The Federal TRIO Programs (TRIO) are federal outreach and student services programs in the United States designed to identify and provide services for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. They are administered, funded, and implemented by the United States Department of Education. TRIO includes eight programs targeted to serve and assist low-income individuals, first-generation college students, and individuals with disabilities to progress through the academic pipeline from middle school to post-baccalaureate programs. TRIO also includes a training program for directors and staff of TRIO projects. Their existence is owed to the passing of the Higher Education Act of 1965.
The eight programs administered are:
- Upward Bound
- Upward Bound (UB) is a federally funded educational program within the United States. The program is one of a cluster of programs referred to as TRIO, all of which owe their existence to the federal Higher Education Act of 1965. Upward Bound programs are implemented and monitored by the United States Department of Education. The goal of Upward Bound is to provide certain categories of high school students better opportunities for attending college. The categories of greatest concern are those with low income, those with parents who did not attend college, and those living in rural areas. The program works through individual grants, each of which covers a restricted geographic area and provide services to approximately 50 to 100 students annually. Upward Bound alumni include Donna Brazile, Viola Davis, John Quinones and Patrick Ewing.
- Upward Bound Math-Science
- Upward Bound Math-Science (UBMS) was first authorized through the Higher Education Act of 1965 and reauthorized in the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008. Participating students must have completed the eighth grade and be low-income or "potential first-generation college students", with two-thirds of selected applicants meeting both of the criteria. The program provides counseling, summer programs, research, computer training, and connections to university faculty with the goal of improving students' math and science skills and helping them obtain degrees and careers in the maths and sciences. Students in the summer program attend 5 weeks of English, math, and science classes in the summer months. Mathematics classes include algebra, geometry, precalculus, calculus, and science courses are held for biology, chemistry, and physics. After completing the program, the student receives one college credit from the associated institution.
- Veterans Upward Bound
- Veterans Upward Bound (VUB) is designed to motivate and assist veterans in the development of academic and other requisite skills necessary for acceptance and success in a program of postsecondary education. The program provides assessment and enhancement of basic skills through counseling, mentoring, tutoring, and academic instruction in the core subject areas. The primary goal of the program is to increase the rate at which participants enroll in and complete postsecondary education programs.
- Talent Search
- Talent Search (TS) identifies junior high and high school students who might benefit from intervention strategies meant to increase the chances of the student pursuing a college education. There are currently more than 475 TS programs in the U.S. serving more than 389,000 students. At least two-thirds of the students in each local TS program must be from low-income economic backgrounds and from families where parents do not have a bachelors degree.  TS is a grant-funded program. Local programs are required to demonstrate that they meet federal requirements every four years in order to maintain funding. Talent Search alumni include US Congressman Henry Bonilla.
- Educational Opportunity Centers
- The Educational Opportunity Centers program (EOC) provides counseling and information on college admissions to qualified adults who want to enter or continue a program of postsecondary education. The program also provides services to improve the financial and economic literacy of participants. An important objective of the program is to counsel participants on financial aid options, including basic financial planning skills, and to assist in the application process. The goal of the EOC program is to increase the number of adult participants who enroll in postsecondary education institutions.
- Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program
- The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program, often referred to as the McNair Scholars Program, is a United States Department of Education initiative with a goal of increasing "attainment of PhD degrees by students from underrepresented segments of society,” including first-generation low-income individuals and members from racial and ethnic groups historically underrepresented in graduate programs.
- Student Support Services
- Student Support Services (SSS) receives funding through a federal grant competition, funds are awarded to institutions of higher education to provide opportunities for academic development, assist students with basic college requirements, and to motivate students toward the successful completion of their postsecondary education. SSS projects also may provide grant aid to current participants who are receiving Federal Pell Grants. The goal of SSS is to increase the college retention and graduation rates of its participants. Alumni of Student Support Services include Viola Davis and Franklin Chang-Diaz.
- Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs
- The purpose of the Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs (TRIO Staff Training) is to increase the effectiveness of TRIO programs through staff training and development. Through a grant competition, funds are awarded to institutions of higher education and other public and private nonprofit institutions and organizations to support training to enhance the skills and expertise of project directors and staff employed in the Federal TRIO Programs. Funds may be used for conferences, seminars, internships, workshops, or the publication of manuals. Training topics are based on priorities established by the Secretary of Education and announced in Federal Register notices inviting applications.
Famous TRIO Participants
- Hector Balderas, Upward Bound, New Mexico State Auditor
- Angela Bassett, Upward Bound, Academy Award Nominated Actress
- Donna Brazille, Upward Bound, Political Strategist, TV Commentator
- Henry Bonilla, Talent Search, US Congressman
- Franklin Chang-Diaz, Student Support Services, First Hispanic Astronaut
- Kenneth Corn, Talent Search, youngest Oklahoma State Representative (22), youngest Oklahoma State Senator (25)
- Viola Davis, Upward Bound, Student Support Services, Academy Award Nominated Actress
- Patrick Ewing, Upward Bound, Coach, Olympian and Former Professional Basketball Player
- A.C. Green, Student Support Services, Former Professional Basketball Player
- Bernard Harris, Ronald E. McNair Scholar, First African-American Astronaut to Perform an Extra-vehicular Activity (Spacewalk)
- Wil Haygood, Upward Bound, Author and Journalist
- Jose Hernandez, Upward Bound, Second Hispanic Astronaut
- Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Upward Bound, Music Producers
- Kenny Leon, Upward Bound, director, Tony Award nominee
- Gwendolynne Moore, Student Support Services, US Congresswoman
- Steve Perry, Upward Bound, Cable News Education Commentator and School Principal
- Anastasia Pittman, Student Support Services, Oklahoma State Representative
- Troy Polamalu, Upward Bound, Professional Football Player
- John Quinones, Upward Bound, Correspondent for ABC News, "Prime Time Live"
- Kevin Shibilski, Student Support Services, Wisconsin State Senator
- Oprah Winfrey, Upward Bound, Cable Network Talk Show Host
- US Dept. of Ed. TRIO Home page
- Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations, United States Department of Education, 2007, 4. Accessed 2012-07-26.
- "Upward Bound Program". .ed.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-28.
- "Legislation, Regulations, and Guidance - Upward Bound Math-Science". .ed.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-28.
- tml "Eligibility - Upward Bound Math-Science". .ed.gov. 2009-09-29. Retrieved 2011-02-28.
- "Upward Bound Math-Science". .ed.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-28.
- "Veterans Upward Bound Program". US Dept. of Ed. TRIO Veterans Upward Bound. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- Educational Talent Search at UC Davis
- Eligibility - Talent Search Program
- "Educational Opportunity Centers". US Dept. of Ed. Educational Opportunity Centers. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program: Purpose.
- "US Dept. of Ed. TRiO Student Support Services".
- "TRIO Staff Training". US Dept. of Ed. TRIO Staff Training. Retrieved 23 September 2011.