South Carolina

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State of South Carolina
Flag of South Carolina State seal of South Carolina
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Palmetto State
Motto(s): Dum spiro spero* (Latin)
Animis opibusque parati† (Latin), Prepared in Mind and Resources
Map of the United States with South Carolina highlighted
Official language English
Demonym South Carolinian
Capital
(and largest city)
Columbia
Largest metro Greenville
Area Ranked 40th
 - Total 32,020[1] sq mi
(82,931. km2)
 - Width 200 miles (320 km)
 - Length 260 miles (420 km)
 - % water 6
 - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N
 - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83° 21′ W
Population Ranked 24th
 - Total 4,774,839 (2013 est) [2]
 - Density 155/sq mi  (60.0/km2)
Ranked 19th
 - Median household income $44,625 (38th)
Elevation
 - Highest point Sassafras Mountain[3][4]
3,560 ft (1,085 m)
 - Mean 350 ft  (110 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[3]
sea level
Before statehood Province of South Carolina
Admission to Union May 23, 1788 (8th)
Governor Nikki Haley (R)
Lieutenant Governor Glenn McConnell (R)
Legislature General Assembly
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Lindsey Graham (R)
Tim Scott (R)
U.S. House delegation 6 Republicans, 1 Democrat (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC -5/-4
Abbreviations SC, US-SC
Website www.sc.gov
South Carolina State symbols
Flag of South Carolina.svg
The Flag of South Carolina.

Animate insignia
Amphibian Salamander
Bird(s) Carolina Wren, Wild Turkey
Butterfly Eastern tiger swallowtail
Fish Striped bass
Flower(s) South Carolina Yellow jessamine
Insect Carolina Mantis
Mammal(s) Carolina Marsh Tacky, Boykin Spaniel,[5] White-tailed deer
Reptile Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Tree Sabal palmetto

Inanimate insignia
Beverage Milk,[6] Tea[7]
Dance Shag
Food Peach,[8] Collard Greens,[9] Boiled peanuts[10]
Mineral Amethyst
Rock Blue granite
Slogan(s) Smiling Faces, Beautiful Places
Song(s) "Carolina",
"South Carolina On My Mind"

Route marker(s)
South Carolina Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of South Carolina
Released in 2000

Lists of United States state insignia

South Carolina Listeni/ˌsθ kærəˈlnə/ is a state in the Southeastern United States. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina; to the south and west by Georgia, located across the Savannah River; and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was the first of the 13 colonies that declared independence from the British Crown during the American Revolution.

South Carolina was the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, and the 8th state to ratify the US Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina later became the first state to vote to secede from the Union which it did on December 20, 1860. It was readmitted to the United States on June 25, 1868.[note 1]

South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 24th most populous of the 50 United States. South Carolina comprises 46 counties. The capital and largest city of the state is Columbia, while the largest MSA is Greenville.

Etymology[edit]

The colony of South Carolina was originally named by King Charles II of England in honor of his father Charles I, with (Carolus being Latin for Charles).

Geography[edit]

Table Rock State Park in the mountains of South Carolina
Beachcombers at Myrtle Beach photographed from the ninth floor of a resort hotel on the morning of July 16, 2012
Waterfall on Carrick Creek Nature Trail, in Table Rock State Park.

South Carolina is composed of five geographic areas, or physiographic provinces, whose boundaries roughly parallel the Atlantic coastline. In the southeast part of the state is the Coastal Plain, which can be divided into the Outer and Inner Coastal Plains. From north to south the coast is divided into three separate areas, the Grand Strand, the Santee River Delta, and the Sea Islands. Further inland are the Sandhills, ancient dunes from what used to be South Carolina's coast millions of years ago. The Fall Line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers, runs along the boundary of the Sandhills and the Piedmont, which has rolling hills and clay soils. In the northwest corner of the state are the Blue Ridge Mountains, the smallest geographical region in the state.

The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain. The bays tend to be oval, lining up in a northwest to southeast orientation. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed entirely of recent sediments such as sand, silt, and clay. Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland, though some land is swampy. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion.[11]

Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region. The Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher.

The Piedmont (Upstate) region contains the roots of an ancient, eroded mountain chain. It is generally hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, and contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed, with little success. It is now reforested. These forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion.[11] At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain. The fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia. The larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line, providing a trade route for mill towns.

The northwestern part of the Piedmont is also known as the Foothills. The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is where Table Rock State Park is located.

Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian chain. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet (1,090 m) is located in this area.[12] Also located in this area is Caesars Head State Park. The environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion.[11] The Chattooga River, located on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination.

Lakes[edit]

South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles (1,770 km2) The following are the lakes listed by size.[13]

Earthquakes[edit]

Earthquakes do occur in South Carolina. The greatest frequency is along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area. South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3 (FEMA). The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to ever hit the Southeastern United States. This 7.2 magnitude earthquake killed 60 people and destroyed much of the city.[14] Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries.

Climate[edit]

A map of the average annual precipitation in South Carolina

South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), although high elevation areas in the "Upstate" or "Upcountry" area have less subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F (30–34 °C) in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F (21–24 °C) on the coast and from 66–73 °F (19–23 °C) inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina.

Coastal areas of the state have very mild winters with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F (16 °C) and overnight lows in the 40s°F (5–8 °C). Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F (0 °C) in Columbia and temperatures well below freezing in the Upstate. While precipitation is abundant the entire year in almost the entire state, the coast tends to have a slightly wetter summer, while inland, March tends to be the wettest month and winter the driest season, with November being the driest month. The highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) in Johnston and Columbia on June 29, 2012 and the lowest recorded temperature is −19 °F (−28 °C) at Caesars Head on January 21, 1985.

Snowfall in South Carolina is somewhat uncommon in most of the state, while coastal areas receive less than an inch (2.5 cm) annually on average. It is not uncommon for areas along the coast (especially the southern coast) to receive no recordable snowfall in a given year. The interior receives a little more snow, although nowhere in the state averages more than 12 inches (30 cm) of snow annually. The mountains of extreme northwestern South Carolina tend to have the most substantial snow accumulation. Freezing rain and ice tend to be more common than snow and even rain in many areas of the state. Road bridges in South Carolina are commonly marked, "Bridge ices before road."

Hurricanes and tropical cyclones[edit]

Category 4 Hurricane Hugo in 1989

The state is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones. This is an annual concern during hurricane season, which lasts from June 1 to November 30. The peak time of vulnerability for the southeast Atlantic coast is from early August to early October, during the Cape Verde hurricane season. Memorable hurricanes to hit South Carolina include Hazel (1954), a Category 4 hurricane, and Hugo (1989), a Category 4 hurricane.[18] South Carolina averages around 50 days of thunderstorm activity a year. This is less than some of the states further south, and it is slightly less vulnerable to tornadoes than the states which border on the Gulf of Mexico. Some notable tornadoes have struck South Carolina and the state averages around 14 tornadoes annually. Hail is common with many of the thunderstorms in the state as there is often a marked contrast in temperature of warmer ground conditions compared to the cold air aloft.[18]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Arcadia Plantation, circa 1893, Georgetown County

The colony of Carolina was settled by wealthy nobles, mostly from Barbados.[19] King Charles gave eight aristocrats a royal charter to settle Carolina (Carolina is Latin for "Charles land") because earlier they had helped him regain his throne. Parts of Carolina (mostly the coastal areas) were colonized earlier by Spain (see Fort Caroline), but battles between the Spanish and the Native Americans caused the Spanish people to retreat to Florida, Cuba, Mexico, and Central and South America.

Carolina was settled to make profit from trade and also by selling land. John Locke, an English philosopher, wrote a constitution for the colony that covered topics such as land divisions and social rankings. In the early years, not many people bought land there, so the proprietors lowered the price on some portions.

Carolina did not develop as planned. It split into northern and southern Carolina, creating two different colonies. It separated because of political reasons as the settlers wanted political power. In 1719 settlers in southern Carolina seized control from its proprietors. Then, in 1729, Carolina became two royal colonies- North Carolina and South Carolina. Farmers from inland Virginia settled northern Carolina. They grew tobacco, and sold timber and tar, both categories of naval supplies needed by England. The northern Carolina coast lacked a good harbor, so many of the farmers used Virginia's ports to conduct their trade.

Southern Carolina prospered from the fertility of the Low Country and the harbors, such as that at Charles Town (later Charleston). It allowed religious toleration, encouraging settlement by merchants from the successful French Huguenot and Sephardic Jewish communities of London.[20] Settlements spread, and trade in deerskin, lumber, and beef thrived. Rice cultivation was developed on a large scale with the help of skills and techniques of slaves imported from rice-growing regions of Africa. They created the large earthworks of dams and canals required to irrigate the rice fields. In addition, indigo became a commodity crop, also developed with the skills of African slaves.

The cultivation and processing of Indigo plant, a blue flowering plant, was developed here by a young English woman, Eliza Lucas, a planter's daughter who had come with her father, also a military officer, from the Caribbean. She took over managing the plantation when he was assigned elsewhere. Indigo became an important commodity crop for the dyeing of textiles. Slave labor was integral to the economic success of rice and indigo as commodity crops. In South Carolina, the number of slaves exceeded the population of Anglo-European colonists by the time of the Revolution, a characteristic of the state through the American Civil War.

The American Revolution[edit]

This historic home is at "The Battery", a neighborhood/park area at the Downtown historic district of Charleston – a well-known historical city in South Carolina. "The Battery" is also known as White Point Gardens.

On March 26, 1776, the colony adopted the Constitution of South Carolina becoming the first republic in America.[21] John Rutledge was elected as the state's first president. He was succeeded by Rawlins Lowndes who served March 6, 1778 – January 9, 1779. On February 5, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, the initial governing document of the United States.

In 1780, South Carolinian loyalists to the British crown helped British troops recapture South Carolina from the previously successful rebels. On January 17, 1781, the Battle of Cowpens won by the American forces, marked the beginning of the decline in British fortunes. In 1782 they decided to evacuate their troops by the end of the year. Thousands of Loyalists and slaves left with them.

The current United States Constitution was proposed for adoption by the States on September 17, 1787, and South Carolina was the 8th state to ratify it, on May 23, 1788.

The American Revolution caused a shock to slavery in the South. Many thousands of slaves fled to British authorities to obtain freedom; and many of those left with the British in the last days of the war. Others secured their freedom by escaping to perceived friendlier locations during the turmoil. Estimates are that 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the disruption of the war.[22]

Federal Period[edit]

South Carolina politics between 1783 and 1795 were marred by rivalry between a Federalist elite supporting the central government in Philadelphia and a large proportion of common people. The latter were often members of 'Republican Societies', and they supported the Republican-Democrats, headed by Jefferson and Madison. This party wanted more democracy in the US, especially in South Carolina. Sephardic Jews had prospered in contributing to the state and by 1800, South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in the United States.[20]

Most people supported the French Revolution (1789–1795), as the French had been allies and they were proud of their own revolution. In addition, due to substantial French Huguenot immigration during the colonial years, Charleston was one of the most French-influenced cities in the USA. Leading South Carolina figures, such as governors Charles Pinckney and William Moultrie, backed with money and actions the French plans to further their political, strategic, and commercial goals in North America. This pro-French stance and attitude of South Carolina ended soon because of the XYZ Affair.

Antebellum[edit]

Millford Plantation (1839–41), one of the best examples of Greek Revival architecture in the United States.

Antebellum South Carolina did more to advance nullification and secession than any other Southern state. Their first attempt at nullification was in 1822 following a slave rebellion led by Denmark Vesey. The state responded by passing a Negro Seamen Act, later declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court Justice William Johnson. His ruling was not enforced. In 1832, a South Carolina state convention passed the Ordinance of Nullification, declaring the Federal tariff laws of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional, null and not to be enforced in the state of South Carolina after February 1, 1833.

This led to the Nullification Crisis, in which U.S. President Andrew Jackson,the only president as yet to have been born in South Carolina, received congressional authorization, through the Force Bill, to use whatever military force necessary to enforce Federal law in the state. This was the first U.S. legislation denying individual states the right to secede. As a result of Jackson's threat of force, the South Carolina state convention was re-convened and repealed the Ordinance of Nullification in March.

Anti-abolitionist feelings ran strong in South Carolina. In 1856, Democrat South Carolina congressman Preston Brooks entered the United States Senate chamber and, with a metal-tipped cane, beat Massachusetts Republican Senator Charles Sumner. He drew blood and injured Sumner badly enough that the latter was unable to serve for several months. Brooks was retaliating for a speech Sumner had just given in which he attacked slavery and insulted South Carolinians. Brooks resigned his seat but received a hero's welcome on returning home.

The Civil War[edit]

On December 20, 1860, when it became clear that Abraham Lincoln would be the next president, South Carolina became the first state to declare its secession from the Union. On April 12, 1861, Confederate batteries began shelling Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, and the American Civil War began. The Union Navy effectively blockaded Charleston and seized the Sea Islands. Planters had taken their families (and sometimes slaves) to points inland for refuge.

The Union Army set up an experiment in freedom for the ex-slaves, in which they started education and farmed land for themselves. South Carolina troops participated in major Confederate campaigns, but no major battles were fought inland. General William Tecumseh Sherman marched through the state in early 1865, destroying numerous plantations, and captured the state capital of Columbia on February 17. Fires began that night and by next morning, most of the central city was destroyed. South Carolina suffered 18,666 military deaths during the Civil War, which was nearly one-third of the white male population of fighting age.[23]

Coastal towns and cities often have hurricane-resistant Live oaks overarching the streets in historic neighborhoods, such as these on East Bay Street, Georgetown.

Reconstruction[edit]

After the war, South Carolina was restored to the United States during Reconstruction. Under presidential Reconstruction (1865–66), freedmen (former slaves) were given limited rights. Under Radical reconstruction (1867–1877), a Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags was in control, supported by Union Army forces. They established public education, welfare institutions, and home rule for counties, expanding democracy.

Until the 1868 presidential election, South Carolina's legislature, not the voters, chose the state's electors for the presidential election. South Carolina was the last state to choose its electors in this manner. On October 19, 1871 President Ulysses S. Grant suspended habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties under the authority of the Ku Klux Klan Act.[24] Led by Grant's Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, hundreds of Klansmen were arrested while 2000 Klansmen fled the state.[24] This was done in order to suppress Klan violence against African American and white voters in the South.[24] In the mid to late 1870s, white Democrats used paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts to intimidate and terrorize black voters. They regained political control of the state under conservative white "Redeemers" and pro-business Bourbon Democrats. In 1877, the federal government withdrew its troops as part of the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction.

Populist and Agrarian movements[edit]

The state became a hotbed of racial and economic tensions during the Populist and Agrarian movements of the 1890s. White Democrats gained passage of a new constitution in 1895 that effectively disfranchised almost all blacks and many poor whites by new requirements for poll taxes, residency, and literacy tests that dramatically reduced the voter rolls. By 1896, only 5,500 black voters remained on the voter registration rolls, although they represented a majority of the state's population.[25] The 1900 census demonstrated the extent of disfranchisement: the 782,509 African American citizens comprised more than 58% of the state's population, but they were essentially without any political representation in the Jim Crow society.[26]

Governor "Pitchfork Ben Tillman", a Populist, had led the disfranchisement effort. He controlled state politics from the 1890s to 1910 with a base among poor white farmers. During the constitutional convention in 1895, he supported another man's proposal that the state adopt a one-drop rule, as well as prohibit marriage between whites and anyone with any known African ancestry. Some members of the convention realized that prominent white families could be affected. In terms similar to a debate in Virginia in 1853 on a similar proposal, George Dionysius Tillman said the following in opposition:

"If the law is made as it now stands respectable families in Aiken, Barnwell, Colleton, and Orangeburg will be denied the right to intermarry among people with whom they are now associated and identified. At least one hundred families would be affected to my knowledge. They have sent good soldiers to the Confederate Army, and are now landowners and taxpayers. Those men served creditably, and it would be unjust and disgraceful to embarrass them in this way. It is a scientific fact that there is not one full-blooded Caucasian on the floor of this convention. Every member has in him a certain mixture of… colored blood. The pure-blooded white has needed and received a certain infusion of darker blood to give him readiness and purpose. It would be a cruel injustice and the source of endless litigation, of scandal, horror, feud, and bloodshed to undertake to annul or forbid marriage for a remote, perhaps obsolete trace of Negro blood. The doors would be open to scandal, malice and greed; to statements on the witness stand that the father or grandfather or grandmother had said that A or B had Negro blood in their veins. Any man who is half a man would be ready to blow up half the world with dynamite to prevent or avenge attacks upon the honor of his mother in the legitimacy or purity of the blood of his father."[27][28][29][30]

The state postponed such a one-drop law for years. Note: Virginia adopted a one-drop law in 1924, forgetting that it also had many people of mixed ancestry among those who identified as whites.

Women's rights[edit]

As of 2012, South Carolina had the lowest percentage among all states of women in state legislature at 10.0% (the national average is 23.7%; the highest percentage is in Colorado at 40%).[31] In 2011, South Carolina ranked first in the country in the rate of women killed by men.[32] South Carolina was one of several states that initially rejected the Nineteenth Amendment. The South Carolina legislature later ratified the amendment on July 1, 1969.

20th century and beyond[edit]

Early in the 20th century, South Carolina developed a thriving textile industry. The state also converted its agricultural base from cotton to more profitable crops, attracted large military bases, and created tourism industries. As the 21st century progresses, South Carolina attracts new business by having a 5% corporate income tax rate, no state property tax, no local income tax, no inventory tax, no sales tax on manufacturing equipment, industrial power or materials for finished products, no wholesale tax, no unitary tax on worldwide profits.[33]

Of extended controversy has been the state's display of the flags of the Confederate States of America, which was raised on the state capitol in 1962. The state capitol is located directly next to the University of South Carolina campus, so the move was seen as a protest against the court-ordered desegregation of the schools.[34][35] A lawsuit calling for the flag to be removed was filed in 1994.[36] On July 1, 2000, South Carolina became the last state to remove the Confederate flag, placed there in 1962, during Democratic Governor Fritz Hollings' term in office, from over its statehouse. The state Senate had approved a bill for its removal on April 12, 2000, by a margin of 36 to 7; the bill had specified that a Confederate flag be flown in front of the Capitol next to a monument honoring fallen Confederate soldiers. Debate was more heated in the state House of Representatives, which passed the bill on May 18, 2000, by a margin of only 66 to 43, after including a measure ensuring that the Confederate flag by the monument be 30 feet (9.1 m) high.[37]

The flag by the monument continues to fuel controversy. The NAACP maintains an economic boycott of the state of South Carolina. The NCAA refuses to allow South Carolina to host NCAA athletic events whose locations are determined in advance. On July 6, 2009, the Atlantic Coast Conference announced a decision to move three future baseball tournaments out of South Carolina, citing concerns by the NAACP over the continuing state-sponsored display of the Confederate flag.[38]

Starting January 1, 2013, South Carolina will be one of the first states that will no longer pay for early elective deliveries of babies for both Medicaid and private insurance. The term early elective is defined as an labor induction or caesarean section between 37–39 weeks with absolutely no medical reason at all. This change is intended to result in healthier babies and less needless costs for South Carolina.[39]

In 2014, South Carolina was rated America's worst and poorest for its widespread, unclean, littered public properties, in the American State Litter Scorecard, presented at the American Society for Public Administration conference in Washington, DC[40][41]

Demographics[edit]

Greenville skyline at twilight.

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of South Carolina was 4,723,723 on July 1, 2012, a 2.1% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[42]

As of the 2010 census, the racial make up of the state is 66.2% White (64.1% non-Hispanic white), 27.9% Black or African American, 0.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.3% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 1.7% from two or more races. 5.1% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).[43]

South Carolina Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990[44] 2000[45] 2010[46]
White 69.0% 67.2% 66.2%
Black 29.8% 29.5% 27.9%
Asian 0.6% 0.9% 1.3%
Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.4%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
- - 0.1%
Other race 0.3% 1.0% 2.5%
Two or more races - 1.0% 1.7%

According to the United States Census Bureau, as of 2012, South Carolina had an estimated population of 4,723,723, which is an increase of 44,493 from the prior year and an increase of 98,359, or 2.1%, since the year 2010. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 36,401 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 115,084 people. According to the University of South Carolina's Arnold School of Public Health, Consortium for Latino Immigration Studies, South Carolina's foreign-born population grew faster than any other state between 2000 and 2005.[47][48]

An August 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found that 21% of South Carolina voters thought that same-sex marriage should be legal, while 69% thought it should be illegal and 10% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found that 48% of South Carolina voters supported the legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 19% supporting same-sex marriage, 29% supporting civil unions but not marriage, 51% favoring no legal recognition and 2% not sure.[49]

Religion[edit]

  • Christian 85%
    • Baptist 41%
    • Methodist 15%
    • Catholic 7%
    • Presbyterian 5%
    • Pentecostal 3%
    • Episcopal 2%
    • Lutheran 2%
    • Assemblies of God 1%
    • Other Christian 9%
  • No religion 7%

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives(ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations were the Southern Baptist Convention with 913,763 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 274,111 adherents, and the Roman Catholic Church with 181,743 adherents. Forth largest is the African Methodist Episcopal Church with 564 congreagtions and 121,000 members and fifth largest is the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 320 congregations and almost 100,000 members.[50]

Largest cities, 2012[edit]

In 2011, the US Census Bureau released 2012 population estimates for South Carolina's ten most populous cities. (Please note that South Carolina's laws makes annexation difficult, so some cities such as Greenville are much larger than are said to be).[51]

Largest cities, 2012 Estimate
City Population
Columbia
131,686
Charleston
125,583
North Charleston
101,989
Mount Pleasant
69,357
Rock Hill
68,094
Greenville
60,709
Summerville
44,719
Sumter
40,836
Florence
39,447
Hilton Head Island
38,366

Economy[edit]

The Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge from Charleston Harbor.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, South Carolina's gross state product (GSP) in current dollars was $97 billion in 1997, and $153 billion in 2007. Its per-capita real gross domestic product (GDP) in chained 2000 dollars was $26,772 in 1997, and $28,894 in 2007; that represents 85% of the $31,619 per-capita real GDP for the United States overall in 1997, and 76% of the $38,020 for the U.S. in 2007. The state debt in 2012 was calculated by one source to be $22.9bn, or $7,800 per taxpayer.[52]

Major agricultural outputs of the state are: tobacco, poultry, cattle, dairy products, soybeans, hay, rice, and swine. Industrial outputs include: textile goods, chemical products, paper products, machinery, automobiles and automotive products and tourism.[53][54] According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of March 2012, South Carolina has 1,852,700 nonfarm jobs of which 12% are in manufacturing, 11.5% are in leisure and hospitality, 19% are in trade, transportation and utilities, and 11.8% are in education and health services. The service sector accounts for 83.7% of the South Carolina economy.[55]

BMW Spartanburg factory

During the economic downturn in the Late 2000s Recession, South Carolina's Unemployment Rate peaked at 12.0% for November and December 2009. It is continuing a steady decline with an unemployment rate of 8.9% as of March 2012.[56]

Many large corporations have moved their locations to South Carolina. South Carolina is a right-to-work state[57] and many businesses utilize staffing agencies to temporarily fill positions. This labor force is appealing to companies because of lower wages and no responsibility of maintaining healthcare benefits for its temporary employees. Domtar, located in Rock Hill is the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in South Carolina.[58] The Fortune 1000 list includes SCANA, Sonoco Products and ScanSource.

South Carolina also benefits from foreign investment. There are 1,950 foreign-owned firms operating in South Carolina employing almost 135,000 people.[59] Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) brought 1.06 billion dollars to the state economy in 2010.[60] Since 1994, BMW has had a production facility in Spartanburg.

The Arts[edit]

South Carolina has many venues for visual and performing arts. The Gibbes Museum of Art in Charleston, the Greenville County Museum of Art, the Columbia Museum of Art, Spartanburg Art Museum, and the South Carolina State Museum in Columbia among others provide access to visual arts to the state. There are also numerous historic sites and museums scattered throughout the state paying homage to many events and periods in the state’s history from Native American inhabitation to the present day.

South Carolina also has performing art venues including the Peace Center in Greenville, the Koger Center for the Arts in Columbia, the North Charleston Coliseum in The City of North Charleston, and the Newberry Opera House, among others to bring local, national, and international talent to the stages of South Carolina.

There are also countless local festivals throughout the state highlighting many cultural traditions, historical events, and folklore.

According to the South Carolina Arts Commission, creative industries generate $9.2 billion annually and support over 78,000 jobs in the state.[61] A 2009 statewide poll by the University of South Carolina Institute for Public Service and Policy Research found that 67% of residents had participated in the arts in some form during the past year and on average citizens had participated in the arts 14 times in the previous year.

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Major interstate highways passing through include: I-20 which runs from Florence in the east through Columbia to the southwestern border near Aiken; I-26 which runs from Charleston in the southeast through Columbia to Spartanburg and the northern border in Spartanburg County; I-77 which runs from York County in the north to Columbia; I-85 which runs from Cherokee County in the north through Spartanburg and Greenville to the southwestern border in Oconee County; I-385 which runs from Greenville and intersects with I-26 near Clinton; and I-95 which runs from the northeastern border in Dillon County to Florence and on to the southern border in Jasper County.

In March 2014, "The American State Litter Scorecard," presented at the American Society for Public Administration conference, rated South Carolina the bottom-most "Worst" government in the United States, for non-removals of litter and debris from public properties such as highways and beaches.[62][63] The Scorecard also rated South Carolina a "worst" government in 2008. The state has an extremely high fatality rate from litter/debris-related vehicle accidents, according to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data.[64]

Rail[edit]

Passenger[edit]

Amtrak operates four passenger routes in South Carolina: the Crescent, the Palmetto, the Silver Meteor, and the Silver Star. The Crescent route serves the Upstate cities, the Silver Star serves the Midlands cities, and the Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes serve the Lowcountry cities.

Station stops[edit]

Station Connections
Camden
North Charleston
Columbia
Clemson
Denmark
Dillon
Florence
Greenville
Kingstree
Spartanburg
Yemassee

Freight[edit]

CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern are the only Class I railroad companies in South Carolina, as other freight companies in the state are shortlines.

Major and regional airports[edit]

There are seven significant airports in South Carolina, all of which act as regional airport hubs. The busiest by passenger volume is Charleston International Airport.[65] Just across the border in North Carolina is Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, the 30th busiest airport in the world, in terms of passengers.[66]

Government and politics[edit]

South Carolina's state government consists of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches. Also relevant are the state constitution, law enforcement agencies, federal representation, state finances, and state taxes.

South Carolina has historically had a weak executive branch and a strong legislature. Before 1865, governors in South Carolina were appointed by the General Assembly, and held the title "President of State." The 1865 Constitution changed this process, requiring a popular election. Local governments were also weak. But, the 1867 Constitution, passed during the Reconstruction era, extended democratization by establishing home rule for counties, which were established from the former designated districts of the state.

In 1926 the governor's term was changed from two to four years. In 1982 the constitution was amended to allow governors to run for a second term. In 1993 a limited cabinet was created, all of whom must be popularly elected.

Education[edit]

As of 2010, South Carolina is one of three states that has not agreed to use competitive international math and language standards.[67]

South Carolina has 1,144 K-12 schools in 85 school districts, with an enrollment of 712,244 as of fall 2009.[68][69] As of the 2008–2009 school year, South Carolina spent $9,450 per student which places it 31st in the country for per student spending.[70] In 2011, the average SAT score for South Carolina was 1360.[71]

Institutions of higher education[edit]

South Carolina has a diverse group of institutions of higher education, from large state-funded research universities to small colleges that cultivate a liberal arts, religious or military tradition, including the following:

Listed in order of date of founding
  • The College of Charleston, founded in 1770 and chartered in 1785, is the oldest institution of higher learning in South Carolina, the 13th oldest in the United States, and the first municipal college in the country. The College is in company with the Colonial Colleges as one the original and foundational institutions of higher education in the United States. Its founders include three signers of the United States Declaration of Independence and three signers of the United States Constitution. The College's historic campus, which is listed on the U.S. Department of the Interior's National Register of Historic Places, forms an integral part of Charleston's colonial-era urban center. As one of the leading institutions of higher education in its class in the Southeastern United States,[72] the College of Charleston is celebrated nationally for its focus on undergraduate education with strengths in Marine Biology, Classics, Art History and Historic Preservation. The Graduate School of the College of Charleston, offers a number of degree programs and coordinates support for its nationally recognized faculty research efforts. According to the Princeton Review, C of C is one of the nation's best institutions for undergraduate education and U.S. News & World Report regularly ranks C of C among the best masters level universities in the South. C of C presently enrolls approximately 10,000 undergraduates and 2,000 graduate students.
Furman University bell tower near Greenville.
  • Furman University is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian, liberal arts university in Greenville. Founded in 1826, Furman enrolls approximately 2,600 undergraduate and 500 graduate students. Furman is the largest private institution in South Carolina. The university is primarily focused on undergraduate education (only two departments, education and chemistry, offer graduate degrees).
  • The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston. Founded in 1842, the college is best known for its undergraduate Corps of Cadets military program for men and women, which combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. In addition to the cadet program, civilian programs are offered through The Citadel Graduate College with its evening certificate, undergraduate and graduate programs. The Citadel enrolls 2,200 undergraduate cadets in its residential military program and 1,200 civilian students in the evening programs.
  • Wofford College is a small liberal arts college located in Spartanburg. Wofford was founded in 1854 with a bequest of $100,000 from the Rev. Benjamin Wofford (1780–1850), a Methodist minister and Spartanburg native who sought to create a college for "literary, classical, and scientific education in my native district of Spartanburg." Wofford is one of the few four-year institutions in the southeastern United States founded before the American Civil War and still operating on its original campus.
  • Lander University is a public liberal arts university located in Greenwood. Lander was founded in 1872 as Willamston Female College.[73] The school relocated to Greenwood in 1904 and was renamed Lander College in honor of its founder, Samuel Lander. In 1973 Lander became part of the state's higher education system and is now a co-educational institution. The university is focused on undergraduate education and currently enrolls approximately 2,800 undergraduates. It also has graduate programs in education.
  • Presbyterian College (PC) is a private liberal arts college founded in 1880 in Clinton. Presbyterian College is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA, and enrolls around 1300 undergraduate students. In 2007, Washington Monthly ranked PC as the No. 1 Liberal Arts College in the nation.[74]
  • Winthrop University, founded in 1886 as an all-female teaching school in Rock Hill, became a co-ed institution in 1974. Winthrop is now a public university that has an enrollment of just over 6,000 students. It is one of the fastest growing universities in the state, with several new academic and recreational buildings being added to the main campus in the past five years, as well as several more planned for the near future. The Richard W. Riley College of Education is still the school's most well-known area of study.
  • Clemson University, founded in 1889, is a public, coeducational, land-grant research university located in Clemson. Clemson The University currently enrolls more than 18,000 students from all 50 states and from more than 70 countries. Clemson is currently in the process of expanding, by adding the CU-ICAR, or the Center for Automotive Research, in partnership with BMW and Michelin. The facility will offer an M.S. and PhD in Automotive Engineering. Clemson is also the home to the South Carolina Botanical Garden. According to U.S. News & World Report, Clemson University is a top-25 national public university, and the highest ranked public university in the state of South Carolina, with no other university ranking in the top 50. Clemson also boasts over 2/3 of the state's Life and Palmetto Fellows Scholarship recipients.
  • South Carolina State University, founded in 1896, is a historically black university located in Orangeburg. Established under the administration of Benjamin Tillman, it is the only state-supported land grant institution in the state. SCSU has a current enrollment of nearly 5,000, and offers undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate degrees. SCSU boasts the only Doctor of Education program in the state.
  • Charleston Southern University, founded in 1969, is a liberal arts university, and is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention. Charleston Southern (CSU) is located on 300 acres, formerly the site of a rice and indigo plantation, in the City of North Charleston one of South Carolina’s largest accredited, independent universities, enrolling approximately 3,200 students. CSU has been named to America's 100 Best College Buys, Military Friendly Schools, America’s Best Christian Colleges, VA Yellow Ribbon Program and The President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll. Charleston Southern's Vison is to be a Christian University nationally recognized for integrating faith in learning, leading and serving.
  • Anderson University, founded in 1911, is a selective comprehensive university located in Anderson, offering bachelors and masters degrees in approximately 50 areas of study. Anderson University currently enrolls around 2,300 students.

Webster University, founded in 1915 in St. Louis, MO, with 5 extended campuses in SC, offers undergraduate and graduate degrees.

  • Bob Jones University, founded in 1927, is a non-denominational University founded on fundamentalist Christian beliefs (e.g., inspiration and inerrancy of the Scriptures, the creation of man by the direct act of God, the fall of man, the "young earth" and flood geology, and man's need for personal faith in the finished work of the Lord Jesus Christ). Originally based in Florida, after a move to Tennessee, the school finally settled in South Carolina.[75] With 4000 students from all 50 states and more than 100 countries the school is larger than Wofford, Furman and Presbyterian College. BJU also offers over 60 undergraduate majors and has over 70 graduate programs.[76]
  • Coastal Carolina University, founded in 1954, Coastal became an independent university in 1993. The University enrolls approximately 8,300 students on its 307-acre (1.24 km2) campus. Baccalaureate programs are offered in 51 major fields of study, along with graduate programs in education, business administration (MBA) and coastal marine and wetland studies.

Universities and colleges ranked by endowment[edit]

State Rank National Rank Institution Location Public or Private Endowment Funds Percentage Change YOY
2 129 Furman University Greenville, South Carolina Private $498,282,000 12.2%
1 145 University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina Public $513,945,000 5.8%
3 153 Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina Public $382,189,000 15.4%
4 253 Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina Public $181,554,000 24.6%
5 259 The Citadel Charleston, South Carolina Public $179,289,000 7.5%
6 308 Wofford College Spartanburg, South Carolina Private $138,211,000 9.4%
7 442 Presbyterian College Clinton, South Carolina Private $57,586,000 11.8%
9 762 Spartanburg Methodist College Spartanburg, South Carolina Private $15,384,000 9.1%
10 782 Tri-County Technical College Pendleton, South Carolina Public $12,954,000 8.7%
11 847 Midlands Technical College Columbia, South Carolina Public $4,717,000 13.1%
8 210 Anderson University Anderson, SC Private $32,162,012 17.8%

Florence

Health care[edit]

For overall health care, South Carolina is ranked 33rd out of the 50 states, according to the Commonwealth Fund, a private health foundation working to improve the health care system.[78] The state’s teen birth rate was 53 births per 1000 teens, compared to the average of 41.9 births for the US, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation.[79] The state’s infant mortality rate was 9.4 deaths per 1000 births compared to the US average of 6.9 deaths.[80]

There were 2.6 physicians per 1000 people compared to the US average of 3.2 physicians.[81] There was $5114 spent on health expenses per capita in the state, compared to the US average of $5283.[82] There were 26 percent of children and 13 percent of elderly living in poverty in the state, compared to 23 percent and 13 percent, respectively, doing so in the US.[83] And, 34 percent of children were overweight or obese, compared to the US average of 32 percent.[84]

Sports[edit]

Although no Major League professional franchises are actually based in South Carolina, the state is represented by North Carolina professional teams. However, the Carolina Panthers do have training facilities in this state. The state does have numerous minor league teams. College teams represent their particular South Carolina institution. South Carolina is also a top destination for golf and water sports.

Federal lands in South Carolina[edit]

Access to Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, where the American Civil War began in 1861, requires a half-hour ferry ride each way.

Miscellaneous topics[edit]

Famous people from South Carolina[edit]

A number of influential individuals in American life are from South Carolina. Please see main article: List of people from South Carolina

Alcohol laws[edit]

The alcohol laws of South Carolina are part of the state's history. Voters endorsed prohibition in 1892 but instead were given the "Dispensary System" of state-owned liquor stores. Currently, certain counties may enforce time restrictions for beer and wine sales in stores, although there are no dry counties in South Carolina.

Indoor smoking laws[edit]

South Carolina has no statewide smoke-free indoor workplace law. On March 31, 2008, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled that cities, counties, and towns may enact smoke-free laws which are more stringent than state law.[85] As of July 2012, five South Carolina counties and 43 cities and towns have adopted smoke-free laws.

South Carolina singularities[edit]

  • Adjutant general: The head of the state's national guard, the adjutant general, is a statewide elected official.[86]
  • Driving Under the Influence: South Carolina is the only state in the nation with mandatory videotaping by the arresting officer of the DUI arrest and breath test.[87]
  • Fire Safety Regulations: South Carolina is the only state that allows fire officials to sidestep a federal regulation requiring that for every employee doing hazardous work inside a building, one must be outside.[88]
  • School Buses: South Carolina is the only state in the nation that owns and operates its own school bus fleet.[89][90]
  • Strokes: South Carolina has the highest rate of stroke deaths in the nation.[91]
  • Cigarette tax stamps: one of only three states (along with North Carolina and South Dakota) not to require a stamp certifying state tax has been paid on tobacco products.[92]
  • Outdoor Sculpture: South Carolina is home to the world's largest collection of outdoor sculpture located at Brookgreen Gardens.[93]
  • Landscaped gardens: South Carolina is home to the oldest landscaped gardens in the United States, at Middleton Place near Charleston.[94]
  • First indigo planted, 1671 by Moses Lindo, a Portuguese Jewish (Sephardic) man who had fled the Inquisition[20]
  • First person of Jewish faith elected to public office in the territory of the United States of America, 1774. Francis Salvador, a Sephardic Jew, was elected to the General Assembly[20]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Texas vs. White (1869), the Supreme Court ruled that the ordinances of secession (including that of South Carolina) were invalid, and thus those states had never left the Union. However, South Carolina did not regain representation in Congress until that date.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

Textbooks and surveys
  • Bass, Jack (1970). Porgy Comes Home: South Carolina After 300 Years. Sandlapper. OCLC 724061. ISBN 9999555071. 
  • Coker, P. C., III (1987). Charleston's Maritime Heritage, 1670–1865: An Illustrated History. Charleston, SC: Coker-Craft. ISBN 978-0-914432-03-6. 
  • Edgar, Walter (1998). South Carolina: A History. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-255-6. 
  • Edgar, Walter, ed. (2006). The South Carolina Encyclopedia. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-598-9. 
  • Rogers, George C., Jr. & Taylor, C. James (1994). A South Carolina Chronology, 1497–1992 (2nd ed.). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-971-5. 
  • Wallace, David Duncan (1951). South Carolina: A Short History, 1520–1948. ISBN 0-87249-079-3. 
  • WPA (1941). South Carolina: A Guide to the Palmetto State. ISBN 0-87249-603-1. 
  • Wright, Louis B. (1977). South Carolina: A Bicentennial History. ISBN 0-393-05560-4. 
Scholarly secondary studies
  • Bass, Jack and Marilyn W. Thompson. Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond,. Longstreet Press, 1998. ISBN 1-56352-523-2.
  • Busick, Sean R. A Sober Desire for History: William Gilmore Simms as Historian., 2005. ISBN 1-57003-565-2.
  • Clarke, Erskine. Our Southern Zion: A History of Calvinism in the South Carolina Low Country, 1690–1990 (1996)ISBN 978-0-8173-0757-8.
  • Channing, Steven. Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina (1970)
  • Cohodas, Nadine. Strom Thurmond and the Politics of Southern Change,. Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN 978-0-671-68935-3.
  • Coit, Margaret L. John C. Calhoun: American Portrait (1950)ISBN 9780872497757.
  • Crane, Verner W. The Southern Frontier, 1670–1732 (1956)ISBN 9780817350826.
  • Ford Jr., Lacy K. Origins of Southern Radicalism: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800–1860 (1991) ISBN 978-0-19-506961-7.
  • Hindus, Michael S. Prison and Plantation: Crime, Justice, and Authority in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 1767–1878 (1980)ISBN 978-0807814178.
  • Johnson Jr., George Lloyd. The Frontier in the Colonial South: South Carolina Backcountry, 1736–1800 (1997)ISBN 978-0313301797.
  • Jordan, Jr., Frank E. The Primary State – A History of the Democratic Party in South Carolina, 1876–1962, Columbia, SC, 1967
  • Keyserling, Harriet. Against the Tide: One Woman's Political Struggle. University of South Carolina Press, 1998. ISBN 978-1-57003-271-4.
  • Kantrowitz, Stephen. Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (2002)ISBN 978-0-8078-4839-5.
  • Lau, Peter F. Democracy Rising: South Carolina And the Fight for Black Equality Since 1865 (2006)ISBN 978-0813123936.
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States; (1974)ISBN 9780393054965.
  • Rogers, George C. Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith of Charleston (1758–1812) (1962)
  • Rosengarten, Dale and Ted. (2003) A Portion of the People: Three Hundred Years of Southern Jewish Life. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press
  • Schultz Harold S. Nationalism and Sectionalism in South Carolina, 1852–1860 (1950)
  • Simon, Bryant. A Fabric of Defeat: The Politics of South Carolina Millhands, 1910–1948 (1998)ISBN 0-8078-4704-6.
  • Simkins, Francis Butler. The Tillman Movement in South Carolina (1926)
  • Simkins, Francis Butler. Pitchfork Ben Tillman: South Carolinian (1944)
  • Simkins, Francis Butler, and Robert Hilliard Woody. South Carolina during Reconstruction (1932).
  • Sinha, Manisha. The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (2000)
  • Smith, Samuel C. A Cautious Enthusiasm: Mystical Piety and Evangelicalism in Colonial South Carolina. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2013.
  • Smith, Warren B. White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina (1961)ISBN 9780872490789.
  • Tullos, Allen Habits of Industry: White Culture and the Transformation of the Carolina Piedmont (1989)ISBN 9780807842478.
  • Williamson Joel R. After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861–1877 (1965)
  • Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion (1996)ISBN 978-0393314823.
Local studies
  • Bass, Jack and Jack Nelson.The Orangeburg Massacre,. Mercer University Press, 1992.
  • Burton, Orville Vernon. In My Father's House Are Many Mansions: Family and Community in Edgefield, South Carolina (1985), social history
  • Carlton, David L. Mill and Town in South Carolina, 1880–1920 (1982)
  • Clarke, Erskine. Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic (2005)
  • Danielson, Michael N. Profits and Politics in Paradise: The Development of Hilton Head Island,. University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
  • Doyle, Don H. New Men, New Cities, New South: Atlanta, Nashville, Charleston, Mobile, 1860–1910 (1990)
  • Huff, Jr., Archie Vernon. Greenville: The History of the City and County in the South Carolina Piedmont, University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
  • Moore, John Hammond. Columbia and Richland County: A South Carolina Community, 1740–1990, University of South Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Moredock, Will. Banana Republic: A Year in the Heart of Myrtle Beach,. Frontline Press, 2003.
  • Pease, William H. and Jane H. Pease. The Web of Progress: Private Values and Public Styles in Boston and Charleston, 1828–1843 (1985),
  • Robertson, Ben. Red Hills and Cotton,. USC Press (reprint), 1991.
  • Rose, Willie Lee. Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment (1964)
Political science
  • Carter, Luther F. and David Mann, eds. Government in the Palmetto State: Toward the 21st century,. University of South Carolina, 1993.ISBN 0-917069-01-3
  • Graham, Cole Blease and William V. Moore. South Carolina Politics and Government. Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8032-7043-7
  • Tyer, Charlie. ed. South Carolina Government: An Introduction,. USC Institute for Public Affairs, 2002. ISBN 0-917069-12-9
Primary documents
  • Salley, Alexander S. ed. Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650–1708 (1911) ISBN 0-7812-6298-4
  • Woodmason, Charles. The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution Edited by Richard J. Hooker. (1953), a missionary reports ISBN 0-8078-4035-1

External links[edit]



Preceded by
Maryland
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on May 23, 1788 (8th)
Succeeded by
New Hampshire

Coordinates: 34°N 81°W / 34°N 81°W / 34; -81