Edward Colston

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For other people named Edward Colston, see Edward Colston (disambiguation).
Edward Colston
Edward Colston.jpg
Born 2 November 1636 (1636-11-02)
Bristol
Died 11 October 1721 (1721-10-12)
Mortlake
Residence Mortlake
Occupation Merchant
Title Mr
Political party
Tory
Religion Anglican
Statue of Edward Colston in Bristol city centre

Edward Colston (2 November 1636 – 11 October 1721) was a Bristol-born English merchant and Member of Parliament. Much of his wealth, although used often for philanthropic purposes, was acquired through the trade and exploitation of slaves.[1][2][3] He endowed schools and almshouses and his name is commemorated in several Bristol landmarks, streets, three schools and the Colston bun.

Early life[edit]

Colston was born on 2 November 1636 in Church Street, Bristol, the youngest of at least 15 children. His parents were William Colston, a prosperous merchant and Sarah (née Batten). He was brought up in Bristol until the time of the English Civil War, when he probably lived for a while on his father's estate in Winterbourne, south Gloucestershire. The family then moved to London where Edward may have been a pupil at Christ's Hospital, a school.[4]

Career[edit]

He was apprenticed to the Mercers Company for eight years and by 1672 was shipping goods from London. He built up a lucrative business, trading with Spain, Portugal, Italy and Africa. In 1680, Colston became a member of the Royal African Company, which had held the monopoly in Britain on gold, ivory and slave trading from 1662.[4]

His parents had resettled in Bristol and in 1682 he made a loan to the Corporation, the following year becoming a member of the Society of Merchant Venturers and a burgess of the City. In 1684 he inherited his brother's mercantile business in Small Street, and was a partner in a sugar refinery in St. Peter's Churchyard, shipping sugar from St. Kitts. But he was never resident in Bristol, carrying on his London business from Mortlake in Surrey until he retired in 1708.[4]

Altruism and politics[edit]

He founded almshouses in King Street and on St. Michaels Hill, endowed Queen Elizabeth's Hospital school and helped found Colston's Hospital, a boarding school which opened in 1710 leaving an endowment to be managed by the Society of Merchant Venturers for its upkeep. He gave money to schools in Temple (one of which went on to become St Mary Redcliffe and Temple School) and other parts of Bristol, and to several churches and the cathedral. He was a strong Tory and high-churchman, and was returned as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bristol in 1710 for just one parliament.[4]

David Hughson writing in 1808 described Colston:

[Cromwell House was certainly the residence, in the last century, of] that excellent man Edward Colston, Esq. the great benefactor of the city of Bristol, who, in his lifetime, expended more than 10,000L. [£] in charitable institutions.[5]

Death[edit]

He died on 11 October 1721 at his home, (old) Cromwell House (demolished 1857), in Mortlake. His body was carried back to Bristol and was buried at All Saints Church. His tomb was designed by James Gibbs.[6]

Colston and Bristol today[edit]

A statue, designed by John Cassidy, was erected in the centre of Bristol in 1895 commemorating Colston.[7] In 1998, however, "someone scrawled on its base the name of one of the professions in which he made his fortune: SLAVE TRADER." [8] He is viewed by some as an inspirational figure for the city, due to his donations of money to schools and other causes. His name permeates the city in such landmarks as Colston Tower, Colston Hall, Colston Avenue, Colston Street, Colston's Girls' School Colston's School and Colston's Primary School. He is also remembered, particularly in some schools, by Colston's Day, on 13 November. A regional bread bun, the Colston bun, is named after him.[4][9]

Cromwell House, Mortlake, where Colston died in 1721

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pocock, Nigel; Cook, Victoria (5 November 2009). "The Business of Enslavement". BBC – History – British History in depth. BBC. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  2. ^ "Virtual Tour of the Black and Asian Presence in Bristol, 1500 – 1850". Black presence. The National Archives. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  3. ^ Dresser, Madge (2000). "Squares of distinction, webs of interest: Gentility, urban development and the slave trade in Bristol c.1673–1820". Slavery & Abolition a Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies (Routledge) 21 (3): 22. doi:10.1080/01440390008575319. ISSN 1743-9523.  (subscription required)
  4. ^ a b c d e Morgan, Kenneth (September 2004). "Colston, Edward". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/5996. Retrieved 14 August 2010.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  5. ^ Hughson, David (1808). "Circuit of London". London; Being An Accurate History And Description of the British Metropolis And Its Neighbourhood, To Thirty Miles Extent, From An Actual Perambulation V. Holborn Hill, London: J Stratford. p. 386. 
  6. ^ "Church of All Saints". Images of England. Retrieved 16 March 2003. 
  7. ^ "Edward Colston". PMSA National Recording Project. Retrieved 9 May 2007. 
  8. ^ Hochschild, Adam (2006). Bury the Chains. New York City: Mariner Books. p. 15. 
  9. ^ Davidson, Alan (1999). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19-211579-9.