Education in Israel

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Education in Israel
Herzliya Hebrew High School, 1936
Education Ministry
Education Minister of Israel Shai Piron
National education budget (2008)
Budget 27.5 billion
General details
Primary languages Hebrew & Arabic
System type State & Private
Literacy (2004[1])
Total 99.5%
Male 99.5%
Female 99.5%
Enrollment
Total 1,445,555
Primary 828,732
Secondary 259,139
Post secondary 357,685

Education in Israel refers to the comprehensive education system of Israel. Expenditure on education accounts for only approximately 10% of GDP, and most schools are subsidized by the state. The education system consists of three tiers: primary education (grades 1-6, approx. ages 6–12), middle school (grades 7-9, approx. ages 12–15) and high school (grades 10-12, approx. ages 15–74). Compulsory education takes place from kindergarten through to 12th grade.[2] The school year begins on September 1, ending for elementary school pupils on 30 June, and for middle school and high school pupils on 20 June.

In 2012, Israel was named the second most educated country in the world according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Education at a Glance report, released in 2012. The report found that 78% of the money invested in education is from public funds and 45% of the population has a university or college diploma.[3]

Educational tracks[edit]

Israeli schools are divided into four tracks: state (Mamlachti), state-religious (Mamlachti dati), Independent (Haredi) schools (Chinuch Atzmai) and the Arab.[4] There are also private schools which reflect the philosophies of specific groups of parents (Democratic Schools) or that are based on the curriculum of a foreign country (e.g. The American International School in Israel). The majority of Israeli children attend state schools. State-religious schools, catering to youngsters from the Orthodox sector (mainly Religious Zionist/Modern Orthodox), offer intensive Jewish studies programs, and emphasize tradition and observance. The Chinuch Atzmai schools focus almost entirely on Torah study and offer very little in terms of secular subjects. Schools in the Arab sector teach in Arabic and offer a curriculum that emphasizes Arab history, religion and culture.[citation needed]

The proportions of pupils attending schools in the Haredi and Arab sectors are increasing; according to a demographic study published in 2009, Haredim and Arabs together will amount to 60% of Israel's elementary school population by 2030.[5] Haredim and Arab citizens are underrepresented in both the Israel Defense Forces and the workforce.

The Haredim's lack of mainstream education, and consequent low participation in the workforce, are regarded by many in Israel as a social problem. The Council for Higher Education announced in 2012 that it was investing NIS 180 million over the following five years to establish appropriate frameworks for the education of Haredim, focusing on specific professions.[6]

In 1984 the first integrated schools which had both Jewish and Arab students coexisting in a classroom were built by the residents of Neve Shalom – Wāħat as-Salām, a cooperative village founded by Arab and Jewish citizens of Israel. Today this school receives some support from the state. Two more integrated schools were opened in Jerusalem and Galilee (Galil Jewish-Arab School) in 1997 by Hand in Hand: Center for Jewish Arab Education in Israel.[7] As of 2010, there were five integrated schools in Israel, including that of Neve Shalom.

Israeli Pupils’ Rights Law[edit]

The Israeli Pupils’ Rights Law of 2000 prohibits discrimination of students for sectarian reasons in admission to or expulsion from an educational institution, in establishment of separate educational curricula or holding of separate classes in the same educational institution, and addresses rights and obligations of pupils. The law was fuilly supported by the Israeli Student and Youth Council[8] However, discrimination still exists: in 2005, the municipality of Lod refused to allow a three-year-old Arab child to register in a Jewish kindergarten.[9]

Matriculation (Bagrut)[edit]

Bagrut certificate from 1983

High schools in Israel prepare students for the Israeli matriculation exams (bagrut). These are exams covering various academic disciplines, which are studied in units (yehidot limud) of one to five on an ascending scale of difficulty. Students with a passing mark on the mandatory matriculation subjects (Hebrew language, English language, mathematics, scripture, history, state studies and literature), who have been tested on at least 21 units, and passed at least one 5-unit exam, receive a full matriculation certificate. In 2006/7, 74.4% of Israeli 12th graders took the bagrut exams while only 46.3% were eligible for a matriculation certificate. In the Arab and Druze sectors, the figures were 35.6% and 43.7% respectively.[10]

A Bagrut certificate and Bagrut scores often determine acceptance into elite military units, admission to academic institutions, and job prospects.[11]

Below is a table illustrating the percentage of matriculation certificate recipients in Israel's largest cities, according to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (graduation year of 2002).[12]

The Adva Center, a social issues think tank in Israel, says that about 15% of the matriculation certificates issued do not qualify the recipient for admission to Israel's universities.[13]

Christian Arabs tend to have had the highest rates of success in the matriculation examinations, both in comparison to the Muslims and the Druze and in comparison to all students in the Jewish education system.[14]

City Recipients (%)
Jerusalem 36
Tel Aviv 60.3
Haifa 64.3
Rishon LeZion 59.2
Ashdod 55.9
Ashkelon 58.5
Bat Yam 49.5
Beersheba 51.5
Holon 55.3
Netanya 52
Petah Tikva 57
Ramat Gan 65.3

Higher education[edit]

After secondary education, students are generally conscripted into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), but may request an extension of the conscription date to study at a pre-service Mechina, or in a college or university. Those who study in a university at this stage generally do so under a program called atuda, where the tuition for their bachelor's degree is paid for by the army. They are however obligated to sign a contract with the army extending their service by 2–3 years.

Universities generally require a certain amount of bagrut matriculation units (as well as a certain grade average) and a good grade in the Psychometric Entrance Test, which is similar in many respects to the American SAT. All of Israel's nine public universities, and some of its colleges, are subsidized by the state, and students pay only a small part of the actual cost of tuition.

The Psychometric Entrance Test (colloquially known in Hebrew simply as "psychometry" - psixometri, פסיכומטרי) is a standardized test used as a higher education admission exam. The PET covers three areas: quantitative reasoning, verbal reasoning and the English language. It is administered by the Israeli National Institute for Testing and Evaluation (NITE) and is heavily weighed for university admissions.The test may be taken in Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, French, Spanish, or combined Hebrew/English.

Comparisons and rankings[edit]

According to the Webometrics ranking, six of Israel's universities place in the top 100 schools of Asia.[15] Four universities place in the top 150 in the world according to the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities, and three are in the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings (i.e. amongst the "Top 200 World Universities").

In addition, Israeli universities are among 100 of the top world universities in science and engineering-related subjects, according to the QS World University Rankings: mathematics (TAU, Hebrew University and Technion); physics (TAU, Hebrew University and Weizmann Institute of Science); chemistry (TAU, Hebrew University and Technion); computer science (TAU, Hebrew University, Weizmann Institute of Science, BIU and Technion);[16] engineering (Technion);[17] life sciences (Hebrew University).[18]

In the social sciences, TAU and the Hebrew University rank in the top 100,[19] and these universities are also ranked in the top 100 for economics;[16] Israel is ranked 23rd on RePec's Country and State Ranking for economics.[20]

In 2010, Hebrew University reached 57th place in the global ranking list published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China.[21]

Despite strong post-secondary rankings, Israel spends less per student than countries like Norway and Mexico.[22]

Some officials have criticized the claim that the strong test scores prove Israel is a highly educated country, pointing out that scores from standardized tests exclude haredi and special education students, and thus are not an accurate reflection.[23] Israeli teachers must contend with large classes, low wages and low morale.[24] Classrooms in Israel are some of the largest in the world, teachers are some of the lowest paid, and only 17% of Israelis earn a college degree. In 2007, the OECD gave Israel a grade of an "F" noting these observations, as well as scores on international tests that ranked Israel near the bottom, in terms of math and literacy, of 40 countries participating in the Program for International Student Assessment.[25]

Arab sector[edit]

Jewish and Arab teachers at Hand in Hand

Israel is a signatory of the Convention against Discrimination in Education, and ratified it in 1961. The convention has the status of law in Israeli courts.[26]

Israel operates an Arab education system for the Israeli-Arab minority, teaching Arab students, in Arabic, about their history and culture. However, there have been claims that the Jewish education system get more resources. According to the Follow-Up Committee for Arab Education, the Israeli government spends an average of $192 per year on each Arab student and $1,100 per Jewish student. It also notes that drop-out rate for Israeli Arab citizens is twice as high as that of their Jewish counterparts (12 percent versus 6 percent). The same group also noted that in 2005 there was a 5,000-classroom shortage in the Arab sector.[9]

In 1999 in attempt to close the gap between Arab and Jewish education sectors, the Israeli education minister Yossi Sarid announced an affirmative action policy, promising that Arabs would be granted 25% of the education budget, more than their proportional share in the population (18%). He also added that the ministry would support the creations of an Arab academic college.[27]

In 2001 a Human Rights Watch report stated that students in government-run Arab schools received inferior education due to fewer teachers, inadequate school construction, and lack of libraries and recreational space. Jewish schools were found to be better equipped, some offering film editing studios and theater rooms.[28] In 2009 Sorel Cahan of Hebrew University's School of Education claimed that the average per-student budget allocation for students with special needs at Arab junior high schools was five times lower.[29]

In 2007 the Israeli Education Ministry announced a plan to increase funding for schools in Arab communities. According to a ministry official, "At the end of the process, a lot of money will be directed toward schools with students from families with low education and income levels, mainly in the Arab sector."[30] The Education Ministry prepared a five-year plan to close the gaps and raise the number of students eligible for high school matriculation.[31]

A 2009 report showed that obstacles to Arab students participating in higher education resulted in over 5,000 moving to study in nearby Jordan.[32][33] And in 2010 human rights groups and lawyers criticized a number of measures which were introduced to benefit Jewish secondary school leavers and adversely affected Arab students intending to enroll in higher education.[34]

The Ministry of Education announced in April 2010 that the suggested curriculum for the coming school year would not include civics, democratic values or Jewish-Arab coexistence, and focus more on Zionist and Jewish values.[35]

In 2010, the number of computer science teachers in the Arab sector rose by 50%. The Arab sector also saw a rise of 165% in instructors teaching technology classes and a 171% increase in the number teaching mathematics. The number of physics teachers in Arab schools grew by 25%, those teaching chemistry by 44% and in biology by 81.7%.[36]

According to a 2012 report by the Higher Arab Monitoring Committee, there is a shortage of 6,100 classrooms and 4,000 teachers in Arab communities.[37]

Christian Arabs tend to have had the highest rates of success in the matriculation examinations, both in comparison to the Muslims and the Druze and in comparison to all students in the Jewish education system.[14]

Gender statistics[edit]

The dropout rate in grades 8-12 is higher for males than females. In 2011, the dropout rate declined, but was still higher among males, with 4.5% of male and 1.7% of female students dropping out of school. In addition, the passing rate of high school matriculation exams stood at 62% for females and 51% for males. The rate of women studying in universities and colleges is also higher; in 2011-2012, 56.7% of students at academic institutions were female. In 2012, women were also 59.3% of candidates for Master's degree programs and 52.4% for doctorate programs.

However, 81% of Israeli professors are men. In addition, fields such as engineering, electricity, physics, mathematics, computer science, and natural sciences are overwhelmingly male-dominated, though there are a large number of women in certain fields of engineering, such as biomedical, industrial, and environmental engineering. Women tend to study more in human and social sciences, such as education and occupational therapy.[38][39][40]

Status of teachers[edit]

Over the years, government budget cuts have taken their toll. Israel was amongst the top-ranked nations in international rankings for science and mathematics performance in the 1960s, but dropped to 33 out of 41 nations in the 2002 survey.[41] Wages for Israeli teachers are low compared to other industrialized countries, especially due to the small amount of frontal teaching hours with respect to other developed countries (the salary per hour is similar to that of the OECD standards), according to a survey of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The government-appointed Dovrat Commission, led by Shlomo Dovrat, concluded in 2004, that the key to improving Israeli education is not more money but better-quality teaching. The recommendations included a reform giving school principals the right to fire teachers of poor quality, and reward better ones with higher pay. These moves have been blocked by Israel's teachers' unions, which have paralyzed schools with a series of long strikes, mostly blocking the proposed reforms.[42]

Textbooks[edit]

According to a paper by Nurit Peled-Elhanan, a professor of language and education at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, textbooks in Israel promote a negative image of Arabs. The Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace, a schoolbook monitoring organization, disputed this finding, calling her claim heavily politicized and distorted.[43]

In a report published in 2000, the Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace stated that in textbooks of both the general state-run network and the religious state-run network, there was a genuine effort to remove stereotypes and to build a foundation for coexistence and mutual respect.[44]

According to a 2011 report by the Arab Cultural Association, Arabic textbooks provided to third to ninth grade students in Israeli schools were found to contain many mistakes. The report was based on a study of textbooks in all subjects. Dr. George Mansour, who examined the history textbooks, said they ignored the presence of Arab-Palestinians in Israel and minimized Arab culture.[45]

Strikes[edit]

Israeli schools and universities have been subject to repeated strikes over the years by faculty, and, occasionally, by students. The 2007 Israeli student strike started in April 2007 in protest at the government decision to increase tuition fees[46] and the failure to implement the 2001 Winograd Committee recommendation that they be reduced by 25%.[47] After three weeks, the universities threatened that all students who failed to return to their studies would have to retake the semester.[48] Student leaders rejected a compromise which would have exempted students from the fee rises.[49] Some students started a hunger strike.[50] The strike ended on May 14 after student leaders accepted the implementation of the Shochat reforms.[51] Middle and secondary school teachers were on strike for a month and a half. Their demands included an 8.5% pay raise, reducing class sizes to a maximum of 30 students, and increasing the length of the school day.[52] The school year was extended until July 10, 2008 for all schools that participated in the strike.

Awards and recognition[edit]

Each year, municipalities may receive an award for outstanding education initiatives and accomplishments. The 2012 Education Prize of the Israeli Ministry of Education and Culture was awarded to the municipalities of Ariel, Ashdod, Yokneam, Ma'aleh Adumim, Safed and Kiryat Bialik. The educational networks of these cities were cited for their unique projects, effectiveness of immigrant absorption, student empowerment, educational leadership, top-quality teaching, encouragement of entrepreneurship and innovation, and promoting excellence in a diverse school population.[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Globalis - an interactive world map - Israel - Youth literacy rate". Globalis.gvu.unu.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  2. ^ "ynet חוק חינוך חובה - מעתה עד כיתות י"ב - חדשות היום". Ynet.co.il. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  3. ^ Israel ranked second most educated country in the world, study shows
  4. ^ Leibler, Isi (2008-04-18). "Candidly Speaking: Bravo to Michael Melchior". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  5. ^ Ofri Ilani (2009-06-03). "Secular Jews may be minority in Israeli schools by 2030". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-06. 
  6. ^ Lior Dattel (2012-02-10). "New project to integrate Haredim in higher education". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  7. ^ "Third bilingual school for Israeli Jews and Arabs opens its doors 5-Sep-2004". Mfa.gov.il. 2004-09-05. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  8. ^ "חוק זכויות התלמיד באנגלית - Pupils’ Rights Law". Cms.education.gov.il. Retrieved 2010-05-16. 
  9. ^ a b "Arab Sector: NIF Grantees Fight Discrimination in Arab Education". New Israel Fund. 2005-09-13. Archived from the original on 2007-08-07. 
  10. ^ Kashti, Or (2008-04-02). "Less than half of 17-year-olds in Israel qualify for matriculation". Haaretz. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  11. ^ Education in Israel
  12. ^ http://www.cbs.gov.il/hodaot2005n/06_05_189b.pdf
  13. ^ "מרכז אדוה - עמוד בית". Adva.org. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  14. ^ a b Christians in Israel: Strong in education
  15. ^ Webometrics list of the top 100 Asian universities.
  16. ^ a b "Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2009". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  17. ^ "THE - QS World University Rankings 2009 - Engineering/Technology". THE - QS. 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-15. 
  18. ^ "THE - QS World University Rankings 2009 - Life Sciences & Biomedicine". THE - QS. 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-15. 
  19. ^ "THE - QS World University Rankings 2007 - Social Sciences". THE - QS. 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-15. 
  20. ^ "Top Countries and States". RePec. 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-15. 
  21. ^ Fields Medal win propels Hebrew University to 57th place
  22. ^ UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Expenditure per student, secondary (% of GDP per capita)[1]
  23. ^ Professionals downplay Israel's ranking in int'l math tests
  24. ^ Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2012
  25. ^ Report: Israeli Education Gets a Failing Grade. Adam J. Sacks Published January 20, 2009, issue of January 30, 2009.[2]
  26. ^ Human Rights Watch, 'Second class: Discrimination against Palestinian Arab children in Israel's schools, pp 13-16
  27. ^ Middle East Contemporary Survey, Volume 23; By Bruce Maddy-Weitzman. p. 329;http://books.google.ca/books?id=zs57d0logH8C&lpg=PA329
  28. ^ Israeli Schools Separate, Not Equal (Human Rights Watch, 5-12-2001)
  29. ^ Kashti, Or (2008-04-02). "Israel aids its needy Jewish students more than Arab counterparts". Haaretz. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  30. ^ Kashti, Or (2007-03-06). "Israeli Arabs to get greater school funding, settlements less". Haaretz. 
  31. ^ Israel's education woes, YNet, 09.21.10, by Tomer Velmer
  32. ^ ظﺎﻫرة دراﺴﺔ اﻟطﻼب اﻟﻌرب ﻤن اﺴراﺌﻴل ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎت اﻻردﻨﻴﺔ Dirasat (in Arabic)
  33. ^ Israel's Arab students are crossing to Jordan The National Apr 9, 2009
  34. ^ No room for Arab students at Israeli universities Global Research, August 17, 2010
  35. ^ Or Kashti (2011-04-14). "Israel's plan for next year's school curriculum: Reinforcing Jewish and Zionist values". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-06. 
  36. ^ Number of computer teachers at secular schools fell 42% in decade
  37. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/news/national/arab-schools-short-of-teachers-classrooms-committee-finds-1.460134
  38. ^ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4353968,00.html
  39. ^ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4353214,00.html
  40. ^ http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/education/1.1657232
  41. ^ "The Crisis in Israel's Classrooms". Businessweek. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  42. ^ Miracles and mirages, The Economist. Apr 3 2008
  43. ^ Arnon Groiss. Comments on Nurit Peled-Elhanan's paper: "The Presentation of Palestinians in Israeli Schoolbooks of History and Geography 1998-2003". Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace (CMIP-RA)
  44. ^ Arabs and Palestinians in Israeli Textbooks, September 2000 Report. by Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace, pp. 7–10
  45. ^ Jack Khoury (09.05.2011). "Israel textbooks in Arabic are full of mistakes". Haaretz. 
  46. ^ Student and Teacher Strikes Continue, No End in Sight Israel National News, 7 May 2007
  47. ^ Tamir, students union announce cancellation of university strike Haaretz, 24 February 2007
  48. ^ Students threaten to step up strike, 'seal off' campuses Haaretz, 6 May 2007
  49. ^ Student leader: Compromise presented by PMO is 'humiliating'
  50. ^ Striking students set to expand protest against education reforms
  51. ^ Universities to reopen today as 41-day strike ends
  52. ^ אולמרט: מקווה ששביתת שהמורים תסתיים עד סוף השבוע
  53. ^ Six cities across the country win 2012 education prize

External links[edit]