motorcade was ambushed by 10-15 armed men and two bodyguards were killed.[31]

He also faced separatist conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The war in the Russian republic of Chechnya on Georgia's northern border caused considerable friction with Russia, which accused Shevardnadze of harbouring Chechen guerrillas and supported Georgian separatists in apparent retaliation.[32] Further friction was caused by Shevardnadze's close relationship with the United States, which saw him as a counterbalance to Russian influence in the strategic Transcaucasus region. Under Shevardnadze's strongly pro-Western administration, Georgia became a major recipient of U.S. foreign and military aid, signed a strategic partnership with NATO[32] and declared an ambition to join both NATO and the European Union.

At the same time, however, Georgia suffered badly from the effects of crime and rampant corruption, often perpetrated by well-connected officials and politicians. Shevardnadze's closest advisers, including several members of his family, exerted disproportionate economic power and became visibly wealthy.[32] Georgia was listed as one of the most corrupt countries in the world by Transparency International's corruption index.[36]

Downfall[edit]

Banners on Parliament of Georgia saying: "Georgia without Shevardnadze", "Poti is with you"

On 2 November 2003, Georgia held a parliamentary election that was widely denounced as unfair by international election observers.[32] The outcome sparked fury among many Georgians, leading to mass demonstrations in the capital Tbilisi and elsewhere, called the Rose Revolution. Protesters broke into Parliament on 22 November as the first session of the new Parliament was beginning, forcing President Shevardnadze to escape with his bodyguards.[32]

On 23 November Shevardnadze met with the opposition leaders Mikheil Saakashvili and Zurab Zhvania to discuss the situation, in a meeting arranged by Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov.[32] After this meeting, the president announced his resignation, declaring that he wished to avert a bloody power struggle "so all this can end peacefully and there is no bloodshed and no casualties".[37]

Shevardnadze's political career ended with his resignation.[38]

Death[edit]

Shevardnadze spent his last years living quietly at his mansion house in the outskirts of Tbilisi. As his health deteriorated, his involvement in public life became much reduced. After a long illness, he died at the age of 86 on 7 July 2014.[39][40]

Georgia's incumbent president Giorgi Margvelashvili and Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili extended condolences to his family members. Margvelashvili described him as "one of the distinguished politicians of the 20th century, who participated in dismantling of the Soviet system." He added, "He was also playing a serious role in creation of new Georgia and in development of our western course." Garibashvili said that his "contribution was especially important in establishing Georgia’s geopolitical role in modern world. Eduard Shevardnadze was a politician of international significance, who made a great contribution to end the Cold War and to establish new world order."[41] Former President Mikheil Saakashvili, who overthrew him in the 2003 Rose Revolution, offered condolences and said that Shevardnadze was "a significant figure for the Soviet empire and for post-Soviet Georgia." He added that his government did not start a criminal prosecution against him, despite calls by some politicians and a part of the society, out of "respect to the President’s institution."[42]

Among others, Russian President Vladimir Putin[43] and US State Secretary John Kerry offered condolences. Kerry credited him with playing "an instrumental role" in bringing about the end of the Cold War and reduction of "the risk of nuclear confrontation" as the Soviet Union's Foreign Minister and ensuring "the sovereignty and territorial integrity of that fragile state during the 1990s" as President of Georgia and putting the country "on its irreversible trajectory toward Euro-Atlantic integration."[44]

Shevardnadze was afforded a state funeral on 13 July 2014, attended by the Georgian political leaders and foreign dignitaries, including the former U.S. State Secretary James Baker and former German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher. After a service at the Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi, Shevardnadze was buried next to his late wife, Nanuli Shevardnadze, at the Krtsanisi residence in Tbilisi.[45]

Awards[edit]

Soviet Union
Other

References[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.
Notes
  1. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 8.
  2. ^ "ШЕВАРДНАДЗЕ: БЕРИЯ УБИЛ СТАЛИНА И РАССТРЕЛЯЛ ДВОЮРОДНОГО БРАТА МОЕГО ОТЦА". 22 March 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  3. ^ Suny, Ronald (1994). The Making of the Georgian Nation. Indiana University Press. pp. 328–329. ISBN 0-253-20915-3. 
  4. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 9.
  5. ^ a b Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 10.
  6. ^ a b Hough 1997, p. 178.
  7. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 15–16.
  8. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 10–11.
  9. ^ a b c d Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 11.
  10. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 12.
  11. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 11–12.
  12. ^ "Soviet Union: Southern Corruption". Time. 3 December 1973. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  13. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 19.
  14. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 19–20.
  15. ^ a b Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 20.
  16. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 26.
  17. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 17.
  18. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 18.
  19. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 18–19.
  20. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 20–21.
  21. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 21.
  22. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 22.
  23. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 22–23.
  24. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 23.
  25. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 24.
  26. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 13.
  27. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 14.
  28. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, pp. 14–15.
  29. ^ Ekedahl and Goodman 2001, p. 31.
  30. ^ a b c d e "Eduard Shevardnadze: Controversial legacy to Georgia". BBC. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f "Eduard Shevardnadze, Foreign Minister Under Gorbachev, Dies at 86". New York Times. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Eduard Shevardnadze - obituary". Daily Telegraph. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  33. ^ Kolstø, Pål. Political Construction Sites: Nation-Building in Russia and the Post-Soviet States, p. 70. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 2000.
  34. ^ "Eduard Shevardnadze obituary". Guardian. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  35. ^ "Eduard Shevardnadze obituary" (7 July 2014). Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  36. ^ "POSTSCRIPT: EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE, 1928-2014". New Yorker. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  37. ^ "Georgian Leader Resigns Amid Peaceful Opposition Standoff". PBS. November 24, 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  38. ^ "Eduard Shevardnadze: A Soviet-Georgian life of global importance". DW. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  39. ^ BBC News, "Georgian ex-President Eduard Shevardnadze dies at 86", 7 July 2014
  40. ^ The Guardian, "Georgia's Former President Eduard Shevardnadze dies aged 86", 7 July 2014
  41. ^ "Georgian President, PM Extend Condolences over Shevardnadze's Death". Civil Georgia. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  42. ^ "Saakashvili Offers Condolences Over Shevardnadze's Death". Civil Georgia. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  43. ^ "Putin Sends Condolences to Georgia over Shevardnadze's Death". Civil Georgia. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  44. ^ "On the Passing of Former Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze" (Press Statement). U.S. State Department. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  45. ^ "Shevardnadze Laid to Rest in State Funeral". Civil Georgia. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  46. ^ "Gürcüstanın Prezidenti Eduard Amrosiyeviç Şevardnadzenin "İstiqlal" ordeni ilə təltif edilməsi haqqında AZƏRBAYCAN RESPUBLİKASI PREZİDENTİNİN FƏRMANI" [Order of the President of Azerbaijan Republic on awarding President of Georgia Eduard Shevarnadze with Istiglal Order]. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

  • Als der Eiserne Vorhang zerriss - Begegnungen und Erinnerungen. Peter W. Metzler Verlag, Duisburg 2007 (German: revised, re-designed and expanded edition. Georgian "Pikri Tsarsulsa da Momawalze - Memuarebi", Tbilisi 2006). The German edition is the basis for all translations and editions. ISBN 978-3-936283-10-5
  • Когда рухнул железный занавес. Встречи и воспоминания.Эдуард Шеварднадзе, экс-президент Грузии, бывший министр Иностранных дел СССР. Предисловие Александра Бессмертных. Translation from German to Russian. Russian license ("Als der Eiserne Vorhang zerriss", Peter W. Metzler Verlag, Duisburg 2007).

М.: Издательство "Европа", 2009, 428 с. ISBN 978-5-9739-0188-2

  • Kui raudne eesriie rebenes. Translation from German to Estonian. Estonian license ("Als der Eiserne Vorhang zerriss", Peter W. Metzler Verlag, Duisburg 2007). Olion, Tallinn, 2009. ISBN 978-9985-66-606-7
  • The Future Belongs To Freedom, by Edvard Shevardnadze, translated by Catherine A. Fitzpatrick

External links and sources[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Vasil Mzhavanadze
First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party
1972–1985
Succeeded by
Jumber Patiashvili
Political offices
Preceded by
Andrey Gromyko
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union
1985–1991
Succeeded by
Aleksandr Bessmertnykh
Preceded by
Boris Pankin
Minister of External Relations of the Soviet Union
1991
Succeeded by
None—position abolished
Preceded by
Zviad Gamsakhurdia
President of Georgia
1995–2003
Succeeded by
Nino Burjanadze (acting)