Education Commission of the States
|This article relies on references to primary sources. (February 2012)|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
The Education Commission of the States (ECS) was founded as a result of the creation of the Compact for Education, an interstate compact approved by Congress in 1965 and currently entered by 49 U.S. states (all except Washington), three territories (American Samoa, Guam and Northern Mariana Islands), and the District of Columbia.
The idea of establishing a compact on education and creating an operational arm to follow up on its goals was originally proposed by James Bryant Conant, president of Harvard University. Between 1965 and 1967, John W. Gardner, president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and former North Carolina Governor Terry Sanford took up the idea, drafted the proposed Compact, obtained the endorsement of all 50 states and got Congress' approval.
The organization opened its offices in Denver in 1967 and began administering the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test until the Reagan administration in 1982 made the decision to privatize the test, which is now administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). That decision threatened the very existence of the Commission, leading to the virtual closing of ECS's Information Clearinghouse, the laying off or early retirement of half of its 117-member staff and a 50% cut in the organization's budget.
Each member jurisdiction (state, territory, and the District of Columbia) has seven seats on the Commission, including the governor and six appointed members, usually including members of the state legislature and education officials, such as the state education commissioner or head of the state education agency.
The commissioner chairman ship is held by the governor of a member jurisdiction. The term changed from one year to two years in 2002. It alternates between political parties.
|Organizing||Terry Sanford||North Carolina|
|1965-1966||John H. Chafee||Rhode Island|
|1966-1967||Charles L. Terry, Jr.||Delaware|
|1967-1968||Calvin L. Rampton||Utah|
|1968-1969||Robert E. McNair||South Carolina|
|1970-1971||Russell W. Peterson||Delaware|
|1971-1972||Robert W. Scott||North Carolina|
|1974-1975||John C. West||South Carolina|
|1975-1976||Arch A. Moore, Jr.||West Virginia|
|1976-1977||Jerry Apodaca||New Mexico|
|1977-1978||Otis R. Bowen||Indiana|
|1978-1979||Dixy Lee Ray||Washington|
|1979-1980||William G. Milliken||Michigan|
|1981-1982||Robert D. Ray||Iowa|
|1982-1983||James B. Hunt Jr.||North Carolina|
|1983-1984||Pierre S. du Pont||Delaware|
|1984-1985||Charles S. Robb||Virginia||Business and Education Reform|
|1985-1986||Thomas H. Kean||New Jersey||Teacher Renaissance: Improving Undergraduate Education|
|1986-1987||Bill Clinton||Arkansas||Speaking of Leadership|
|1987-1988||John Ashcroft||Missouri||Family Involvement in the Schools|
|1988-1989||Rudy Perpich||Minnesota||Partners in Learning: Linking College Mentors with At-Risk Schools|
|1989-1990||Garrey E. Carruthers||New Mexico||Sharing Responsibility for Success|
|1990-1991||Booth Gardner||Washington||All Kids Can Learn|
|1991-1992||John R. McKernan, Jr.||Maine||Keeping the Promises of Reform|
|1992-1993||Evan Bayh||Indiana||Education for a Revitalized Democracy|
|1993-1994||Jim Edgar||Illinois||Building Communities that Support Education Reform|
|1994-1995||Roy Romer||Colorado||Making Quality Count in Undergraduate Education|
|1995-1996||Tommy Thompson||Wisconsin||Connecting Learning and Work|
|1996-1997||Terry Branstad||Iowa||Harnessing Technology for Teaching and Learning|
|1997-1998||Zell Miller||Georgia||Investing in Student Achievement|
|1998-1999||Paul E. Patton||Kentucky||Transforming Postsecondary Education|
|1999-2000||Jim Geringer||Wyoming||In Pursuit of Quality Teaching|
|2000-2001||Jeanne Shaheen||New Hampshire||Early Learning: Improving Results for Young Children|
|2001-2002||Kenny Guinn||Nevada||Leading for Literacy|
|2002-2003||Roy Barnes||Georgia||Closing the Achievement Gap|
|2003-2004||Mark Warner||Virginia||High-Quality Teachers for Hard-to-Staff Schools|
|2004-2006||Mike Huckabee||Arkansas||The Arts: A Lifetime of Learning|
|2006-2008||Kathleen Sebelius||Kansas||Great Teachers for Tomorrow|
Commission executive directors/presidents
|1967-1976||Wendell H. Pierce||Executive director|
|1976-1980||Warren Hill||Executive director|
|1980-1984||Robert Andringa||Executive director|
|2005-2006||Piedad F. Robertson||President|
- "ECS Officers and President:ECS Officers for 2011-13". ECS Official Website. Education Commission of the States. 2011?. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2012-02-19. "John Hickenlooper, Chair"
- "ECS Officers and President:ECS Officers for 2011-13". ECS Official Website. Education Commission of the States. 2011?. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2012-02-19. "Roger Sampson, President ... He resigned effective August 17, 2007 to take the position of president of the Education Commission of the States."