|2nd Governor of Illinois|
December 5, 1822 – December 6, 1826
|Preceded by||Shadrach Bond|
|Succeeded by||Ninian Edwards|
December 15, 1786|
Albemarle County, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||July 7, 1868
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Sally Logan Roberts (1809 to 1883)|
|Alma mater||College of William and Mary|
Edward Coles (December 15, 1786 – July 7, 1868) was a neighbor and anti-slavery associate of Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe, as well as secretary to James Madison (1810 to 1815), and the second Governor of Illinois (1822 to 1826). An anti-slavery advocate throughout his adult life, and who inherited a plantation and slaves, Coles left Virginia for the Illinois Territory in order to set them free. He manumitted his slaves in 1819, and twice led political campaigns that prevented the legitimization of slavery in the new state of Illinois. Coles corresponded with and advised both Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to free their slaves, and in his final years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania helped shape early historians' views of their republican ideals.
Early life and education
Coles was born on December 15, 1786 at Enniscorthy, a plantation in central Virginia's Albemarle County on the Hardware River, a tributary of the James River. He was the youngest male among ten surviving children of John Coles (1745–1808) and Rebecca Tucker (1750–1826). Young Coles' earliest teachers were prominent lawyer Wilson Cary Nicholas and Mr. (probably Rev.) White who lived by Dyer's Store. After a term at Hampden-Sydney College in Hampden-Sydney, Virginia, Coles transferred to the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.
While at William and Mary, Coles was strongly influenced by the enlightenment ideals taught by the Rt. Rev. James Madison (first Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of Virginia and President of the College). The teacher and cleric considered slavery morally indefensible, but a problem without a clear solution. Young Coles determined not to be a slaveholder and not to live where slavery was accepted. However, he kept these views from his father, whose illness (and that of his elder brother) caused Coles to end his formal education in the summer of 1807, for fear that his father would substitute other property for slaves when writing his last will and testament. His bachelor uncles in Norfolk, Travis and John Tucker, had freed slaves when such had become legal in Virginia, and Coles' father John noted that some of the slaves freed by Travis (a devout Methodist) were now living in near starvation. Keeping quiet ensured that Coles would inherit slaves, thus providing him with the opportunity to give freedom.
When his father died in 1808, Coles received 12 slaves and a 782-acre plantation on the Rockfish River in Nelson County, Virginia, subject to a mortgage. After John Coles' estate was settled on Christmas Eve, 1808, Edward Coles revealed his emancipation plans to his family, to great consternation. As he sorted through the challenges posed by family resistance and Virginia law (which since 1806 required freed slaves to leave the state within a year, and had also increased restrictions on already free blacks), Coles abandoned his earliest plan to free his slaves in Virginia. He went to Kentucky in the summer of 1809 to investigate a land claim of his uncle Travis Tucker, but came home without plans to move to that new state (which allowed slavery).
Coles placed his plantation for sale in December, 1809, despite the collapsed real estate market during the depression of 1807, and began to plan for a move to the Northwest Territory (where slavery had been at least technically abolished in 1787). However, for years he received no reasonable offers, and so continued to operate it through an overseer. Coles turned down offers to exchange his slaves for other property, but honored the requests of his family and neighbors to keep his plans secret from his slaves.
The Coles family was one of the First Families of Virginia. His great-grandfather, Walter Coles, had been a customs officer in Ireland who moved to what became Richmond, Virginia and made his fortune as a merchant. His grandfather John had been one of the petitioners requesting that Richmond be recognized as a new town, and continued to develop the family's business and social ties through marriage to the youngest daughter of Quaker merchant Isaac Winston. Edward Coles's father John (a/k/a John II) developed Enniscorthy from a hunting camp into a profitable farm, and continued the family's business and social success.
Edward Coles' maternal grandfather was born in Bermuda, and related to Virginia jurist St. George Tucker. His mother's maternal ancestors were among the "first & most respectable settlers at old Jamestown."
Edward’s elder brother, Isaac A. Coles, served as private secretary to both Thomas Jefferson and James Madison during their administrations. Thomas Jefferson's Monticello plantation was nearby in Albemarle County. The wife of James Madison, Dolley Payne Todd Madison, was Coles' first cousin, and Coles became a frequent guest at their Montpelier plantation near his home. James Monroe owned Ash Lawn-Highland plantation on the other side of Green Mountain for 24 years (until forced to sell it in 1825 due to financial problems), and had offered young Coles use of his library, although Monroe split his time at Oak Hill plantation in Loudoun County.
Isaac managed and ultimately inherited Enniscorthy, subject to a life estate held by his mother (who died in 1826). His brother Walter had drawn his share of the inheritance early, and managed Woodville plantation for many years before his father's death. John Coles III built a mansion called Estouteville on his inherited portion, and Tucker Coles built Tallwood plantation on the upper acres that he inherited--both married daughters of Sir Peyton Skipwith, the only baronet in Virginia. Their sister Rebecca became the second wife of South Carolina planter Richard Singleton, with whom she had five children. Her sister Elizabeth (Betsy) never married. Mary Coles married Robert Carter and moved to his nearby Redlands plantation. Their sister Emily married Richmond lawyer John Rutherfoord, who served as acting governor of Virginia (1841-42), and owned Tuckahoe plantation in Goochland County. Their son John Coles Rutherfoord witnessed the Civil War's devastation, and his grandson W.A.R. Goodwin became an Episcopal minister and helped found Colonial Williamsburg. Their sister Callie (Sarah) married Andrew Stevenson, who served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives as well as American minister to the United Kingdom.
Service in the White House
Some months after taking office as President, James Madison invited Coles to become his private secretary. His brother Isaac had been performing those duties, as well as delicate courier tasks (particularly with France in the days leading up to the War of 1812). However, Isaac Coles, perhaps inappropriately acting out his earlier military career dreams, beat up Maryland representative Roger Nelson and, after a critical Congressional report concerning the incident, was forced to submit his resignation on December 29, 1809. Neighbor James Monroe (soon to become Secretary of State) convinced Edward Coles to accept that secretarial position, and Coles served from January 1810 to March 1815, despite intervals of ill-health. Among his duties were the copying of the president's official correspondence into the national archives. Coles developed a good relationship with Madison, with whom he would often speak with "perfect candor", and formed a lasting admiration for the president. While Madison's secretary, Coles initiated private correspondence with Thomas Jefferson over the issue of slavery, as discussed below.
Coles' term as presidential secretary delayed his plans to free his slaves. He gained political experience as a Madison advisor, served as Madison’s primary emissary to Congress, and managed much of the patronage flowing from the 162-employee executive branch. A tour of northeast states in 1811 brought him in contact with John Adams, and Coles and Benjamin Rush worked to diminish tensions and rewarm relation between Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Coles also spent considerable time in Philadelphia receiving medical treatment from Dr. Physick, among others, as well as began a long friendship with Nicholas Biddle, who became controversial as a banker and anti-slavery advocate. As the War of 1812 ended, Coles resigned due to continued ill health in February, 1815,
Upon recovering in June, Coles and his 40 year old mulatto slave and coachman, Ralph Crawford, toured the Northwest Territory in search of land Coles could purchase and develop as a home for himself and a place for the slaves he still proposed to free. Coles wrote letters to President Madison and relatives expressing dissatisfaction with the high land prices in Ohio, and with the conduct of squatters, real estate speculators and fraudulent businessmen as he traveled further west into the Indiana (and what became the Illinois) Territory, then the Missouri Territory (where he bought some land for investment, and embarked on a keelboat in St. Louis for a trip down the Mississippi to New Orleans, from where he ultimately sailed home).
Coles was delayed again in fulfilling his covenant with freedom by a diplomatic trip to Russia (1816–1817) at President Madison's request, to resolve a diplomatic incident concerning the Russian consul's arrest in Philadelphia for raping a maid. After successfully completing his mission in St. Petersburg, Coles toured Brussells, Paris and England. While in England, Coles met ambassador John Quincy Adams and social reformer Morris Birkbeck. Coles extolled such enthusiasm about Illinois that Birkbeck bought land, moved and established a settlement. Upon his return, Coles wrote a paper comparing slavery and Russian serfdom, so if an ulterior motive for the diplomatic assignment was dissuading Coles from his manumission plan, it failed. Moreover, Coles wrote about (and long remembered) the pervasive bribery and unethical business practices he encountered in Russia.
Correspondence with Jefferson
In 1814 Coles wrote a letter to his Albemarle County neighbor Thomas Jefferson, asking the former President to once again embark on a campaign of emancipation and publicly work for an end to slavery in Virginia. Jefferson’s response has become a signal document in the study of Jefferson’s troubling and complex relationship with the institution of slavery. At age 71 and generally retired from politics and because Virginia law did not allow for emancipation of slaves, Jefferson declined Cole’s request, advising his young friend and associate to stay in Virginia to help in the long-term demise of slavery. Coles’ disappointment is clear in his return letter of September 26, 1814. 
In the fall of 1817, Coles sold his plantation to his eldest brother Walter, having rejected James Monroe's request that he continue as the new President's private secretary. Instead, Coles embarked on a second reconnaissance mission to the Northwest Territories (1818). He bought land in the American Bottom (Illinois Territory and Missouri Territory around St. Louis). Coles also participated in the Illinois Constitutional Convention at Kaskaskia after Indiana became a state. Coles worked with Baptist John Mason Peck, Methodist Peter Cartwright, Quaker James Lemen, publisher Hooper Warren to successfully oppose a faction that wanted to legitimize slavery in the new territory's constitution.
Coles then returned to Virginia, planning to display his deep moral objections to slavery and finally manumit the slaves he inherited from his father after leaving the Commonwealth. In late March, 1819, having collected the final payment from Walter, Edward Coles was ready to move to the Illinois Territory. President Monroe had appointed him Register of Lands in the new territory, with an office at Edwardsville.
Coles sent his trusted slave (and travel companion during his previous Northwest Territory trips) Ralph Crawford with wagons and 16 other slaves (total 6 adults and 11 children) ahead on the Great Wagon Road north to Pennsylvania, to the derision of many family and friends. Coles had let the slaves ride on ahead, none of them knowing his plans to free them at that time. Coles traveled separately. They met at Brownsville, Pennsylvania, where the party boarded a pair of flatboats and began a water-bound journey north to Pittsburgh, then west along the Ohio River toward Illinois.  While descending the Ohio River, Coles selected a point west of Pittsburgh to announce to his slaves their immediate freedom and also his plan to provide land to each head of a family. The scene is captured in a biographical letter written by Coles some 25 years later. It is also the subject of a mural in the first floor (south hall) of the Illinois State Capitol. Coles gave each head of family 160 acres (0.65 km2) of land.
The Coles party arrived in Edwardsville, early in May 1819. Coles provided employment and other ongoing support for those he had freed. He served as Register of Lands from 1819 through 1822, mediating and untangling complicated land disputes and earning a reputation for fairness and honesty.
Term as Governor
Coles ran for governor in the election of 1822. He won the election by a very tight margin, defeating Chief Justice Joseph Philips (an ally of Judge Jesse Thomas and prominent slavery advocate in his own right who eventually returned to Kentucky), Associate Justice Thomas C. Browne(the eventual candidate of the Ninian Edwards faction) and militia commander James B. Moore. Coles left Illinois on election day believing he had lost, and received the news of his victory while in Virginia recovering from bilious fever. He accordingly cleared up his land office accounts in Washington, D.C. and returned to Illinois. Madison sent him a package containing a pedometer, and a note, "As you are about to assume new motives to walk in a straight path, and with measured steps, I wish you to accept the little article enclosed, as a type of the course I am sure you will pursue, and as a token of the affection I have so long cherished for you."
Coles’ inaugural address included a clear call for the end of slavery in Illinois and revision of the Black Code, as well as advocated internal improvements (especially a canal link to the Great Lakes) and helping agriculture and education. A proslavery faction had hoped to transform Illinois into a slave state like Missouri. Furthermore, the use slave labor in the salines according to that first state constitution was only permitted through 1825. Coles’ bold call for an end to slavery stiffened their resolve and led to a rancorous legislative effort which began with the Shaw-Hansen Affair (concerning whether to seat a pro-slavery candidate backed by voters who came from Missouri, or his anti-slavery opponent). Governor Edward Coles led the opposition to a bill approving a referendum to hold another constitutional convention, recognizing it as a dishonest attempt to more clearly legalize slavery in the state. After the bill passed, Coles committed his total pay as governor ($4000) to defeat the referendum, and led a committee of anti-slavery citizens, religious leaders, and legislators (who committed another $1000). The aristocratic, awkward Virginian and his allies dispelled a plethora of false economic arguments spread by slavery proponents, while in the aftermath of the Panic of 1819 keeping secret their printing help from much-reviled Philadelphians (Nicholas Biddle and Roberts Vaux). The 18-month political struggle used committees in each county and traveling preachers, and on August 2, 1824, Illinois voters rejected the pro-slavery convention referendum (as well as re-elected anti-slavery U.S. representative Daniel Pope Cook). However, by year's end pro-slavery legislators refused to approve Coles' appointment of his anti-slavery friend Morris Birkbeck as secretary of state, and lieutenant governor Adolphus Hubbard attempted to wrest the governorship away from Coles during his trip to Virginia in late 1825, causing additional confusion, although Hubbard also lost the gubernatorial election the next year to Ninian Edwards (the state Constitution also included a provision modelled on Virginia's which precluded governors from running for reelection). Finally, a lawsuit that political opponents in Madison County, Illinois brought against Coles for failing to pay a slave tax on his freed slaves years earlier took several more years, including schenanigans by pro-slavery judge Samuel McRoberts before the Illinois Supreme Court said such payment unnecessary. Coles' valedictory speech as governor in December 1826 reminded legislators of his previous speeches urging them to abolish slavery and its remnants (especially heritability) in the new state, as well as to finance a penitentiary and canal to the Great Lakes watershed.
After his term as governor expired, Coles returned briefly to Virginia, where his mother had died that spring. Coles then returned to his farm outside of Edwardsville. He focused on agricultural and business pursuits, between continued trips to Virginia and Philadelphia to visit family and friends and search for a wife. His friend Daniel Pope Cook was defeated by a proslavery opponent in 1826, and legislators had selected their pro-slavery speaker John McLean to fill unexpired U.S. Senate terms in 1824 and 1829 (voters ultimately electing Elias Kent Kane and John McCracken Robinson to those seats). Coles made his last run for public office in 1831. As candidate for Congress, running against eight candidates including pro-slavery Democrats Joseph Duncan (allied with Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford) and Sidney Breese (a Jacksonian Democrat), Coles came in a distant third. He had been out of public view for some years, and refused to align himself with any political party. Instead, Coles cited his successful term as governor and his association with the founding fathers, as well as criticized the Jacksonian platform. He felt devastated by the political defeat. In 1835, Illinois legislators authorized Coles to sell bonds to finance his canal project, but refused to back the bonds with state credit, so they did not sell well.
Back to Virginia
Worried about his unmarried status and increasing partisanship, Coles decided to leave Illinois shortly after his election loss. He made another trip to Virginia, which was involved in its own debate over slavery after Nat Turner's rebellion. After Turner's execution, Coles wrote Thomas Jefferson Randolph urging emancipation and colonization to prevent further disasters, stressing that slavery restricted Virgini'a economic development. At year's end, while visiting James and Dolley Madison at Montpelier (Orange County, Virginia), Madison confided in Coles his wish to manumit his own slaves and called on Coles’ experience in trying to sort out the challenge of finding the right way in which to do this. However, Madison died in 1836 without freeing any of his slaves which were left in a will to his wife Dolley.
Later life in Philadelphia
Coles moved to Philadelphia in 1832, gratified by its active social and intellectual life, as well as slavery's absence. At age 46, Coles married Sally Logan Roberts (1809 to 1883)(of prominent Philadelphia ancestry) on November 28, 1833. The couple had three children: Mary Coles, Edward Coles, Jr., and Roberts Coles. Sally Coles inherited significant property upon her father's death, but it (and much of Coles' own fortune) was devastated by the Panic of 1837. Furthermore, his family's renovated Enniscorthy plantation burned down in 1839, and his elder brother Isaac only survived the disasters by two years. Coles's last public appointment was in 1841, when he served on a committee investigating the U.S. Bank, which ultimately led to the resignation of his friend Nicholas Biddle. Coles unsuccessfully sought political appointments from his Virginia classmates who had become high federal officials, John Tyler and Winfield Scott. Still, rental income from real estate investments (widely spread geographically) kept the growing family financially comfortable. Coles and his young family travelled often to visit his extended family and properties in Virginia and Washington, D.C., as well as the American Bottom and later Schooley's Mountain, New Jersey.
However, Coles never resumed his political career, uncomfortable with the new party system. Nonetheless, he rejoiced when Abraham Lincoln, whom he remembered as a young lawyer, was elected President. The elderly ex-governor briefly met the newly elected president on his journey to Washington. Coles had also publicly taken exception to Senator Stephen A. Douglas' characterization of slavery's history in Illinois during the Kansas-Nebraska debate of 1854.
Coles turned to history during his later years. He was recognized as one of the few remaining men with close personal knowledge of both Madison and Jefferson, and burnished their reputations as champions of the republican ideals that had also motivated Coles during his entire life. Coles had lobbied both Jefferson and Madison (and later Thomas Jefferson Randolph) to free their slaves. Coles was surprised when Madison failed to do so, only later learning that lawyer Robert Taylor had persuaded the former President to leave emancipation instructions for his widow, whose father had gone bankrupt after freeing his slaves many years earlier, and who, with other personal economic priorities (especially a son addicted to gambling), freed no slaves upon her death in 1849. Coles also wrote about the Northwest Ordinance. However, most of Coles' own papers from Illinois were destroyed in a fire in 1852 while his friend John Mason Peck was writing a history of the new state. Coles also assisted historians William Cabell Rives, Henry S. Randall and Hugh Blair Grigsby.
To his father's great disappointment, Roberts Coles returned to Virginia in 1860, where he became a slaveowner (buying property from a relative) and engaged to Jennie Fairfax of Richmond. After the Civil War began, he enlisted in the Green Mountain Greys and was elected captain. Roberts Coles died (as did the other Confederate captain) during the Battle of Roanoke Island, February 8, 1862.
Death and Legacy
Edward Coles died, aged eighty two, in his home (1303 Spruce Street in Philadelphia) on July 7, 1868. While devastated by his younger son's death, Coles lived to see slavery abolished through activation of the Emancipation Proclamation and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. Coles also lived to see his elder son and namesake, Edward Coles, Jr., marry Elizabeth Mason Campbell, relative of anti-slavery founding father George Mason (descendent of his younger brother Thomson Mason) on February 25, 1868. Edward Coles Jr. became a prominent lawyer in Philadelphia.
The Coles family grave at Woodlands Cemetery in west Philadelphia includes the final resting places of the former governor, his beloved wife Sally, as well as Mary (who became known for her activities in the Episcopal Church and education and died in 1920) and Roberts (reinterred by his sister in 1895 from the family cemetery at Enniscorthy).
Coles was among the very few slaveholders who manumitted his slaves entirely as a testament to the republican ethos that was at the heart of the American enlightenment. His efforts to end slavery in Illinois were decisive in setting that state on a slow road toward greater racial justice. He is also noteworthy for his attempts to pressure Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Jefferson Randolph to work for the end of slavery in Virginia and James Madison to free his slaves.
Coles County, Illinois was named for him, and more recently an elementary school on the south side of Chicago. During his lifetime, the Illinois legislature named the county seat of then-huge Pike County, Coles Grove, but the physical location may now be in Calhoun County and the town disappeared.
- Document:Coles, Edward. "Autobiography." April 1844. Coles Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania
- Washburne, 1882 Chapter II, p.16
- citing letter from Travis Tucker to Coles dated March 10, 1809 and letter from John Coles III to Travis Tucker dated December 18, 1809.
- Leichtle and Carveth, pp. 25-27.
- Edward Coles Sr., Autobiography p. 3 (1844) available at Coles family paper at Historical Society of Pennsylvania, http://digitallibrary.hsp.org/index.php/Detail/Object/Show/object_id/10824
- The Coles Family, The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 7, No. 1 (1899) at http://www.jstor.org/stable/4242233?seq=2
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 27-28.
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 28-38.
- Washburne, 1882 pp.9-10, 19, 38.
- Washburne, 1882 p.21
- Document:Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Rush, December 5, 1811, in Ford, Writings of Thomas Jefferson, 298.
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 40-41, 50.
- Norton, 1920 p.12
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 50-52.
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 53-55.
- Leichtle, 2011 p. 56--better cite needed than general no-page cite to Coles' autobiography
- Document:Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson, July 31, 1814, E. Coles Papers, Princeton University Library
- Document:Thomas Jefferson to Edward Coles, August 25, 1814, E. Coles papers, Princeton University Library
- Document:Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson, September 26, 1814, E. Coles Papers, Princeton University Library
- Crawford, 2008 pp.98-106
- Washburne, 1882 pp.21-31
- Washburne, 1882 pp.38-39
- Norton, 1920 pp.10-11
- Ress, 2006 pp. 62-74
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 57-58.
- Ress, 2006 p.12
- Leichtle and Carveth, pp. 59-64.
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 64-70.
- Washburne, 1882 pp.47-49
- Bateman, 1918 p.110
- Document:"The Emancipation of the Slaves of Edward Coles." October 1827, Folder 21, Box 3, Coles Family Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
- Bateman, 1918 p.259
- Washburne, 1882 pp.44-46
- Washburne, 1882 pp.54-55
- Leichtle, 2011 pp. 85-87.
- Washburne, 1882 p.92
- citing James Madison to Edward Coles, Oct. 19, 1822, Princeton University Library.
- Washburne, 1882 pp.238-239
- Document:"The Shaw-Hansen Election Contest." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. 7, No. 4, Jan., 1915
- Nicholas Gordon, The Man who Freed his Slaves: Edward Coles at Chapters 21-25 http://www.poemsforfree.com/edwardcoles.html
- Leichtle and Carveth pp. 141-143
- citing Alvord, Governor Edward Coles (Illinois State Historical Society, 1920) at pp. 210-213.
- Norton, 1920 p.271
- Leichtle and Carveth pp. 146-149
- Leichtle and Carveth pp. 152-153.
- Leichtle, 2011 pp.161-162
- Document:Edward Coles to James Madison, January 8, 1832, folder 30, box 1, E. Coles Papers, Princeton University Library.
- at p. 13
- Leichtle and Carveth, pp. 201-203
- Document:Guasco, Suzanne Cooper. "Managing Memory: The Cultivation of Elite Authority in Jacksonian America." paper presentation, annual conference, Society for Historians of the Early American Republic (SHEAR) Conference, Buffalo, NY July 20–23, 2000.
- Leichtle and Carveth, pp. 160-166.
- Leichtle and Carveth, p. 172, 177.
- Leichtle and Carveth, pp. 191-199.
- Washburne, 1882 p.248
- Coles, Edward, (1856). History of the Ordinance of 1787, (primary source) Historical Society of Pennsylvania, pp. 33, Url
- The Coles Family papers, containing correspondence, various papers and materials belonging to Edward Coles, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
- Alvord, Clarence; Walworth, (1909). Kaskaskia records, 1778-1790, Volume 19. Illinois State Historical Library. p. 681. Url
- Alvord, Clarence; Walworth, (1920). Governor Edward Coles. Illinois State Historical Library. Url
- Bateman, Newton; Selby, Paul (1918). Historical encyclopedia of Illinois, Volume 1.
Munsell Pub. Co., Chicago. p. 621. Url
- Crawford, Alan Pell (2008). Twilight at Monticello: The Final Years of Thomas Jefferson.
Random House Digital, Inc. p. 352. Url
- Leichtle, K.E.; Carveth,, Bruce G. (2011). Crusade Against Slavery: Edward Coles, Pioneer of Freedom.
Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 268. ISBN 9780809389445. Url
- Norton, Wilbur Theodore (1911). Edward Coles: Second Governor of Illinois. 1786-1868.
Washington Square Press. p. 30. Url
- Ress, David (2006). Gov. Edward Coles and the Vote to Forbid Slavery in Illinois, 1823–1824.
McFarland Publishers. Jefferson, NC. p. 203. ISBN 9780786426393. Url
- Washburne, Elihu Benjamin (1882). Sketch of Edward Coles.
Negro Universities Press. p. 253. Url
|Governor of Illinois