Education in Odisha

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For a list of education institutions, see List of educational institutions in Odisha.

Previously a neglected aspect of the state, which was not a focus of the Indian government, education in Odisha is witnessing a rapid transformation. Its capital city, Bhubaneswar, is emerging as a knowledge hub in India with several new public and private universities, including the establishment of an Indian Institute of Technology after five decades of demand, one of India's new National Universities by the government, as well as Vedanta University, one of the world's largest private universities.

Odisha has fared reasonably well in terms of literacy rates. The overall literacy rate according to Census 2011 is 73.5%, which is marginally behind of the national average of 74.04%.

Bhubaneswar is located in India
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
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Bhubaneswar

Contents

History[edit]

Ancient and medieval era[edit]

Historically, Odisha has been at the forefront of education and research. The ruins of a major ancient university, Puspagiri, were recently discovered in Odisha. Scholars from far away lands, such as Greece, Persia and China used to study philosophy, astronomy, mathematics and science at this famed university. Along with Takshashila and Nalanda universities, Puspagiri was among the oldest universities in the world. All three universities were mentioned by the Chinese traveler Huien Tsang (Xuanzang), who visited India in the 7th century, but unlike the others, the whereabouts of Puspagiri university were unknown until recently. As of 2007, the ruins of this university have not been fully excavated yet.[1][2] Odisha's education prospered under Hindu and Buddhist rule. However, it went into a period of decline under the Sun dynasty, after 1568. The Muslims and the Marathas, who occupied Odisha before the British, did little to spread education.[3] Before the creation of modern Odisha, the mainstay of the education system were the Sanskrit Pathsalas, and the Maktabs, which existed in Cuttack, Balasore, Puri, Angul and Sambalpur, local Chatasalis to cater to grassroot level education, as well as advanced centers of Oriental learning.[4]

Colonial era[edit]

The colonialization of Odisha by the British East India Company in 1803 proved disastrous to Odisha in all spheres. It led to the collapse of the traditional education system. Yet, Odisha being one of the last Indian territories to come under the British rule became exposed much later than other parts of India to the system of education they introduced. Under the East India Company, Christian missionaries who took up printing the Old and New Testaments in Oriya, also contributed to some growth in education. The first primary school was created in 1822 by missionaries.

The Cuttack Zilla school, Odisha's first modern school up to matriculation level, was established in 1866. It was extended to become a Collegiate school in 1868, which provided first and second year college education to Oriya students. However, Oriyas were severely disadvantaged by having to attend Presidency College in Kolkata for B.A. degrees. This was until the collegiate branch of Zilla school was converted into a full Bachelor's degree granting college under the then commissioner, T. E. Ravenshaw. This college was named as Ravenshaw College after him.

Women's education was taken up with the establishment of the Ravenshaw Hindu Girl's School in 1873. The Maharajah of Keonjhar, the Rani or Talcher, amongst other notable Oriya personalities, who made contributions. Later, Reba Ray, a former student of this school and Sailabala Das became instrumental in furthering the cause of women's education, leading to the creation of the Sailabala Mahila College.

Medical education began with the opening of the first medical school in 1876, by Dr. Stewart, the Civil Surgeon of Cuttack, who also translated the Materia Medica into Oriya. The first industrial school was opened in 1884, in Alalpur, Balasore. A survey school began at the same time in Cuttack, which later on became the Orissa School of Engineering, marking the beginnings of technical education in the state.[3]

School education[edit]

Literacy[edit]

Although 10 years of primary education is mandatory in Odisha, the literacy rate is only 73.5%, which is marginally behind of the national average of 74.04%. The government of India has undertaken steps to improve women's literacy in the tribal pockets in the state and elsewhere in India.[5] Male literacy is 75.95% and female literacy is 50.97%.Among the districts, Malkangiri has the lowest literacy rate of 31.26%. Among the women, lowest literacy level is in Nabarangpur district, at 21.02%, and Malkangiri district at 21.28%.Khurda district which includes Bhubaneswar city, has the highest literacy of 80.19%. This district also has the highest female literacy of 71.06%. The high literacy figures of Khurda district is certainly influenced by the inclusion of the state capital in the statistics. Next to Khurda comes Jagatsinghpur district with 79.61% literates.The literacy level in Orissa at 63.61% is comparable with all-India average of 65.38%. However, there are considerable regional disparities between areas, and communities. Non-formal and adult literacy programs are run in various districts and are at different stages of implementation. Out of 30 districts, 9 are continuing total literacy campaign [TLC]. 10 districts are either continuing or awaiting approval of post literacy program [PLP]. 11 districts have completed PLP, and some of them have received sanction for Continuing Education Program. The State Government is committed to the Universalisation of Elementary Education in the State with the aim of fulfilling the constitutional obligation with the assistance of Central Government.

Universalisation of Elementary Education[edit]

Keeping in view the need for Universalisation of Elementary Education, there has been expansion at Primary and Upper Primary School stage of education, in the Government sector, especially in rural areas as well as backward areas.

Status of Elementary Education in the State[edit]

In Odisha there are 35,928 Primary and 20,427 Upper Primary schools to provide education at elementary level. More 491 New Primary and 490 New Upper Primary schools opened under S.S.A. to provide schooling in unserved areas.

  • 66 lakh children of 6–14 years age group are in-school, out of which 12 lakh are SC and 17 lakh are ST.
  • 1.87 lakh children of 6–14 years age group are out-of-school from which 0.3 lakh are from SC and 0.9 lakh are from ST community. Out of them 56,995 Children were admitted to regular existing & New Schools under Enrolment Drive in districts.

Further to improve access to Elementary Education and to achieve 100% enrolment, Government have relaxed the norm for opening of new ====Primary schools====

  • In K.B.K. districts and Tribal Sub Plan areas new primary schools will be opened in habitations having at least 25 children in the 6–14 years age group provided there is no primary school within one KM of such habitations.
  • In all the districts the distance norm for opening of new primary and new upper primary schools is relaxed in case of natural barrier like river, hilly terrain, dense forest etc.

There are 218 Minority and Mission Managed Primary Schools, wherein 599 teachers are receiving grant-in-aid from the Government. Besides, Oriya Medium Schools.

Universalisation of Secondary Education[edit]

Secondary Education[edit]

There are 6193 Govt. and aided Secondary Schools, 849 Recognized High Schools and 151 permitted High Schools in the State.

  • As per the GIA Rules, 2004, 1981 private High Schools have been notified to receive block grant.
  • 1375 nos. of Contract Teachers has been engaged against the 3210 posts advertised.
  • Contract teachers of High Schools have been allowed the minimum basic pay of their respective regular scale in Revised Scale of Pay 2008.
  • Government have approved 799 candidates as non-teaching staff under the Rehabilitation Assistance Scheme in the year 2010.
  • Computer Literacy is being popularized in High Schools. Board of Secondary Education has included computer learning as an optional subject in the curriculum for Secondary schools.

Rastriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)[edit]

RMSA is a national flagship programme initiated in 2009-10 to universalise Secondary Education by making good quality education available, accessible and affordable to all children within the age group of 14 – 18 years with strong focus on the elements of gender, equity & justice.

Objectives[edit]

  • To provide secondary school within 5 k.m. and higher secondary school within 7-10 k.m. of every habitation.
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of 75% for class-IX & X within five years (by 2013-14).
  • Universal Access to Secondary Education (SE) by 2017.
  • Universal Retention by 2020.
  • Access to Secondary Education (SE) for all disadvantaged group of children.
  • To improve quality of education resulting in enhanced intellectual, social and cultural learning.

Action Taken[edit]

  • Annual Work Plan for 2010-11 and Perspective Plan for 5 years submitted to GOI.
  • PAB approved for 2009–10 Rs.207.18 crores and for 2010-11 Rs. 507.92 crore.
  • Rs. 3.00 crores released by GOI for "Preparatory Activities" such as Strengthening State and District offices.
  • Strengthening manpower ganising training/workshop/SEMI Setc.
  • Rs. 71.40 crores released by GOI for "Project Activities" such as; Civil works for new school.
  • M.M.E.R. (Management Monitoring Evaluation & Research which is being released to all the 30 districts.
  • Data collection, data entry and analysis of "Secondary Education Management Information System" (S.E.M.I.S.), 2009-10 is completed & is under verification by the Inspector of Schools.

The 10+2 structure[edit]

In Odisha, as elsewhere in India, children are enrolled in school at the age of five. The core subjects taught in schools include Science (including Physics, Chemistry and Biology), Mathematics (Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Computer Science, and Set theory), Social Studies (Geography, History, Civics and Economics), and three languages, which are usually Oriya, Hindi and English. Additionally, school children receive training in sports and physical education, as well as vocational training.

After ten years of schooling, children at the end of class(X) must appear in one of the three school examinations; 1. All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE), which is conducted by the Central Government run Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), 2. Odisha High School Certificate Examination, which is conducted by the Board of Secondary Education, Odisha(BSE) and 3. Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) examination, conducted annually by the New Delhi based Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE).

Children who appear in either the All India Secondary School Examination or the Odisha High School Certificate Examination have a choice of using Oriya or Hindi or English as the medium language. However, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations makes English the mandatory language.

Two years of higher secondary education follow, which is optional. Students, usually in the 15 through 17 age group, have a choice of specializing in the following streams; 1. Arts 2. Science 3. Commerce At this stage, the students get exposed to a wide array of elective subjects. The CBSE conducts the All India Senior School Certificate Examination and the CISCE conducts the Indian School Certificate Examinations for students in class XII. There are also Junior colleges and Degree colleges in the state that offer secondary education for class XII children. The Council of Higher Secondary Education, Odisha (CHSE) conducts the higher secondary level examination for them.

This educational structure in Odisha is referred to commonly as the 10+2 system. Students who undergo the 10+2 education system are eligible for admission into a college or university in Odisha, and can also opt for other professional training. However, admission into the few top institutions in Odisha, particularly in engineering and medicine, are highly competitive. Students graduating from class XII typically must qualify in an entrance examination in order to gain admission.

Odisha Joint Entrance Examination[edit]

The Government of Odisha conducts a highly competitive Joint Entrance Examination (OJEE) annually to select students for admission into the various engineering colleges operating under BPUT. In the year 2010, around 73,587 students appeared the OJEE against 76,000 students last year. Out of them 51,174 students sat for engineering, 19,663 in medical, 8,326 in MBA, 9,446 in pharmacy and 4,680 in MCA.[6]

National level public institutions[edit]

Odisha has become a hub for higher education and has numerous inistitutions which are nationally and internationally recognised.

Biju Patnaik National Steel Institute[edit]

Biju Patnaik National Steel Institute (BPNSI), Puri is an autonomous Institute constituted by Ministry of Steel, Government of India was established on 1 January 2002 for the development of steel sector with an emphasis on the secondary steel sector. BPNSI is one of the few institutes in the country and the only institute in Odisha that offers a curriculum in Iron & Steel manufacturing & Plant Management. Currently the Institute is offering a one and half year “Advanced Certificate Course on Iron and Steel Manufacturing & Plant Management.” The Institute plans to offer Degree and P.G. Diploma courses in the future.[7]

Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology[edit]

Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar established in 1986 is one of the 15 stat-of-the-art centers spread across India devoted to academic, technology support & research (ATR) activities for the growth of plastics & allied industries in the country. CIPET, Bhubaneswar has a track record of best performance centre consistently for last few years and rated to be the best centre. The institute offers B.Tech, M.Tech and PhD program on Plastics Engineering and Technology in affiliation with Biju Patnaik University of Technology.[8]

Central Rice Research Institute[edit]

The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) is located in the city of Cuttack. It is one of the premier institutions in Asia for rice research. It was established by the center in 1946 with an experimental farm land of 0.6 km² provided by the Odishan government. It is the second largest institution dedicated to rice research after the one at Manila. The Institute has two research stations- Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (CRURRS), Hazaribagh, in Jharkhand, and the Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station (RRLRRS), Gerua, in Assam. These research stations were established to tackle the problems of rainfed uplands, and flood prone rainfed lowlands, respectively. Two Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) also function under the CRRI located at Santhapur, Cuttack and Jainagar, Koderma.[9]

Central Tool Room & Training Centre[edit]

Central Tool Room & Training Centre, Bhubaneswar is an autonomous institute under the Ministry of MSME, Government of India. Since 1991 imparting industry oriented long & short term training programmes on CAD/CAM, Tool Design & Manufacturing, Tool & Die Making, CNC Programming & Machining, Machine Maintenance, CCNA, Industrial Automation, VLSI, Hardware & Networking Management, ITI (Machinist/Welder) etc.

Central University of Orissa[edit]

The Central University of Orissa has been established in Koraput by the Parliament under the Central Universities Act, 2009 (No. 3C of 2009). It is one of the 15 new Central Universities established by the Government of India during the UGC XI Plan period to address the concerns of “equity and access” and as per the policy of the Government of India to increase the access to quality higher education by people in less educationally developed districts which have a Graduate Enrollment Ratio of less than the national average of 11%.[10]

Institute of Dental Sciences[edit]

Institute of Dental Sciences, Bhubaneswar was set up in 2005 on the recommendation of Dental Council of India, Health and Family Welfare Department, Govt. of India. It has been conducting B.D.S Course from the academic session 2006-07.[11]

Indian Institute of Handloom Technology[edit]

I.I.H.T. Bargarh, the fifth central sector institute came into existence on June 2, 2008.Initially it started functioning in the panchayat college campus in Bargarh township which is a prominent place in western part of Odisha. The permanent campus is under construction on Bargarh-Bhatli road, 8 km from the district headquarters. It offers a diploma course in handloom and texile technology.

Institute of Life Sciences[edit]

The Institute of Life Sciences (ILS), an autonomous institute has been brought under the fold of the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India in August 2002. The institute is located in close proximity to other research institutions at Bhubaneswar. The institute was earlier established on February 11, 1989 and was under the administrative and financial control of Department of Science and Technology, Government of Odisha. Prime minister of India, Atal Bihari Vajpayee dedicated the institute to the nation on July 15, 2003 with a declaration to develop the institute as a "National Centre for Excellence". The mandate of ILS is to undertake basic and translational research in frontier areas of life sciences. The research interests of the faculty are in three major areas: (a) Infectious Disease Biology, (b) Gene Function and Regulation and (c) Translation Research and Technology Development. In addition, new collaborations with industry have been established to tap commercial potential of laboratory science.[12]

Indian Institute of Mass Communication[edit]

IIMC Dhenkanal, was set up in August 1993 as the first branch of IIMC New Delhi, under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India.It imparts education and training in journalism and also undertakes media studies and research. The Institute conducts PG Diploma courses in Journalism in English and Oriya, besides short term courses and workshops.

Institute of Physics[edit]

The Institute Of Physics, Bhubaneswar is an autonomous research institution funded jointly by the Department Of Atomic Energy (DAE) and the Government of Odisha. It provides research facilities for postgraduate research.

Indian Institute of Public Health[edit]

Indian Institute of Public Health, Bhubaneswar is one of the four institutes set up by PHFI as a part of its charter to build public health capacity in India. IIPH, Bhubaneswar, commenced its academic activities from August 2010. The institute offers a Post Graduate Diploma course in Public Health Management, launched on 2 August 2010. Government doctors from Odisha and Chhattisgarh and self-sponsored candidates are participating in this course. In addition to this, various short term training programmes, workshops and research activities are being undertaken by the institute.[13]

Indian Institute of Technology[edit]

Main article: IIT Bhubaneswar

The Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar is the third and one of the largest of eight new Indian Institutes of Technology established by the MHRD, Government of India in 2008–2009.[14] A total of 935 acres (3.78 km2) of land has been allocated at Arugul towards the self-contained campus for 10,000 students and 1,100 faculty, making it the second largest of all IITs after the one at Kharagpur, and largest IIT in any metropolitan location.[15]

As of 2009, there are undergraduate programs leading to B. Tech degrees in civil engineering, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering. Postgraduate students are being admitted into the M. Tech and PhD programs.

Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management[edit]

Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management (IITTM), Bhubaneswar is one of the five premier autonomous institutes set by Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. IITTM is engaged in teaching, training, research and consultancy and is the only institute in the country dedicated to the tourism learning. The institute at Bhubaneswar was in 1996 as Baji Rout Regional Center for Eastern India with the primary objective of expanding its activities to a part of the country that is full of tourism potential. It offers two years postgraduate diploma in management specializing in Tourism and Travel and International Business.[16]

Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology[edit]

The Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology IMMT, (formerly Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar) was set up as a premier establishment of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi in 1964 in the State of Odisha, in eastern India. The laboratory specializes in providing R&D support for process and product development with special emphasis on conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources. Over the years, IMMT has developed S&T capabilities in a wide range of areas from mineralogy to materials engineering. The laboratory has expertise in conducting technology oriented programmes in mining and mineral/bio-mineral processing, metal extraction and materials characterization, process engineering, industrial waste management, pollution monitoring and control, marine and forest products development, utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants and appropriate technologies for societal development.[17]

National Institute of Fashion Technology[edit]

National Institute of Fashion Technology(NIFT), Bhubaneswar center is one of the latest additions to the existing countrywide gamut of NIFT. It started functioning from June 2010 from its transit campus situated in Centurion Institute of Technology, near HP Gas Plant, Bhubaneswar. The course being offered at the institute at present, include specialization in two disciplines, Bachelor of Design in Textile Design and Master of Fashion Management Studies. The institute boasts of eminent and experienced faculty to facilitate quality education from the very commencement of the center.[18] A total of 35 acres (140,000 m2) of land have been granted by the state government. The NIFT would be funded through the Indian Ministry of Commerce. It is admitting students from 2010.[19]

National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research[edit]

The National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research (NIRTAR) is an autonomous body established in 1975 under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India. It is located in a beautiful rural area at Olatpur, 30 km from Cuttack and Bhubaneswar. It conducts three Bachelor Degree courses in Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, two Postgraduate courses in Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy affiliated to Utkal University, Bhubaneswar. It also has an accreditation for DNB in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of National Board of Examination (NBE), New Delhi.[20]

National Institute of Science Education & Research[edit]

The National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) is a premier research institution in India along the lines of the internationally reputed IISc in Bangalore, and five sister institutions, the IISERs. Instead of the Ministry of Human Resources Development, NISER operates under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). It was established in 2007, in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, when the first batch of students were admitted into its integrated postgraduate programs.

NISER is dedicated to graduate education and research only. It offers M.S.,5 year integrated M.S. as well as PhD degrees in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and biology. The Odisha government has provided 301 acres (1.2 km2)of land free of cost for the upcoming campus at Jatani near Bhubaneswar.[21]

Keeping in view the paucity of central government institutions in the state, the Government of Odisha has mooted the idea of a National Institute for Technology Education and Research (NITER), a sister institution of NISER, in Bhubaneswar.[22]

National Institute of Technology[edit]

Established in the year 1961, The National Institute of Technology (NIT) located at the steel city of Rourkela is the foremost engineering degree granting institutions in Odisha. It has consistently been ranked among the top engineering institutes in the country, most recently being placed as the 3rd best Engineering Institute in Eastern India, after IIT Kharagpur and IIT Guwahati by DataQuest.[23]

National Law University of Orissa[edit]

A national law university was established in 2009 at Naraj, in the outskirts of the city of Cuttack. The university offers integrated B.A. LL.B. and B.B.A. LL.B., integrated LL.M-PH.D and Ph.D. courses.

National University (or World Class Central University)[edit]

A national university of international standards for cutting-edge research is being set up in Bhubaneswar. The government plan views it as a unified centre of excellence in engineering, the sciences, humanities, management and medicine.[24][24][25] The government of India will seek expertize from leading universities, such as Yale, MIT and Princeton, in setting up the national university at Bhubaneswar.[26]

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar[edit]

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar (AIIMS) is being set up in the state under the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojna. Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee had laid the foundation stone for the super-speciality hospital in 2003. The state AIIMS was then estimated to cost about Rs 820.49 crore. The institute has initiated the process of recruiting staff and is buying equipment simultaneously and the facility would be ready to take admissions in undergraduate medical courses by 2013. Work on the medical college and the hospital buildings would be complete by September 2012. The Union government recently selected three top medical institutes to mentor the six upcoming AIIMS prototypes. AIIMS New Delhi will mentor its clone in Bhubaneswar. The mentor will guide the upcoming institute in selecting faculty and setting up necessary infrastructure.[27]

Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (Deemed University), Shri Sadashiva Campus[edit]

This campus was established on 1971 and is situated at Puri in Odisha. The institution is more than 100 years old. The campus is pursuing research work leading to the degree of Vidyavaridhi (PhD) and imparting education in Sahitya, Dharma Shastra, Navya Vyakarana, Puranetihas, Jyotish, Advaita Vedanta, Navya Nyaya, Sarvadarshana and Sankhya Yoga at post–graduate and graduate level and Shiksha Shastri at graduate level.[28]

Regional Institute of Education[edit]

A premier centre of education research, the Regional Institute of Education is located near Acharya Vihar in Bhubaneswar. It is a regional centre of NCERT serving the eastern region. Apart from running training programmes for teachers of schools and colleges, the institute also has integrated courses of B.Sc and B.Ed. The institute also runs courses on B.Ed., M.Ed. and M.Phil (Education).

Regional Medical Research Centre[edit]

Regional Medical Research Centre(RMRC), Bhubaneswar, was established in 1981 by Indian Council of Medical Research. It conducts interdisciplinary research on locally prevailing communicable and non-communicable diseases. It provides training and research to post graduate students for Ph.D./ MD degree, MSc. dissertation and short term training to the doctors and technicians from state health departments and NVBDCP, Delhi.[29]

State level public institutions[edit]

Berhampur University[edit]

Main article: Berhampur University

Berhampur University was established in southern Odisha in 1965, as the third oldest university in the state. The university has 25 affiliated colleges and covers the districts of Ganjam, Koraput, Kandhamal, Gajapati, Rayagada, Nabarangpur and Malkangiri.

Biju Patnaik University of Technology[edit]

The Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT), Rourkela, was created by an act of the Odisha state legislature in the year 2002. Almost all the engineering, pharmacy, architecture and most of the colleges offering MBA degree programmes are either constituent or affiliated colleges of BPUT. Today, the university has 110 colleges, both constituent and affiliated, with around 58,000 students. The disciplines include engineering and architecture, business management and hotel management, computer studies and pharmacy.

College of Engineering and Technology[edit]

The College of Engineering and Technology (CET-B) was initially established within the preview of OUAT in Bhubaneswar. It got separated from OUAT since 2002, having its own vast campus of about 139 acres (0.56 km2) in Ghatikia, Khandagiri. It is a primarily an undergraduate college, offering programs in Architecture, Computer science, Information Technology, Electrical, Civil, Instrumentation & Electronics, Bio-Technology, Mechanical engineering, Textile engineering and Fashion Technology. It is currently affiliated to BPUT (Biju Patnaik University of Technology). It places about 75% of its students every year and has a large number of students interning all over India .

Fakir Mohan University[edit]

Fakir Mohan University, Vyasa Vihar, Balasore was established by the Government of Odisha, in 1999.

Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology[edit]

The Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology (IGIT) is located at Sarang in the industrial belt of Talcher. It was established in 1982 by the government of Odisha. In addition to four year undergraduate degrees in electrical, mechanical, chemical and civil engineering, and metallurgical & materials science, it offers three year diplomas in a few technical disciplines.

Institute of Mathematics and Applications[edit]

The Institute of Mathematics and Applications, (IMA) located in Bhubaneswar is an academic institution, established by the government of Odisha to conduct advanced research in pure and applied mathematics, and to conduct advanced postgraduate degree programs in the field. It was established in 1999.

International Institute of Information Technology[edit]

International Institute of Information Technology, Bhubaneswar is an information technology higher education institute established in 2006 by the Government of Odisha. It has been converted to an unitary university on January 20, 2014. It offers Masters and Bachelors programme in Engineering.[30]

Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College[edit]

The Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati (MKCG) Medical College is a medical college in Berhampur. It was originally started in 1976 as an extension of the SCB Medical College. It operates under Berhampur University. It offers MBBS and MD degrees and also provides training in medical related fields.

North Orissa University[edit]

North Orissa University, Baripada is a public and open university established in 1998. The jurisdiction of the University extends over two districts, Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar. There are 80 affiliated colleges, both general and professional, catering to the demand of higher education.

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology[edit]

The Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT) was established in the city of Bhubaneswar in 1962. It is dedicated to agriculture related research and education, and has seven colleges as well as a centre for postgraduate studies.

Parala maharaja engineering college(PMEC), Berhampur[edit]

PMEC Berhampur was estd:2009 by Govt. of Odisha, started functioning in its academic building at sitalapalli, berhampur with four branches. This college is a constituent college of BPUT, Odisha. College was inaugurated by Sri Naveen Patnaik, Hon'bl CM, Odisha.

Ravenshaw University[edit]

Main article: Ravenshaw University

Upgraded from Ravenshaw College one of the oldest and largest colleges of India, the Ravenshaw University came into existence on 15 November 2006. Originally affiliated to University of Calcutta and thereafter to Patna University and then finally to Utkal University the institution finally got its own identity and became one of the most reputed universities of the Odisha state. Presently the university runs 23 Post-Graduate courses with research facilities and 27 Undergraduate honours courses.

Sambalpur University[edit]

Main article: Sambalpur University

Sambalpur University (Jyoti Vihar) in Burla, in western Odisha is another important university covering the districts of Sambalpur, Sundargarh, Jharsuguda, Deogarh, Bargarh, Bolangir, Subarnapur, Nuapara, Kalahandi, Boudh as well as the Athamallik Sub-Division of Angul district. It offers postgraduate education in twenty seven subjects. The university has been functioning since 1967.

Shriram Chandra Bhanja Medical College[edit]

Established in 1944, The Shriram Chandra Bhanja Medical College (SCB Medical College) at Cuttack, is the premier medical institution in Odisha and one of the oldest in India. It offers postgraduate degrees in all broad areas of medicine. It also runs super speciality training facilities in several areas such as cardiology, neurosurgery, and radiotherapy. There also exists a dental wing under the SCB Medical college.

Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidayalaya[edit]

Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidayalaya was established in Puri by the erstwhile Chief Minister of Odisha Janaki Ballabh Pattanayak, an eminent scholar of Sanskrit, on 7 July 1981. It is the third Sanskrit university of the country next to Sampurnananda Sanskrit University of Banaras and Kameswar Singh Sanskrit University of Darabhanga .

Utkal University[edit]

Main article: Utkal University

Utkal University (Vani Vihar) was the first university to be established in Odisha in 1943. It is also the seventeenth oldest in India. It is located in Bhubaneswar and has about 3,000 postgraduate and doctoral students enrolled. The university has jurisdiction over nine districts in Odisha, namely Angul, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Jajpur, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Khurda, Nayagarh and Puri catering to the needs of higher education of a population of over 11 million people.

Main entrance to Utkal University

Utkal University of Culture[edit]

The Utkal University of Culture is a newly established institution located in Bhubaneswar.

Veer Surendra Sai Medical College[edit]

The Veer Surendra Sai (VSS) Medical college and hospital has been in operation since 1959 in Burla. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate education in medicine and surgery, besides offering training courses in pharmacy and nursing.

Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla[edit]

Established in 1956 at Burla, the Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, formerly known as University College of Engineering (UCE) is Odisha's oldest, and one of the oldest and prestigious engineering institutions of East India. Initially an autonomous college since 1991, it was elevated as a university in the year 2009, as a result of a move by the Government of Odisha to accord it with the status of a unitary university. It offers undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees in several engineering disciplines. VSSUT receives financial grants from All India Council of Technical Education and University Grants Commission (India), two central government agencies, as well as from the state government. While other major engineering institutions (such as the IITs) only enjoy deemed university status, VSSUT is one of India's full scale university for engineering and technology. The campus covers an area of 203 acres (0.82 km2) with an expansion capacity up to 503 acres (2.04 km2), as per the land alloted to it. There is a proposal to upgrade this to NIT.[31] In the year 2012 VSSUT was awarded 12B status by University Grants Commission (India).

Private institutions[edit]

Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar is a premier business school in India

Siksha 'O' Anusandhan (SOA) Deemed to be University[edit]

Main article: SOA UNIVERSITY

Siksha 'O' Anusandhan gained Deemed to be University status from the UGC in 2007. SOA has the highest grade of 'A' from NAAC. Additionally, SUM Hospital (its affiliated hospital) has been awarded with the prestigious NABH accreditation.Link to SOA University's Website

Centurion University[edit]

Centurion University, Bhubaneswar is Odisha's first private state university.[32]

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology Deemed to be University[edit]

a building of KIIT's School of Technology

The Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) is established in Bhubaneswar in 1992. Academic programmes of KIIT University are conducted by its seven constituent schools – School of Technology, School of Computer Application, School of Management, School of Rural Management, School of Medicine, School of Biotechnology and KIIT Law School.

ICFAI University[edit]

Hyderabad based Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the chief minister of Odisha, Mr. Naveen Patnaik, to set up a university in the outskirts of the city of Bhubaneswar. ICFAI plan to buy 150 acres (0.6 km2) of land from private parties in Jatni, near the Khurda Road station.[33][34] The university is budgeted at Rs. 150 crores (1.5 billion). It will function primarily as a business school.

Sri Sri University[edit]

Main article: Sri Sri University

Sri Sri University has been established under the Sri Sri University Act, 2009. The Government of Odisha has leased out about 187 acres of land near Bidyadharpur, Cuttack for the purpose of setting up the university. The total area of construction is expected to be 3,000,000 square feet and is slated to be completed in a phased manner in the next six years. On completion, the university campus will cater to the needs of 10000 students and around 2000 faculty staff. The university currently offers MBA programs in Agribusiness, General Management and Entrepreneurship.[35]

Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar[edit]

The Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB) was established in 1987. It owes its origin to a contract between the government of Odisha and the Odisha Jesuit Society. XIMB is governed by a board consisting of representatives from the Odisha Jesuit Society, the government of India, the government of Odisha, and invited industrialists and academics.

XIMB has been ranked among the top 10 business schools in India. The institutions offers postgraduate programs, leading to Masters and PhD degrees in business management, rural management, as well several professional training programs.[36] It has a few research centers in areas such as entrepreneurship, utility regulation, small and micro enterprise development, and healthcare management. XIMB will establish a second campus in the outskirts of Bhubaneswar in 2011 to coincide with the institution's silver jubilee.[37]

Institutions through public-private partnership[edit]

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Berhampur[edit]

In June 2007, the UPA government in New Delhi decided to establish a central government funded IIITs in each state. The IIIT in Odisha would be established in Berhampur, and unlike its sister institute in Bhubaneswar, would receive funding from the center.[38]

The IIIT at Berhampur is being established on a 100-acre (0.40 km2) land and this is likely to be functional by end of 2009. This will help attracting more IT companies to South Odisha and the presence of STPI Berhampur and IT Park at Berhampur will also help. The Marine Bio-Technology Park is also planned for Berhampur.

Sambalpur University Institute of Information Technology, Sambalpur[edit]

Thanks to Prof. Arun Pujari, Sambalpur university will get an Indian Institutes of Information Technology like IT institution.[39][40]

Plans[edit]

Bhubaneswar as an emerging education hub[edit]

National institutes of excellence have been established recently in Bhubaneswar, while several more are planned, such as AIIMS, NISER, IIT, IIIT, and a National university. There are several prominent private universities, such as XIMB and ICFAI University. Other major upcoming prominent institutions, such as Sri Sri University, the National Law University of Orissa, as well as the world's biggest academic institution, Vedanta University, will be located in the neighboring cities of Cuttack and Puri.[41][42] Institutions dedicated to research such as the Institute of Physics, and the Institute of Mathematics and Applications are also located here. The presence of so many quality institutions within close proximity of one another, is expected to stimulate academic excellence in and around Bhubaneswar, and serve as a catalyst for future growth. Additionally, the city also houses several Odisha government funded public universities, and over 70 technical institutions, which well above than any other city in eastern India. The city is also being promoted as an Information Technology Investment Region (ITIR) by the government.[43] A total of 40 km2 of land has been allocated for the purpose, out of which about 60% will be devoted to research and development.[44] The Chief Minister of the state has asserted that Bhubaneswar is poised to emerge as India's foremost education hub.[45][46]

Odisha Higher Education Vision 2020[edit]

The Orissa Higher Education Vision 2020, an effort organized by leading national and international researchers, scientists, and academicians of Oriya origin, envisages a globally competitive higher education system in Orissa by 2020, with four tiered knowledge centers being developed throughout the state. An international level knowledge hub comparable to the San Francisco Bay Area or Boston metropolitan area in the USA is suggested in the rapidly expanding Bhubaneswar-Cuttack-Khurda-Puri metropolitan region. This will consist of several world class universities, technical and medical institutions, and laboratories, including NISER, IIT, IIIT, National University, National Law University, AIIMS, Vedanta University, Sri Sri University, NIPER, and several other new institutions to be established by the central government or through public-private partnership, as well as private institutions. At the second tier would be five other metropolitan regions, Rourkela, Sambalpur-Jharsuguda (IIHT Bargarh, OUAT branch at Chiplima, XIMB campus at Sambalpur, CIFT Burla, plan to upgrade VSS medical college and GM college to university status),[40] Berhampur, Balasore-Baripada, and Jeypore-Koraput-Sunabeda, each with two universities, multiple engineering and medical colleges, as well as one or more national level institutions. The third tier knowledge hubs, located in all urban areas throughout the state, would have a university, an autonomous college, as well as a medical and an engineering college. Lastly, the fourth tier would include smaller towns, which would have at least an autonomous college and a trade school.[47]

Under construction and planned medical and engineering colleges[edit]

Medical college Bhawanipatna[48] Medical college Keonjhar by ahayog Healthcare and Research Foundation[49] Medical college Jagatpur, Cuttack by ahayog Healthcare and Research Foundation[49] Medical college Talcher by MCL[49] Hitech medical college Rourkela[50] Medical college Rourkela by SAIL upgrading the IGH[51] Govt Medical college Bolangir and Balesore[52] Central university Koraput will establish a medical college at Koraput[52] ESIC medical college Bhubaneswar[53] AIIMS Bhubaneswar[54] Medical college at Angul.[55] University in western Orissa with the partnership between govt and industries[56] Upgradation Jharsuguda engineering school to engineering college[56] A medical college between jharsuguda and Sundargarh by the mines operating there[56] A power management institute to be established at Jharsuguda[56] 2 branch of XIMB bhubaneswar at Sambalpur and Bolangir[57]

Summary,[56][58][59]

State legislation pertaining to higher education[edit]

The Odisha state legislative assembly (Vidhan Sabha) will be formulating a Private Universities Act to facilitate the growth of private universities such as Vedanta university, Sri Sri university. The higher education department of the state will draft the bill, which will be referred to the law department, before being placed in the assembly. This bill would guarantee the fiscal and administrative autonomy for private institutions.[60][61][62]

Vedanta University act[edit]

The Odisha legislature was going to consider a specific act to make Vedanta university a statutory body.[citation needed] After the passage of the act, the university would have established its own, independent governing board, where the Odisha government would not exercise any control.[citation needed] Later news reports suggested that the plan for the Vedanta University was a "closed chapter" [63]

Former central government neglect of Odisha[edit]

Until 2007, the Ministry of Human Resources and Development (MHRD) of the Government of India had set up several premier technical institutes, across the country that produce India's world class talent pool in science, engineering, and management, and contribute strongly to the economic development of the state where they are located as well as the nation. These institutions included the original seven IITs, the Indian Institute of Science, the original five IIMs, the Indian Statistical Institute, several earlier central universities, and a few other smaller institutions, all of which receive direct funding from the center.[64] There were reports of large scale discrimination in setting up these institutions of higher learning against a few states, especially Odisha.[65] It was observed within scholarly circles that Odisha was routinely discriminated against by the Indian government, which had caused the state to lag behind the rest of the nation in terms of infrastructure, poverty reduction, literacy, education, and health until very recently.[66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73]

Until recently, none of the premier institutions of national importance were located in the state of Odisha.[74][75][76][77] In terms of per capita funding received from the HRD ministry, it was among the bottom-most of all states along with Bihar and Rajasthan, and a few very small states in the north eastern region.[64][78][79] The non-allocation of quality educational institutions to the state of Odisha by New Delhi has been interpreted by various quarters, ranging from politicians to Oriya academics living abroad, as proof of discrimination against the state by the HRD ministry. Odisha, which had 3.6% of the population of India, received a minuscule 0.73% of the allocated budget.[65][78][80][81][82] The inequitable distribution of resources by the central government to the various states was identified in 1991 as a cause of regional disparities.[80][83] Studies had blamed central government policies above any other factor, as the cause of Odisha's recent backwardness.[80][84][85][86][87][88][89]

There were also early allegations of discrimination in establishing newer institutions, such as the IIESTs, a group of technical institutions planned to be IIT clones. They were set up by upgrading existing NITs and other state funded prominent engineering institutions. Several institutions have been identified by the Indian government for this purpose,[90] but none in Odisha, which had the University College of Engineering at Burla, one of the oldest in India,[91] as well as NIT, Rourkela which ranked higher than four of the five institutions that were selected.[23] It has been alleged that the government had originally picked Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Odisha as one of the locations for an IISER, which was later shifted to Kolkata.[92]

As of 2009, there is a demand for one of the new IIMs to be established in Odisha, on grounds that the state is witnessing large-scale foreign investment, and because until recently, it had been the bottom-most state in Indian central government funded institutions.[93][94]

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External links[edit]