Education in Morocco

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Background of Education System[edit]

It was in the year 1963 that education was made compulsory for all Moroccan children between the ages of 6 through 13[1] and during this time all subjects were Arabized in the first and second grades, while French was maintained as the language of instruction of maths and science in both primary and secondary levels. Later, to meet the rising demand for secondary education in 1970s, Morocco imported French speaking teachers from countries such as France, Romania, and Bulgaria to teach maths and sciences, and Arab teachers to teach humanities and social studies. By 1989, Arabization of all subjects across all grades in both primary and secondary education was accomplished. However, French was maintained the medium of instruction for scientific subjects in technical and professional secondary schools, technical institutes and universities.[2]

The government has taken several reforms to improve the access of education and reduce regional differences in the provision of education. The King announced the period between 1999–2009 years as the “Education Decade.”During this time the government’s reform initiative focused on five main themes to facilitate the role of knowledge in economic development; the key themes were education, governance, private sector development, e-commerce and access. Also with the help of the World Bank and other multilateral agencies Morocco has succeeded to improve the basic education system.

Education Management System in Morocco[edit]

The education system in Morocco is composed of pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Government efforts to increase the availability of education services have led to increased access at all levels of education. Morocco’s education system consists of 6 years of primary, 3 years of lower-middle / intermediate school, 3 years of upper secondary, and a tertiary education . The education system in Morocco is under the purview of the Ministry of National Education (MNE) and Ministry of Higher Education and Executive Training. The Ministry of National Education decentralized its functions to regional levels created in 1999 when 72 provinces were subsumed into 16 regional administrative units. Then the responsibility of the provision of education services has been slowly devolving to the regional level. This decentralization process will ensure that education programs are responsive to regional needs and the budget is administered locally. Each region has a Regional Academy for Education and Training and a regional director who is senior to provincial delegates within the region. The regional academies will also be responsible for developing 30 percent of the curriculum so that it is locally relevant. The central level of the MNE continues to manage the other 70 percent.[3] Also the Delegations are charged with providing services for education in their regions.[4]

Pre-school Education[edit]

According to the National Charter, preprimary education is compulsory and available to all children under the age of 6. This level is open to children of ages 4–6 years old. There are two types of pre-primary schools in Morocco:kindergarten and Koranic schools. The kindergarten,which is a private school that provides education mainly in cities and towns; the Koranic schools which prepare children for primary education by helping them develop basic literacy and numeracy skills. Koranic schools have the potential to become a major force in the fight against illiteracy. (timss)with approximately 80 percent of all children attending some form of Koranic school for some portion of their school years.[3] In 2007 the gross enrollment rate of pre-primary students in Morocco was about 60 percent, with the GER of males being 69.4 percent and that for females 49.6 percent. The GER for females have been increasing since the past few years and for the males it has been about 69 percent since 2003.[5]

Primary Education[edit]

The primary education consists of 6 years for children of ages 6–12 years old. Students are required to pass Certificat d'etudes primaires to be eligible for admission in lower secondary schools.[4]

The gross enrollment rates (GER) at the primary level have been consistently rising in 2000s. In 2007 the total GER at the primary level was 107.4 percent, with 112 percent for males and 101 percent for females. But the Gender Parity Index for GER was 0.89, which shows that the issue of gender inequality persists at the primary level. The repetition rate at the primary level is 11.8 percent; the repetition rate for males at the primary level is 13.7 percent and for females it is 9.7 percent and the rates are declining for the past few years for both genders. The dropout rate at the primary level in 2006 was 22 percent. Also dropout rates are higher for girls than boys, at 22 and 21 percent respectively.[5] The dropout rates have been falling since 2003,but the government still needs to step up efforts to lower dropout the rate as it is still very high compared to other Arab countries, such as Algeria, Oman, Egypt and Tunisia.[6]

Secondary Education[edit]

There are three years of lower-middle school. This type of education is provided through what is referred to as the "Collège". After 9 years of basic education,students begin upper secondary school and take a 1-year common core curriculum, which is either in arts or science. First year students take arts and or science, mathematics or original education. Second year students take earth and life sciences, physics, agricultural science, technical studies or are in A or B mathematics track.

The gross enrollment rate at the secondary level in 2007 was 55.8 percent. But in secondary education the grade repetition and drop-out rates especially remain high.[7] Also the gender parity index for GER for secondary was 0.86 in 2007; it is not better than other Arab countries and reflects considerable disparity in gender enrollment at the secondary level.

Tertiary Education[edit]

The country has fourteen major public universities (see List of universities in Morocco), including Mohammed V University in Rabat and Al-Karaouine University, Fes,[8] along with specialist schools, such as the music conservatories of Morocco supported by the Ministry of Culture. The Karaouine University at Fes has been teaching since 859, making it the world's oldest continuously operating university.[9]

Tertiary Education[edit]

The higher education system consists of both private and public institutes. There are 14 public universities in Morocco,[4] in addition to a large number of private universities. The total number of graduates at the tertiary level in 2007 were 88,137 ;the gross enrollment rate at the tertiary level is 11 percent and it has not fluctuated significantly in the past few years.[6] Admission to public universities requires only a baccalauréat, whereas admission to other higher public education, such as engineering school require competitive special tests and special training before the exams.

Another growing field apart from engineering and medicine is business management. According to the Ministry of Education the enrollment in Business Management increased by 3.1 percent in the year 2003-04 when compared to preceding year 2002-2003. Generally, an undergraduate business degree requires four years and an average of two years for Master’s degree.[10]

Universities in Morocco have also started to incorporate the use of information and communication technology. A number of universities have started providing software and hardware engineering courses as well; annually the academic sector produces 2,000 graduates in the field of information and communication technologies.[11]

Moroccan institutions have also established partnerships with institutes in Europe and Canada and offer joint degree programs in various fields from well-known universities.[10]

Also to increase public accountability, the Moroccan universities are evaluated since 2000, with the intention of making the results public to all stakeholders, including parents and students.[2]

Challenges in the Education Sector[edit]

Despite having a number of private institutes the enrollment in private higher education institutes is still low, less than 3.5 percent of total university population. Private institutes also suffer from less qualified or inadequate staff. This is primarily due to inhibiting tuition costs. Curriculum of especially the business schools is outdated and needs to be revised according to the changing demands of the labor market. Private sector companies also do not make sufficient contribution in providing working knowledge to professional institutes of the current business environment.[12]

Internal efficiency is also low with high dropout and repetition rates. There is also an unmet need of rising demand of middle schools after achieving high access rates in primary education.[13] The problem is more acute in the rural schools due to inadequate supply and quality of instructional materials. The poor quality of education becomes an even greater problem due to Arabic-Berber language issues. As most of the Berber family children hardly know any Arabic, which is the medium of instruction in schools, when students enter primary level.[3]

Low literacy in the Maghreb region is also a major problem. In Morocco, the adult illiteracy rate is still at a high at around 40 percent in 2007, despite concerted efforts being made since independence in 1956 to reduce the rate of illiteracy which at that time was 87 percent. In absolute terms the illiterate adults have grown from six to nine million persons. Morocco is one of the five Arab countries in which 70 percent of the some 70 million illiterate adults in the Arab world are concentrated. In rural areas and for female gender the problem is even worse; three quarters of women were considered to be illiterate in 2004.[14]

Then there has been a high emigration rate of skilled workers, that is, the total number of highly skilled emigrants to the total number of educated people back home is high. This way Morocco is losing a substantial number of skilled work force to foreign countries, being the largest migrant population among North Africans in Europe.[15]

Reform Efforts in the Education Sector[edit]

Since the late 1980s the Maghreb countries’ governments are partnering with civil society organizations to fight illiteracy. The NGO Programme launched in 1988 delivers literacy to 54% of all learners enrolled in adult literacy programmes. Ministerial and General Programme also focus on various ministries and community to deliver literacy programmes. In-Company programmes cater to the needs of the working population focused on continuous in-company training.[14]

A comprehensive renovation of the education and training system was developed in a participatory manner in 1998-99, which led to the vision for long-term expansion of this sector in response to the country’s social and economic development requirements.[16]

Improving the quality of outcomes in the education sector has become a key priority for Morocco’s government. To overcome the challenges faced by the education sector, the Government embarked on a comprehensive reform of the education and training system, with the promulgation of the 1999 National Education and Training Charter (CNEF). The CNEF, with strong national consensus, declared 2000-2009 the decade for education and training, and established education and training as a national priority, second only to territorial integrity. The reform program, as laid out by the CNEF, also received strong support from the donor community. Nevertheless, during the course of implementation, the reform program encountered delays.

Furthermore, Morocco and other Maghreb countries are now fully committed to eradicate illiteracy. Morocco officially adopted its National Literacy and Non-formal Education Strategy in 2004. An integrated vision of literacy, development and poverty reduction was promoted by National Initiative for Human Development (INDH), launched by the King Mohammed VI in May 2005.[14]

Also in 2005 the Moroccan government adopted a strategy with the objective of making ICT accessible in all public schools to improve the quality of teaching; infrastructure, teacher training and the development of pedagogical content was also part of this national programme.[17]

There are a number of donors including USAID and UNICEF that are implementing programs to improve the quality of education at the basic level and to provide training to teachers. The World Bank also provides assistance in infrastructure upgrades for all levels of education and offer skill development trainings and integrated employment creation strategies to various stakeholders.[3] At the request of the Government’s highest authorities, a bold Education Emergency Plan (EEP) was drawn up to catch up on this reform process. The EEP, spanning the period 2009-12, draws on the lessons learned during the last decade. In this context, the Government requested five major donors (European Union (EU), European Investment Bank (EIB), Agence française de développement (AFD), African Development Bank (AfDB) and the World Bank) to assist the implementation of the EEP reform agenda.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Diyen,Hayat 2004,"reform of secondary education in Morocco: Challenges and Prospects." Prospects, vol XXXIV.no.2,pp212 
  2. ^ a b "World Bank 2008,MENA Flagship Report."The Road Not Travelled: Education Reforms in MENA."World Bank,Washington,DC". 
  3. ^ a b c d "USAID2004.Stregthening Education in the Muslim World: Country Profile and Analysis.pp18". 
  4. ^ a b c TIMSS encyclopedia 2007 
  5. ^ a b UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2008 
  6. ^ a b "World Bank 2009.Edstats". 
  7. ^ Morocco: challenges to tradition and modernity - Page 58 James N. Sater - 2009 "In addition to high drop-out rates at Morocco's public universities, this indicates that a growing proportion of Morocco's young population received religious education, but was unable to work in the religious sector. ..."
  8. ^ Morocco Country Study Guide - Page 23 IBP USA - 2006 "Morocco is home to 14 public universities. Mohammed V University in Rabat is one of the country's most famous schools, with faculties of law, sciences, liberal arts, and medicine. Karaouine University, in Fes, is a longstanding center ...
  9. ^ The Report: Morocco 2009 - Page 252 Oxford Business Group "... yet for many Morocco's cultural, artistic and spiritual capital remains Fez. The best-preserved ... School has been in session at Karaouine University since 859, making it the world's oldest continuously operating university. ..."
  10. ^ a b Driouchi,Ahmed.2006. A Global Guide to Management Education 
  11. ^ "Hamdy,Amr(June 2007). Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: Egypt Country Report.ICT in Education in Morocco". 
  12. ^ Driouchi,Ahmed.2006.A Global Guide to Management Education 
  13. ^ "World Bank 2005. "Basic Education Reform Support Program." Project Appraisal Document. World Bank, Washington,DC". 
  14. ^ a b c United Nations 2007.Literacy Policies and Strategies in the Maghreb: Comparative Perspectives from Algeria, Mauritania and Morocco.Research paper prepared for the UNESCO Regional Conferences in Support of Global Literacy 
  15. ^ "World Bank 2008,MENA Flagship Report."The Road Not Travelled: Education Reforms in MENA."pp254.World Bank,Washington,DC". 
  16. ^ "World Bank 2008. "Kingdom of Morocco Policy Notes, Conditions for Higher and Inclusive Growth."pp215,Ch 11.World Bank,Washington,DC". 
  17. ^ "Hamdy,Amr(June 2007).Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: Egypt Country Report.ICT in Education in Morocco". 
  18. ^ "EEP".