Edward C. Banfield
Edward Christie Banfield (1916–1999) was an American political scientist, best known as the author of The Moral Basis of a Backward Society (1958), and The Unheavenly City (1970). One of the leading scholars of his generation, Banfield was an adviser to Republican presidents (Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Ronald Reagan). Banfield began his academic career at the University of Chicago, where he was a friend and colleague of Leo Strauss and Milton Friedman. In 1959, Banfield went to Harvard, where he remained for the rest of his career, except for a brief tenure at the University of Pennsylvania.
His wife, Laura Fasano Banfield, learned Italian as a child, and helped her husband with his book about a poor village in southern Italy (The Moral Basis of a Backward Society). She also collaborated with Harvey Mansfield on a translation of Machiavelli’s Florentine Histories. She died in 2006.
Banfield’s son, Elliott, is an artist/designer/cartoonist in New York City; his daughter, Laura, is founding partner of law firm Hoguet, Newman, & Regal, LLP and the mother of three daughters, Laura Kosar, Helen LaCroix, and Marie Hoguet.
Involvement with government aid programs
He worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Farm Security Administration, traveled in the West, and observed the effects of government projects. Although he initially supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, he gradually became skeptical of government attempts to construct housing, support the arts, etc. Long before Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society programs, Banfield had decided that government aid to the poor would make the givers of aid feel virtuous, but wouldn’t improve the lives of the receivers of aid. He argued that "the real reason for the passage" of the legislation establishing the National Endowment for the Arts "was, and is, to benefit . . . the culture industry of New York City."
Banfield's views were controversial, and The Unheavenly City sparked much debate. According to MacInnes, Banfield:
- made a simple and well-documented case that the problems played out in ghetto neighborhoods were a consequence of concentrated lower-class populations. Race was not the critical issue, he said. The black poor, Banfield suggested, were no different from other (white) lower-class Americans: they had no fondness for work, no strong family ties, an easy acceptance of criminal behavior, no brief for schooling, and no future perspective. Banfield argued that even well-pruned government programs could not undo the harm caused by class differences.
His Harvard colleagues described him as “an individual with a strong and distinctive character that impressed itself on all who met him,” and as a man who enjoyed “the delights of humor, long meals, and friendly company." Banfield had "a reputation as a brilliant maverick", and his "books and articles had a sharp contrarian edge. He was a critic of almost every mainstream liberal idea in domestic policy, especially the use of Federal aid to help relieve urban poverty."
Banfield taught many conservative scholars, including James Q. Wilson and Thomas Sowell. He also taught Christopher DeMuth and Bruce Kovner, leading figures at the conservative think-tank, American Enterprise Institute. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1961.
Copies of many of Edward C. Banfield's books and writings are available online.
- Government Project (1951)
- Politics, Planning, and the Public Interest, with Martin Meyerson (1955)
- The Moral Basis of a Backward Society (1958)
- Government and Housing in Metropolitan Areas, with Morton M. Grodzins (1958)
- A Report on the Politics of Boston, with Martha Derthick (1960)
- Political Influence (1961/1982/2003)
- Urban Government: A Reader in Politics and Administration (1961)
- City Politics, with James Q. Wilson (1963)
- American Foreign Aid Doctrines (1963)
- Big City Politics (1965)
- Boston: The Job Ahead, with Martin Meyerson (1966)
- The Unheavenly City (1970)
- The Unheavenly City Revisited: A Revision of The Unheavenly City (1974)
- The Democratic Muse: Visual Arts and the Public Interest (1984)
- Here the People Rule: Selected Essays (1985, reprinted with additional essays in 1991)
- Kosar, Kevin R. and Lee, Mordecai, “Defending a Controversial Agency: Edward C. Banfield As Farm Security Agency Public Relations Officer, 1941–1946, Federal History journal, January 2013
- Kauffman, Bill (2009-03-23) The Artist as a Kept Man, The American Conservative
- (MacInnes 1996:57) White Racism
- Huntington, Maass, Wilson (2000-10-17). "Memorial Minutes: Edward C. Banfield". Harvard University Gazette. Retrieved 2006-11-23.
- Bernstein, Richard (1999-10-08). "E. C. Banfield, 83, Maverick On Urban Policy Issues, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 2006-11-23.
- "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- Edward C. Banfield: An Appreciation (Henry Salvatori Center, 2002).
- Edward C. Banfield's books and writings may be downloaded freely and legally from Edward C. Banfield - An Online Resource.
- A Nearly Forgotten Classic Study in Public Administration: Edward C. Banfield's Government Project, Public Administration Review, September/October 2009, vol. 69, issue 5, pp. 993–997.
- Leo Strauss's Farewell Speech on Banfield's Departure from the University of Chicago, 1959
- Kimberly Hendrickson, "Edward Banfield on the Promise of Politics and the Limits of Federalism," Publius: The Journal of Federalism 2004 34(4):139-152; 2004
- A former student recalls Banfield.
- Website of Elliot Banfield
- Edward Banfield (video) from Marginal Revolution University