Education in Lebanon

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This article is about education in Lebanon, particularly public education which is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MOEHE). According to a 2013 World Economic Forum report, Lebanon is ranked 10th in overall quality of education, and 4th in science and math,[1]These rankings are based on the Executive Opinion Survey, carried out as part of the WEF's Global Competitiveness Report, based on polling a sample of business leaders in each respective country.[2][3]

Education system[edit]

Primary education in Lebanon is for children aged 3 to 4. Basic education composes of two levels: elementary level and intermediate level. Elementary level is grade 1 to 3 (cycle 1) and grades 4 to 6 (cycle 2). Intermediate level is grades 7 to 9 (cycle 3). Secondary Education is grades 10 to 12 (cycle 4).[4]

Education management[edit]

Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MOEHE) regulates all education institutes in the public sector through a regional education system. The education system in Lebanon is centralized, and this regulation is not direct. The education system is managed through regional education bureaus. Public schools are monitored by the regional education bureaus in the governorates. The regional education bureau serves as liaisons between the public school and the directorates of education at the ministry’s headquarters. Private schools have their own organization, but private schools are still subject to the authority of the MOEHE.[4]

The Center for Educational Research and Development (CERD) is an autonomous staff organization under the trusteeship of the MOEHE. CERD’s tasks are 1) to draft curricula of academic and vocational education for the pre-university education stage, 2) to revise and modify the curricula according to the necessity, 3) to prepare all means and ways for applying these curricula, 4) to do educational research, 5) to secure training for pre-university teachers, 6) to prepare the curricula in all subject areas, 7) to provide teacher training, 8) to write textbooks, and 9) to conduct evaluations, etc.[4]

Education finance[edit]

According to the World Bank database, public education expenditure as percentage of GDP is 2.7 in 2007 and public education expenditure as percent of government spending is 9.6 in 2007.[5] Public schools are financed by the Ministry of Education and private schools are financed by students’ fees. The processes involved curricula draft and modification, and teacher training are mainly financed by nongovernment funds such as private companies or international bodies which include the World Bank and the UNDP.[4]

Pre-primary education[edit]

According to the World Bank database, gross enrollment rate of pre-primary education is 67.1 percent for male, 65.6 percent for female, and 66.4 percent for total in 2007.[5] Pre-primary education aims to initiate children into the school environment. The goal of pre-primary education is 1) to create a favorable climate for the children to communicate with others, 2) to develop their physical capacities, limb control and coordination of their movements, and 3) to educate their senses. Pre-primary education also takes into account physiological moral and intellectual development of children.[6] According to the World Bank database, private enrollment share for pre-primary education is 80.3 percent in 2008.[5]

Basic education[edit]

Elementary Level According to the Worlds database, gross enrollment rate of elementary level of basic education is for 96.8 percent for male, 93.9 percent for female, and 95.4 percent for total in 2007. Private enrollment share in elementary level is 67.6 percent in 2007.[5]

Intermediate level[edit]

According to the World Bank database, gross enrollment rate of intermediate level is 83.2 percent for male, 90.7 percent for female, and 86.9 percent for total in 2007. (The World Bank Edstats) Primary completion rate of Lebanon (US$6,000 GNI per capita in 2007) is lower than that of Tunisia, Jordan, Iran, Algeria, West Bank and Egypt (all of which have lower GNI per capita). Primary completion rates have not improved during the period 1995/96 to 2003/04.[7] In 2007, Primary completion rate is 79.8 percent for male, 83.3 percent for female, and 81.5 percent for total.[5] According to UIS database, technical and vocational enrollment as percent of total enrollment in intermediate level is 5.1 percent in 2008.[6] Private enrollment share of general education in intermediate level is 60.2 percent and that of technical and vocational education is 56.8 percent in 2008.[6]

Secondary education[edit]

Secondary education is three years education, and composes of general education (humanities, economics, life sciences, general sciences) and technical education (about 55 different fields of study). School principals decide students’ path based on students’ aptitude as shown by the Brevet examination results. When students complete three years education, they take official Lebanese Baccalaureate exams in their respective tracks (four in all). Students who finish examinations successfully obtain the Lebanese Baccalaureate Certificate of Secondary Education (Shahaadat Al-Bakaalouriya al Lubnaaniya l’il-ta ‘liim al-Thaanawi) or the Technical Baccalaureate (Al-Bakaalouriya al-Finniya)[8]

Palestinian refugees in Lebanon have limited access to public secondary education. Most of them are not able to afford the high cost of private secondary education. UNRWA operates three secondary schools in Beirut, Saida and Tyre. School operated by UNRWA partially offset the absence of available educational opportunities at the secondary school level.” (UNRWA website) According to the World Bank database, gross enrollment rate of secondary education is 69.8 percent for male, 80.2 percent for female, and 74.9 percent for total.[5] According to UIS database, technical and vocational enrollment as percent of total enrollment in secondary level is 27.8 percent in 2008.[6] Private enrollment share of general education in intermediate level is 49.8 percent and that of technical and vocational education is 56.9 percent in 2008.[6]

Lebanon participated in TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. Score of mathematics at 8th grade is 433 in 2003 and 449 in 2007.[9] Score of science at 8th grade is 435 in 2003 and 404 in 2007.[10] At the end of middle school, each student has to enter the official exams.

Higher education[edit]

Higher education in Lebanon composes of Technical and Vocational Institutes, University colleges, University Institutes and Universities. The Lebanese University is the only public institution. The Ministry of Education and Higher Education administrates the private and public sectors and Technical and Vocational Institutes are under the Directorate General of Technical and Vocational Education Directorate General of Higher Education has responsibility for University Colleges, University Institutes and Universities).[8]

According to the World Bank database, gross enrollment rate of tertiary education is 46.9 percent for male, 56.3 percent for female, and 51.6 percent for total. (The World Bank 2009) Private enrollment share of tertiary education is 53.4 percent.[11]

Female students are seen in every university program or field of specialization.[11]

Following high school, Lebanese students may choose to study at a university, a college, or a vocational training institute. The number of years to complete each program varies.

The Lebanese Baccalaureate is accredited worldwide. French Baccalaureate can be presented by students who have other nationality than the Lebanese. The French Baccalaureate is also accredited.

While the Lebanese educational system offers a very high quality and international class of education, many of the young people it graduates tend to leave the country to work abroad; Successful Lebanese engineers, doctors, businessmen, etc. are found practically all over the world. An overwhelming majority of emigrants (77%) between 2004 and 2009 were young people under 35 years, many of whom are well-educated and highly skilled professionals (44% of those who emigrated held university degrees),[12] which exacerbates the loss to Lebanon in terms of economic and social advancement. Another key statistic is the youth unemployment rate in Lebanon which has reached 24%.[13] Unemployment rates are particularly high among highly skilled people, specifically university-educated individuals, who typically spend more than a year after graduation looking for a decent job in Lebanon, and then decide to leave after either not finding any employment or refusing to take a job which is well-below their qualifications.[12] Although the higher education system in Lebanon is highly developed, some of the issues that characterize it are particularly salient to the youth unemployment problem since this system is directly responsible for preparing a majority of the Lebanese youth for the labor market. With university graduates making up 30% of people seeking a job, [14] it is clear that the Higher Education system needs to play a key role in resolving the problem of youth unemployment in Lebanon. The key issue related to this sector is the mismatch between the highly skilled graduates that universities supply and the skills and professionals the labor market demands; these supply-demand failings in the labor market are increasingly preventing young people from finding a job in their country that fits their qualifications.[15] In order to address these issues, universities can implement policies to: 1. Reform the curricula to better prepare graduates for their professional life 2. Improve career guidance structures and activities 3. Invest in relevant research, statistics and data gathering.

Lebanon has 41 nationally accredited universities, several of which are internationally recognized.[16][17] The American University of Beirut (AUB) and the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) were the first Anglophone and the first Francophone universities to open in Lebanon respectively.[18][19] The forty-one universities, both public and private, largely operate in French, or English as these are the most widely used foreign languages in Lebanon.[20]

At the English universities, students who have graduated from an American-style high school program enter at the freshman level to earn their baccalaureate equivalence from the Lebanese Ministry of Higher Education. This qualifies them to continue studying at the higher levels. Such students are required to have already taken the SAT I and the SAT II (Subjects Test) upon applying to college, in lieu of the official exams. On the other hand, students who have graduated from a school that follows the Lebanese educational system are directly admitted to the sophomore year. These students are still required to take the SAT I, but not the SAT II.

The highest-ranked and most prestigious universities in Lebanon include the Université La Sagesse (ULS), the Lebanese University (LU), the American University of Science and Technology (AUST), the Lebanese American University (LAU), the Antonine University (UPA), the University of Balamand (UOB), the American University of Beirut (AUB), Beirut Arab University (BAU), the Lebanese International University (LIU), Haigazian University (HU), the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ), the American University of Technology (AUT), the Arts, Sciences and Technology University in Lebanon (AUL), the Université Saint-Esprit de Kaslik (USEK), the Notre Dame University - Louaize (NDU), and the Modern University for Business and Science (MUBS). In addition, some students choose to study abroad. The United Nations assigned Lebanon an Education Index of 0.84 in 2005.[21]

See also[edit]

List of universities in Lebanon

Not all private higher educational institutions in Lebanon consider SAT I or SAT II for undergraduate admissions. The majority require a local entrance test prepared by these individual higher educational institutions. In most times, the entrance test is a placement test. The main requirement for undergraduate admissions for Lebanese students is the secondary-school leaving certificate called the Baccalaureate II or more recently the International Baccalaureate. However, students with a foreign nationality are admitted to private higher education institutions that pattern after the American system of higher education as Freshman students in case they do not have an equivalence to the Baccalaureate II. In case they obtain an equivalence from the Ministry of Education and higher Education, they are admitted as sophomore students. As for the Lebanese University, which is the only public higher educational institution in Lebanon, students are admitted to undergraduate programs based on their Baccalaureate II. A number of Faculties at the Lebanese University, such as the Faculty of Sciences require further testing for selectivity based on entrance tests (concurs) prepared and administered by this faculty.

Curriculum[edit]

The Lebanese curriculum is used at all public and private schools in Lebanon. Schools have to apply both the Lebanese and foreign schemes at the same time when they will implement a foreign curriculum (French, English, or international) in a school.[4]

Medium of instruction[edit]

In Lebanon, English or French with Arabic are taught from early years in schools. After primary education, English or French become the mandatory medium of instruction for mathematics and science for all schools.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lanvin, Bruno; Dutta, Soumitra, eds. (2013). "The Global Information Technology Report 2013: Growth and Jobs in a Hyperconnected World". World Economic Forum. Geneva. pp. 324–325. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  2. ^ Lanvin, Bruno; Dutta, Soumitra, eds. (2013). "The Global Information Technology Report 2013: Growth and Jobs in a Hyperconnected World". World Economic Forum. Geneva. p. 289. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Schwab, Klaus; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier; Brende, Børge (2013). "The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014: Full Data Edition". World Economic Forum. Geneva. pp. 83–85. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Skaf, Antoine and Zeina Habib (2008) "Lebanon" In Ina V.S. Mullis, Michael O. Martin, Joh F. Olson, Dbra R. Berger, Dana Milne, and Gabrielle M. Stanco ed., TIMSS 2007 Encyclopedia: A Guide to Mathematics and Science Education Around the World, Volume 2, Boston: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center". 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "The World Bank Edstats database". 
  6. ^ a b c d e "UNESCO Institute for Statistics database". 
  7. ^ "The World Bank (2008) Project Information Document, Concept Stage, Lebanon Second Emergency Social Protection Implementation Support Project, Washington D.C.: The World Bank". 
  8. ^ a b "International Association of University, World Higher Education Database". 
  9. ^ "Mullis, Ina V.S. et al. (2008) TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grade, MA: TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Center.". 
  10. ^ "Martin, Michael O. et al. (2008) TIMSS 2007 International Science Report: Findings from IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grade, MA: TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Center". 
  11. ^ a b "The World Bank (2009) The Status and Progress of Women in the Middle East and North Africa, Washington D.C.: The World Bank". 
  12. ^ a b Yaacoub, Najwa, and Lara Badre. The Labor Market in Lebanon. Statistical report, Beirut: Central Administration of Statistics , 2011.
  13. ^ Mary Kawar and Zafiris Tzannatos, Youth Employment in Lebanon: Skilled and Jobless, Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, 2013
  14. ^ Youth Economic Forum, Youth Employment: Towards an Improved Regulation of the Labor Market, 2012
  15. ^ Di Bartolomeo, Anna, Tamirace Fakhoury, and Delphine Perrin. CARIM – Migration Profile. European University Institute – Robert Schuman Centre For Advanced Studies, 2010
  16. ^ Infopro Management. "Lebanon Opportunities – Business Information". Retrieved January 30, 2007 
  17. ^ Arabic)Lebanese Directory of Higher Education. "Decrees". Retrieved January 30, 2007 
  18. ^ eIFL.net Regional Workshop (2005). "Country Report: Lebanon". Retrieved December 14, 2006 
  19. ^ Université Saint-Joseph. "125 years of history – A timeline". Retrieved December 8, 2006 
  20. ^ Yalla!. "Yalla! Students". Retrieved December 15, 2006 
  21. ^ ""Human development indicators" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report". 
  22. ^ "The World Bank (2006) Lebanon Quarterly Update, First Quarter 2006, Beirut: The World Bank". 

Cadmous College Lebanon (Issam al salman)