Education in France
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
|Ministry of National Education|
|National education budget (2009)|
|Post secondary||2.3 million3|
|1As of 2004, literacy rates are no longer collected within INSEE censuses.
2Includes private education.
3Includes universities, CPGE, and technical schools.
The French educational system is highly centralized and organized. It is divided into three stages:
- Primary education (enseignement primaire);
- Secondary education (enseignement secondaire);
- Higher education (enseignement supérieur). The following degrees are recognized by the Bologna Process (EU recognition):
- Licence and Licence Professionnelle (Bachelor)
- Master (Master)
- Doctorat (Doctorate)
Although the French trace the development of their educational system to the reign of Napoléon Bonaparte, (1796-1821), and later as the Emperor Napoleon I, (reigned, 1804-1814, 1815), it is known that one of the more important of the main committees set up under the Revolutionary Regime in the National Convention which sat in the Hall of Spectacles in 1792 to 1795, was the "Committee of Education", along with those of "Public Safety" and "General Security". But the modern era of French education begins at the end of the 19th Century, when Jules Ferry, (1832-1893), a lawyer holding the office of Minister of Public Instruction in the 1880s, in the Third French Republic, (1870-1940), is widely credited for creating the modern (elementary or grammar) school ("l'école républicaine") by requiring all children between the ages of 6 and 12—both boys and girls—to attend.
Ferry also made public instruction mandatory, free of charge, and secular ("laïque"). These mirrored the "laws of "compulsory education and attendance" being passed in Britain and various states of the United States. With these laws, known as Jules Ferry laws, and several others, the Third Republic repealed most of the "Falloux Laws" of 1850–1851, which gave an important role to the clergy, reducing their earlier role in the teachings in public schools.
All educational programmes in France are regulated by the Ministry of National Education (officially called Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de la Jeunesse et de la Vie associative). The head of the ministry is the Minister of National Education, one of the highest-ranking officials in the cabinet.
The teachers in public primary and secondary schools are all state civil servants, making the ministère the largest employer in the country. Professors and researchers in France's universities are also employed by the state.
At the primary and secondary levels, the curriculum is the same for all French students in any given grade, which includes public, semi-public and subsidised institutions. However, there exist specialised sections and a variety of options that students can choose. The reference for all French educators is the Bulletin officiel de l'éducation nationale, de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (B.O.) which lists all current programmes and teaching directives. It is amended many times every year.
In the Metropolitan territory, the school year extends from early-September to early-July. The school calendar is standardized throughout the country, and is the sole domain of the ministry.
The major school breaks are:
- All Saints (la Toussaint), two weeks around the end of October and the beginning of November;
- Christmas (Noël), two weeks around Christmas Day and New Year's Day;
- winter (hiver), two weeks starting in mid February;
- spring (printemps) or Easter (Pâques), two weeks starting in mid April;
- summer (été), two months starting in early July.
|École maternelle (Nursery School)|
|3 -> 4||Petite section||PS|
|4 -> 5||Moyenne section||MS|
|5 -> 6||Grande section||GS|
|École primaire (Primary School)|
|6 -> 7||Cours préparatoire||CP|
|7 -> 8||Cours élémentaire première année||CE1|
|8 -> 9||Cours élémentaire deuxième année||CE2|
|9 -> 10||Cours moyen première année||CM1|
|10 -> 11||Cours moyen deuxième année||CM2|
|Collège (Junior High)|
|11 -> 12||Sixième||6e|
|12 -> 13||Cinquième||5e|
|13 -> 14||Quatrième||4e|
|14 -> 15||Troisième||3e|
|Lycée (High school)|
|15 -> 16||Seconde||2de|
|16 -> 17||Première||1ère|
|17 -> 18||Terminale||Term or Tle|
Schooling in France is mandatory as of age 6, the first year of primary school. Almost all the parents start sending their children earlier though, at age 3 as nursery classes (maternelle) are usually affiliated to a borough's primary school. Some even start earlier at age 2 in pré-maternelle or très petite section classes( which are essentially daycare centres), but they are a minority (11%). The last year of maternelle, grande section is an important step in the educational process as it is the year in which pupils are introduced to reading.
After nursery, the young students move on to primary school. It is in the first year (cours préparatoire) that they will learn to write and develop their reading skills. Much akin to other educational systems, French primary school students usually have a single teacher (or perhaps two) who teaches the complete curriculum, such as French, mathematics, science and humanities to name a few. Note that the French word for a teacher at the primary school level is maître or its feminine form maîtresse (previously called instituteur, or its feminine form institutrice).
French secondary education is divided into two schools:
- the collège for the first four years directly following primary school;
- the lycée for the next three years.
The completion of secondary studies leads to the baccalauréat.
Brevet des collèges
The Brevet des collèges (or brevet, now officially called Diplôme national du Brevet) is the first official diploma a pupil has to sit. It is not required in order to enter lycée. Until 2006 the school marks for the whole of the third (4ème) and final year (3ème) were taken into account for a percentage of the mark. The rest of the mark consisted of the final exam, the Brevet. Pupils were only tested on French, Mathematics, History/Geography/Citizenship for the exam.
|International educational scores (1995)
(13-year-old's average score, TIMSS
Trends in International Math and Science Study, 1995)
|Source: TIMSS data, in The Economist March 29th, 1997, p.25|
The baccalauréat (also known as bac) is the end-of-lycée diploma students sit in order to enter university, a classe préparatoire, or professional life. It is generally taken at age 18 if the pupil has not repeated a class during secondary school. The term baccalauréat refers to the diploma and the examinations themselves. It is comparable to English, Northern Irish, & Welsh A-Levels, the Irish Leaving Certificate, Scottish (Higher and Advanced Higher), New South Wales's Higher School Certificate and the German Abitur.
Many students sit for the theory-oriented baccalauréat général which is divided into three streams of study, called séries. The série scientifique (S) is concerned with the natural sciences, physical sciences and mathematics, the série économique et sociale (ES) with economics, social sciences, history-geography and mathematics, and the série littéraire (L) focuses on French, foreign languages, philosophy, history-geography, foreign litterature in foreign language; and arts (Dance , Music, Plastic arts, Cinema, Arts history, Drama, Circus arts), extra or regional language, greek, latin (as options).
However, these séries are not exactly specialisations and every bac-possessor has the right to enroll at any public university in the catchment area if this applies to the subject they wish to apply for. Students having followed the L series do not have enough scientific knowledge from their secondary education alone to succeed in science university courses, therefore some combinations of baccalauréats and university courses are very rare. In the same way, students having followed the S series do not have enough literary knowledge to succeed in language or literature courses in university.
There is also the baccalauréat technologique and baccalauréat professionnel. The former mixes theoretical and vocational training and prepares students for professional higher studies, whereas the latter focuses on vocational training and prepares students for a direct entry into the marketplace. Nowadays, most pupils are following these ones because they do not imply long studies and not many pupils from this kind of "baccalauréat" are going to university. That's why "baccalauréat général" is seen as more prestigious, and its pupils are formed to be the elite of tomorrow.
Higher education in France is organized in three levels or grades which correspond to those of other European countries, facilitating international mobility:
- Licence and Licence Professionnelle (Bachelor)
- Master (Master)
- Doctorat (Doctorate)
In addition, the Licence and the Master are organized in semesters: 6 for the Licence and 4 for the Master.
These levels of study include various “parcours” or paths based on UE (Unités d’Enseignement or Modules), each worth a defined number of European credits (ECTS). A student accumulates these credits which are generally transferable between paths. A Licence is awarded once 180 ECTS have been obtained. A Master is awarded once 120 additional credits have been obtained.
Licence and Master degrees are offered within specific domaines and carry a specific mention. Specialités which are either research-oriented or professionally-oriented during the second year of the Master. There are also Professional Licences whose objective is immediate job integration. It is possible to later return to school through continuing education or to validate professional experience (through VAE, Validation des Acquis de l’Expérience).
Higher education in France is divided between grandes écoles and public universities. Grandes écoles admit the graduates of the level Baccalauréat + 2 years of validated study (or sometimes directly after the Baccalauréat) whereas universities admit all graduates of the Baccalauréat.
A striking trait of French higher education, compared with other countries, is the small size and multiplicity of establishments, each specialized in a more or less broad spectrum of areas. A middle-sized French city, such as Grenoble or Nancy, may have 2 or 3 universities (focused on science or sociological studies), and also a number of engineering and other specialized higher education establishments. In Paris and its suburbs there are 13 universities, none of which is specialized in one area or another, and a large number of smaller institutions which are highly specialised.
It is not uncommon for graduate teaching programmes (master's degrees, the course part of PhD programmes etc.) to be operated in common by several institutions, allowing the institutions to present a larger variety of courses.
In engineering schools and the professional degrees of universities, a large share of the teaching staff is often made up of non-permanent professors; instead, part-time professors are hired to teach one only specific subject. These part-time professors are generally hired from neighbouring universities, research institutes, or industries.
Another original feature of the French higher education system is that a large share of the scientific research is carried out by research establishments such as CNRS or INSERM, which are not formally part of the universities. However, in most cases, the research units of those establishments are located inside universities (or other higher education establishments), and jointly operated by the research establishment and the university.
Since higher education is funded by the state, the fees are very low; the tuition varies from €150 to €700 depending on the university and the different levels of education. (licence, master, doctorate). One can therefore get a Master's degree (in 5 years) for about €750-3,500. Additionally, students from low-income families can apply for scholarships, paying nominal sums for tuition or textbooks, and can receive a monthly stipend of up to €450 per month. In 2011, 37.5% of university students received a state-scholarship, granting -at least- a university fee-free year.
The tuition in public engineering schools is comparable to universities, albeit a little higher (around €700). However it can reach €7000 a year for private engineering schools, and some business schools, which are all private or partially private, charge up to €15000 a year.
Health insurance for students is free until the age of 20, so only the costs of living and books have to be added. After the age of 20 the health insurance for students costs €200 a year and cover most of the medical expenses.
Some public schools have other ways of gaining money. Some do not receive sufficient funds from the government for class trips and other extra activities, and so these schools may ask for a small (optional) entrance fee for new students.
Universities in France
The public universities in France are named after the big cities near which they are located, followed by a numeral if there are several. Paris, for example, has thirteen universities, labelled Paris I to XIII. Some of these are not in Paris itself, but in the suburbs. In addition, most of the universities have taken a more informal name which is usually that of a famous person or a particular place. Sometimes, it is also a way to honor a famous alumnus, for example the science university in Strasbourg is known as "Université Louis Pasteur" while its official name is "Université Strasbourg I".
The French system has undergone a reform, the Bologna process, which aims at creating European standards for university studies, most notably a similar time-frame everywhere, with three years devoted to the Bachelor's degree ("licence" in French), two for the Master's, and three for the doctorate. French universities have also adopted the ECTS credit system (for example, a licence is worth 180 credits).
The traditional curriculum based on end of semester examinations still remains in place in most universities. This double standard has added complexity to a system which also remains quite rigid. It is difficult to change a major during undergraduate studies without losing a semester or even a whole year. Students usually also have few course selection options once they enroll in a particular diploma.
France also hosts various branch colleges of foreign universities. These include Baruch College, the University of London Institute in Paris, Parsons Paris School of Art and Design and the American University of Paris.
The Grandes écoles of France are higher education establishments. They are generally focused on a single subject area, such as engineering or business, have a moderate size, and are often quite selective in their admission of students. They are widely regarded as prestigious, and traditionally have produced most of France's scientists and executives.
The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE), widely known as prépas, is a prep course with the main goal of training students for enrollment in a Grande École. Admission to the CPGE is usually based on performance during the last two years of high school, called Première and Terminale. The CPGE programs are located within high schools but pertain to tertiary education, which means that each student must have successfully passed their Baccalauréat (or equivalent) to be admitted in CPGE. Each CPGE receives the files of hundreds of applicants worldwide every year during April and May, and selects its new students under its own criteria. A few CPGE programmes, mainly the private CPGEs (which account for 10% of CPGEs), also have an interview process or look at a student's involvement in the community.
The oldest CPGEs are the scientific ones, which can only be accessed by scientific Bacheliers. Scientific CPGE are called TSI ("Technology and Engineering Science"), MPSI ("Mathematics, Physics and Engineering Science"), PCSI ("Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering Science") or PTSI ("Physics, Technology, and Engineering Science") in the first year, MP ("Mathematics and Physics"), PSI ("Physics and Engineering Science"), PC ("Physics and Chemistry") or PT ("Physics and Technology") in the second year and BCPST ("Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Life and Earth Sciences").
First year CPGE students are called the "Math Sup"—or Hypotaupe—(Sup for "Classe de Mathématiques Supérieures", superior in French, meaning post-high school), and second years "Math Spé"—or Taupe—(Spés standing for "Classe de Mathématiques Spéciales", special in French). The students of these classes are called Taupins. Both the first and second year programmes include as much as sixteen hours of mathematics teaching per week, ten hours of physics, two hours of philosophy, two to four hours of (one or two) foreign languages teaching and two to three hours of minor options: either SI, Engineering Industrial Science or Theoretical Computer Science (including some programming using the Pascal or CaML programming languages, as a practical work).
With this is added several hours of homework, which can rise as much as the official hours of class. A known joke among those students is that they are becoming moles for two years. Sometimes three. This is actually the origin of the nickname "taupe/taupin" (taupe being the French word for a mole).
The literary and humanities CPGEs have also their own nicknames, Hypokhâgne for the first year and Khâgne for the second year. The students are called the khâgneux. These classes prepare for schools such as the three Écoles Normales Supérieures, the Ecole des Chartes, and sometimes Sciences Po.
There are two kinds of Khâgnes. The Khâgne de Lettres is the most common, and focuses on philosophy, French literature, history and languages. The Khâgne de Lettres et Sciences Sociales (Literature and Social Sciences), otherwise called Khâgne B/L, also includes mathematics and socio-economic sciences in addition to those literary subjects.
There are also CPGE which are focused on economics (who prepare the admission in business schools). These are known as "Prépa EC" and are divided into two parts ("prépa EC spe mathematics", generally for those who graduated the baccalaureat S and "prépa EC spe éco", for those who were in the economics section in the lycée.). These schools prepare students to pass the competitive recruitment examinations of the business schools. The most famous of the latter are HEC Paris, ESSEC Business School, ESCP Europe, EMLYON Business School, and EDHEC Business School which propose Master degrees and an MBA.
The students of CPGE are simultaneously enrolled in universities, and can rejoin the university track in case of failure of their grandes écoles ambitions or if they no longer wish to become engineers and feel unable to pass the Écoles Normales Supérieures competitive examinations. The ratio of students who fail to enter grandes écoles is low in the scientific and economics CPGE, but high in humanities, for the only Grandes Écoles aimed at in these classes are the Écoles Normales Supérieures.
The amount of work required of the students is exceptionally high. In addition to class time and homework, students spend several hours each week completing exams and 'colles' (very often written 'khôlles' to look like a Greek word, this way of writing being initially a khâgneux joke). The so-called 'colles' are unique to French academic education in CPGEs. They consist of oral examinations twice a week, in maths, physics, French and the foreign languages, usually English, German or Spanish. Students, usually in groups of three, spend an hour facing a professor alone in a room, answering questions and solving problems.
In CPGE littéraires (humanities), the system of 'colles' is different; they are taken every quarter in every subject. Students have one hour to prepare a short presentation that takes the form of a French-style dissertation (a methodologically codified essay, typically structured in 3 parts: thesis, counter-thesis, and synthesis) in history, philosophy, etc. on a given topic, and that of a commentaire composé (a methodologically codified commentary) in literature and foreign languages. As for the Ancient Greek or Latin, they involve a translation and a commentary.
The student then has 20 minutes to present his work to the teacher, who ends the session by asking some questions on the presentation and on the corresponding topic. 'Colles' are regarded as extremely stressful, particularly due to the high standards expected by the teachers, and the subsequent harshness that may be directed at students who do not perform adequately. But they are important insofar as they prepare the students, from the very first year, for the oral part of the competitive examination, reserved for the happy few who successfully pass the written part.
Recruitment of teachers
Decades ago, primary school teachers were educated in Ecoles Normales and secondary teachers recruited through the "Agrégation" examination. The situation has been diversified by the introduction in the 1950s of the CAPES examination for secondary teachers and in the 1990s by the institution of "Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres" (IUFM). University teachers are recruited by special commissions, and are divided between several ranks:
- "Teacher-researchers" (enseignants-chercheurs), with at least a doctorate: they teach classes and conduct research in their field of expertise with a full tenure. They are either Maître de Conférences (Senior lecturers) or Professeurs (Professors). An additional qualification known as the "Habilitation" is required to be the director of studies for a PhD student, and is necessary (but not sufficient) for appointment as a Professeur. The net pay for faculty is approximately from 2000 to 8800 (with extra duties) euros per month. Net salaries of over 4000 euros per month (2011 level) are however very unusual, and limited to the small minority of teacher-researchers who have held the grade of first class full professor for at least seven years, which is rare. The maximum possible net salary for second-class full professors and chief senior lecturers (maître de conférence hors classe)—the end of career status for most full-time teacher-researchers in French universities—is 3760 Euros a month (2011)—and only a minority of this group ever reach this level.
- Secondary school teachers who have been permanently assigned away from their original school position to teach in a university. They are not required to conduct any research but teach twice as many hours as the "teachers-researchers". They are called PRAG (professeurs agrégés) and PRCE (professeurs certifiés). Their weekly service is 15 or 18 hours. The net pay is from 1400 to 3900 euros per month.
- CPGE teachers are usually "agrégés" or "chaire sup", assigned by the Inspection Général according to their qualifications and competitive exam rank as well as other factors. Their weekly service is about 9 hours a week, 25 or 33 weeks a year. Net pay: from 2000 to 7500 euro (extra hours)
- Primary school and kindergarten teachers (Professeurs des écoles), educated in "Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres" (IUFM), have usually a "master" (Bac+5). Their weekly service is about 28 hours a week.
Religious instruction is not given by public schools (except for 6 to 18 year-old students in Alsace and Moselle (Lorraine) under the Concordat of 1801). Laïcité (secularism) is one of the main precepts of the French republic.
In a March 2004 ruling, the French government banned all "conspicuous religious symbols" from schools and other public institutions with the intent of preventing proselytisation and to foster a sense of tolerance among ethnic groups. Some religious groups showed their opposition, saying the law hindered the freedom of religion as protected by the French constitution.
Despite France's status as a secular state, private schools (including religious ones) receive a significant amount of public funding. Private primary and secondary schools receive 77 percent of their budgets from public subsidies, with central government paying for teaching staff and local government for support staff. Nevertheless, in order to receive public funding, a private school has to sign a "contract of association" that engages the structure to welcome pupils without discrimination based on origins, opinion and religion. 95 percent of private schools in France are Catholic.
The French Republic has 65 million inhabitants, living in the 22 regions of metropolitan France and four overseas departments (1.7 million). Despite the fact that the population is growing slightly (up 0.4% a year), the number and proportion of young people under 25 is falling. There are now fewer than 19 million young people in metropolitan France, or 32% of the total population, compared with 40% in the 1970s and 35% at the time of the 1990 census. France is seeing a slow aging of the population—less marked however than in other neighbouring countries (Germany and Italy), especially as the annual number of births is currently increasing slightly.
Eighteen million pupils and students, i.e. a quarter of the population, are in the education system. Of these, over 2 million are in higher education.
- Agency for French Teaching Abroad (Agence pour l'enseignement français à l'étranger)
- Conférence des Grandes Écoles (CGE)
- Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur
- Comité d'études sur les formations d'ingénieurs
- Conference of the Directors of French Engineering Schools (Conférence des directeurs des écoles françaises d'ingénieurs (CDEFI))
- Homeschooling in France
- Le Bulletin officiel - Ministère de l'éducation nationale, de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche
- Schooling in France 2012-2013, INSEE
- "Validation des acquis de l'expérience (VAE)" (in French). Vosdroits.service-public.fr. 2011-05-02. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- Blog Pierre Dubois 2011
- Understanding the "Grandes Ecoles", retrieved 2009-06-07
- "grande école". French to English translation by CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved November 02, 2012.
- "Les établissements d'enseignement privé". Ministry of Education, France. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Archambault, Edith (1997). The Nonprofit Sector in France. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 150–157. ISBN 9780719049040. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- The French national agency for the promotion of higher education, international student services, and international mobility
- France Study Guide for International Students
- Information on education in France, OECD - Contains indicators and information about France and how it compares to other OECD and non-OECD countries
- Diagram of French education system, OECD - Using 1997 ISCED classification of programmes and typical ages. Also in French