Education in Zimbabwe

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Education in the Republic of Zimbabwe
Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture
Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture David Coltart
National education budget (2013)
Budget $750 million (public, all levels)[2]
General details
Primary languages Shona, Ndebele, English
System type State, private
Established
Initiated
October 17, 1979
May 4, 1980

Public education in Zimbabwe was made free in 1980 and inequities from the existing colonial system lessened. Education was declared a basic human right by Robert Mugabe's incoming government and racial integration pursued.[3] However, since 1988, the government has steadily increased the charges attached to school enrollment until they now greatly exceed the real value of fees in 1980. In principle, all children in Zimbabwe have the right to education. However, both development levies and tuition fees must be paid. Tuition fees have historically been very low, though development levies have been impediments.[4] The majority of the wealthier portion of the population send their children to independent schools, while the government-run schools are attended by the poorer members of the black population.[5] The Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture of Zimbabwe maintains and operates the government schools but the fees charged by independent schools are regulated by the Cabinet of Zimbabwe.

Zimbabwe leads Africa in having an adult literacy rate of approximately 90%,[6] which compares favourably to Tunisia at 87%.[7] The country's education system was once the most developed on the continent, although it continues to suffer from a contemporary decline in public funding linked to hyperinflation and economic mismanagement.[8] As early as 1967, some 91.5% of youths aged between 5 and 14 were already enrolled in schools.[9] By the 1990s, primary schooling was nearly universal and over half the population had completed a secondary education.[10] TIME magazine reported in 2008 that "in the mid-1990s there was a national O-level pass rate of 72 per cent....last year [2007] it crashed to 11 per cent".[11] This culminated in the cancelling of the school year in 2008. Zimbabwean teachers have gone on strike in recent years over low salaries, poor working conditions, political violence and election results, further aggravating the situation.[12]

UNICEF asserts that 94 percent of rural schools, serving the majority of the population were closed in 2009 and 66 of 70 schools abandoned. The attendance rates plummeted from over 80 percent to 20 percent.[13] Learning only resumed in urban cases where teachers’ salaries were covered in US dollars by parents, creating a widening gap between rural and urban schools, and further incensed [sic] by a mass fleeing of teachers to neighbouring countries.[14] Again, the author probably meant "increased", though the word used is nearly as relevant. Urban “type A” schools continue to be better equipped than their rural mission and government sponsored counterparts, causing discrepancies.

Economic downturn has caused numerous vulnerable schoolchildren to drop out over the years, though new programmes aim to rectify the situation. Recently, large investments in education have been provided by UNICEF, the international donor community and the Government of Zimbabwe, through the Educational Transition Fund (ETF) and The Basic Education Assistance Module (BEAM). BEAM aims to offset costs for orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs). These funds together help combat problems associated with deteriorating buildings, lack of supplies and shortage of resources in general. UNICEF aims to supply each schoolchild with textbooks through BEAM and in 2011, for the first time in decades, around 13 million textbooks will be delivered to Zimbabwe’s primary schools made possible by donations from Scandinavian countries and Germany.[15]

Other challenges face the education sector in Zimbabwe, including having a lower proportion of female students, though The Education Act provides for equal access.[4] With limited resources, parents often choose to send the boy to school rather than the girl. “Hot-sitting” or “double sitting” is another common occurrence that masks the shortage of schools in the country as one group of students come in the morning and then another new group studies in the afternoon or evening.

School grades[edit]

Zimbabwe's education system consists of 7 years of primary, 6 years of high school before students can enter a university in country or abroad. The academic year in Zimbabwe runs from January to December, with three-month terms, broken up by one month holidays, with a total of 40 weeks of school per year. National examinations are written during the third term in November, with "O" level and "A" level subjects also offered in June. These are administered by the Zimbabwe Schools Examination Council.

'A' Level top 100 schools, 2014[edit]

Rank School Name # of Students  % Pass rate
1 Nyanga High School 67 100.00
2 Goromonzi High School 89 100.00
3 ST Ignatius College 74 100.00
4 Serima Secondary School 84 100.00
5 ST Francis Xavier’s Kutama 83 100.00
6 Monte Cassino Secondary School 59 100.00
7 Regina Mundi Secondary School 99 100.00
8 Mazowe High School 50 100.00
9 ST Johns Secondary School 89 100.00
10 Nyazura Adventist High 61 100.00
11 Kanongovere Secondary School 25 100.00
12 ST Davids Bonda Secondary School 89 100.00
13 ST Albert’s Secondary School 80 100.00
14 Langham Secondary School 37 100.00
15 Kriste Mambo Secondary School 91 100.00
16 Chemhanza Secondary School 51 100.00
17 Mutema Secondary School 21 100.00
18 Pambe Secondary School 26 100.00
19 Muzondo High School 32 100.00
20 Kushingirira High School 20 100.00
21 Gokomere High School 125 99.20
22 ST Faith's Secondary School 99 98.99
23 Pamushana Secondary School 95 98.95
24 ST Augustine’s Penhalonga 93 98.92
25 Marange High School 83 98.80
26 Mutendi High School 71 98.59
27 Zimbabwe Republic Police 67 98.51
28 MT Selinda High School 65 98.46
29 Dadaya High School 64 98.44
30 Makumbe High School 63 98.41
31 Chibi High School 60 98.33
32 Sanyati Baptist Secondary School 55 98.18
33 Roosevelt Girls High School 102 98.04
34 ST Mark’s Secondary School 48 97.92
35 Mpopoma High School 138 97.83
36 Rusununguko High School 88 97.73
37 Nemakonde High 86 97.67
38 Jichidza High School 41 97.56
39 Wadddilove High School 81 97.53
40 Murewa high School 80 97.50
41 Uzumba Secondary School 40 97.50
42 Howard High School 75 97.33
43 Zimuto Secondary School 112 97.32
44 Tapudzai Secondary School 37 97.30
45 Shungu High School 71 97.18
46 ST Michael’s High School 35 97.14
47 Mufakose 1 High School 139 97.12
48 Mucheke No 2 Ndarama Secondary 67 97.01
49 Ngezi Secondary School 66 96.97
50 Hama Secondary School 66 96.97
51 ST Francis of Assisi High School 64 96.88
52 Marondera High School 94 96.81
53 Nyahuni Secondary School 62 96.77
54 Nagle House 92 96.74
55 Odzi High School 30 96.67
56 Mukore Secondary School 30 96.67
57 Bradley Secondary School 58 96.55
58 Gomorefu Secondary School 28 96.43
59 Tugwale Secondary School 26 96.15
60 Zengeza High School 99 95.96
61 ST Dominic’s High School 74 95.95
62 Mutero High School 49 95.92
63 Nyashanu Secondary School 72 95.83
64 Queen Elizabeth School 47 95.74
65 Sandringham Secondary School 90 95.56
66 MT ST Mary’s Secondary School 45 95.56
67 Mutare Girls High School 45 95.56
68 Pangai Secondary School 22 95.45
69 Cheziya Gokwe High School 88 95.45
70 Birivenge High School 22 95.45
71 ST Benedict’s Secondary School 43 95.35
72 Magwenya Secondary School 43 95.35
73 Nyamuzuwe Secondary School 64 96.31
74 Makumbi High School 85 96.29
75 Chatikobo High School 21 95.24
76 Emmanuel Secondary School 60 95.00
77 Kudadisa Secondary School 20 95.00
78 Msengezi High School 40 95.00
79 Mweyamutsvene Sec School 40 95.00
80 Chemhondoro Secondary School 60 95.00
81 Mutonhori High School 20 95.00
82 Rushinga High School 20 95.00
83 Nyava High School 20 95.00
84 Presbyterian Secondary School 39 94.87
85 Colleen Bawn Secondary 36 94.44
86 Chipindura High School 155 94.19
87 ST Marys Secondary Sch 86 94.19
88 Dewure High School 102 94.12
89 Anderson Secondary Sch 34 94.12
90 Rusere High School 34 94.12
91 ST Anthony’s Secondary School 98 93.88
92 Pumula High School 49 93.88
93 Highfiled High School 112 93.75
94 Chinhoyi High School 125 93.60
95 Berejena Secondary School 61 93.44
96 Loreto Secondary Sch 76 93.42
97 Moleli High Sch 60 93.33
98 Swazi Secondary Sch 30 93.33
99 ST Mary Magdalene’s Secondary 60 93.33
100 Chiwara Secondary School 30 93.33

'O' Level Top 100 schools, February 2014[edit]

Rank School Name # of Students  % Pass rate
1 Monte Cassino Secondary School 82 100.00
2 Anderson Secondary School 69 97.10
3 Zimbabwe Republic Police 117 96.58
4 John Tallach Secondary School 130 96.15
5 Nyanga High School 100 96.00
6 St Ignatius College 74 95.95
7 Nyazura Adventist School 149 94.63
8 Regina Mundi Secondary School 144 93.75
9 St Dominics (Chishawasha) 89 93.26
10 Kriste Mambo Secondary School 104 92.30
11 Moleli High School 117 92.30
12 Langham Secondary School 88 92.05
13 St Faith’s Secondary School 124 91.94
14 St Augustine’s Penhalonga 136 91.91
15 Sandringham Secondary 194 89.18
16 Chikwingwizha Secondary School 42 88.10
17 Marist Brothers Secondary School 126 87.30
18 St Davids Bonda Secondary School 196 86.73
19 St Antony’s High School 185 86.49
20 Alpha College 42 85.71
21 Ruya Adventist Secondary 107 85.05
22 Serima Secondary 140 85.00
23 Hama Secondary School 88 84.09
24 Goromonzi High School 191 83.77
25 St Francis of Assisi High School 147 83.67
26 St Francis Xavier’s Kutama 157 83.44
27 Howard High School 184 83.15
28 Nyadire Secondary School 128 82.81
29 Bernard Mizeki College 63 82.54
30 Bradley Secondary School 139 82.01
31 MT ST Mary’s Secondary School 129 81.40
32 St Dominic’s High School 260 81.15
33 ST Columba’s High School 167 80.84
34 Gokomere High School 241 80.50
35 Marange High School 189 80.42
36 Marondera High School 166 79.52
37 Hartzell High School 174 79.31
38 Shungu High School 82 79.27
39 Sanyati Baptist Secondary School 151 78.81
40 Pamushana Secondary School 195 78.46
41 Mazowe High School 120 78.33
42 Waddilove High School 202 76.73
43 Lundi Secondary School 106 75.47
44 ST Anne’s Goto Secondary School 98 74.49
45 Mandedza High School 133 74.44
46 Rusununguko High School 211 74.41
47 Mukaro High School 159 74.21
48 Nyahuni (Makunde) Secondary school 155 73.55
49 Chibi High School 184 72.83
50 ST Patrick’s Secondary School 184 72.37
51 Nhowe Secondary School 130 72.31
52 Zimuto Secondary School 187 72.19
53 Dadaya Secondary School 150 72.00
54 ST Albert’s Secondary School 133 71.43
55 Berejena Secondary School 103 70.87
56 Makumbe High School 113 70.80
57 Maranatha Adventist Secondary School 147 69.86
58 Hanke Adventist Secondary School 88 69.32
59 Mutendi high School 104 68.27
60 Daramombe Secondary School 153 67.97
61 ST Peters (Mbare Secondary School 78 67.95
62 ST Paul’s Musami 177 67.80
63 Nyashanu Secondary School 152 67.76
64 David Livingstone Secondary School 104 67.31
65 All Souls High School 118 66.95
66 Emmanuel Secondary School 133 66.95
67 Murewa High School 266 66.92
68 Usher Secondary School 133 66.92
69 Green Gables High School 38 65.79
70 Minda Secondary School 97 64.95
71 ST Johns Secondary School 131 64.89
72 Presbyterian Secondary School 91 64.84
73 Silveira Secondary School 167 64.67
74 Nagle House 113 64.60
75 Queen Elizabeth School 175 62.86
76 Holy Cross Secondary School 102 62.75
77 ST KIlian’s Secondary School 81 61.73
78 Adventist Secondary School 106 61.32
79 Msthabezi Secondary School 198 61.11
80 Mutare Girls High School 143 60.84
81 ST Michaels’ High School 108 58.97
82 Mt Selinda High School 156 58.97
83 St Benedict’s Secondary School 95 58.95
84 St Joseph’s 151 58.94
85 Makumbi High School 177 58.76
86 Kwenda Secondary School 152 58.55
87 Pakame Secondary School 130 58.46
88 Chindunduma No 2 Secondary 119 57.98
89 Loreto Secondary School 130 57.69
90 Msengezi High School 143 57.34
91 Thekwane High School 126 57.14
92 Chemhanza Secondary School 140 57.14
93 Mashoko Secondary School 104 56.73
94 Jameson High School 120 56.67
95 Ngezi Secondary 203 56.65
96 Inyathi Secondary 87 56.32
97 Lydia Chimonyo Secondary 116 56.03
98 St John’s High School 61 55.74
99 Mucheke No 2 Ndarama School 229 55.46
100 St Mathias Tsonzo Secondary 150 55.33

Extracurricular activities[edit]

A major characteristic of Zimbabwean schools is the high priority given to sports, clubs and activities by the community, the parents, the schools and the students themselves. Extracurricular activities are educational activities not falling within the scope of the regular curriculum but under the supervision of the school. These activities can extend to large amounts of time outside the normal school day; home-schooled students, however, are not normally allowed to participate. Student participation in sports programs, drill teams, bands, and spirit groups can amount to hours of practices and performances.

Normal Ages[edit]

Primary school (Grade 1) starts from age six: children applying for Grade 1 intake are supposed to be turning six before August of the previous year. Secondary school intake (Form 1) is on the basis of successful completion of Grade 7. Thus most children starting Form 1 are in the year when they turn 13 years old.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zimbabwe Statistics". UNICEF. Retrieved 2011-09-12. 
  2. ^ Is Zimbabwe's education sector on the road to recovery?
  3. ^ SACMEQ. Education in Zimbabwe. SACMEQ 2010>(http://www.sacmeq.org/education-zimbabwe.htm). Retrieved 13 September 2011
  4. ^ a b FMSI. Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of the Republic of Zimbabwe. FMSI 2011
  5. ^ Haru Mutasa (27 February 2010). Zimbabwe education system in crisis. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  6. ^ CIA World Factbook
  7. ^ Africa: Country Tops Africa's Literacy Rate
  8. ^ ZIMBABWE: Rural education falls victim to economic decline
  9. ^ Sparrow, Gerald. Rhodesia in Rebellion. Knightly Vernon Publishers 1967. OCLC 254943931. p 41.
  10. ^ Brooks World Poverty Institute. Moving forward in Zimbabwe: Reducing poverty and promoting growth, Ch. 6: Education. Brooks World Poverty Institute 2009, p.73>(http://www.kubatana.net/html/archive/povall/091211bwpi.asp?sector=migr&year=2009&range_start=1). Retrieved 13 September 2011
  11. ^ Jan Raath. Zimbabwe chaos wipes out education for 4.5 million pupils. Times Online 2008>(http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article4902920.ece). Retrieved 13 September 2011
  12. ^ Stanley Kwenda. Zimbabwe’s School System Crumbles. IPS 2008>(http://ipsnews.net/africa/nota.asp?idnews=44756). Retrieved 13 September 2011
  13. ^ UNICEF. Zimbabwe education crisis worsens. UNICEF 2009>(http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/media_47915.html)
  14. ^ Embassy of the United States, Harare. Education in Zimbabwe. US Embassy in Harare 2008>(http://harare.usembassy.gov/zimbabwe_educational_profile.html). Retrieved 13 September 2011
  15. ^ VOA News. Thirteen million text books for Zimbabwe primary schools. Africa: The Good News 2011>(http://www.africagoodnews.com/development/education/2379-thirteen-million-text-books-for-zimbabwe-primary-schools.html). Retrieved 13 September 2011

External links[edit]