Edward Michael Egan
|Cardinal, Archbishop Emeritus of New York|
|See||New York (Emeritus)|
|Appointed||May 11, 2000|
|Installed||June 19, 2000|
|Term ended||February 23, 2009|
|Predecessor||John Joseph O'Connor|
|Successor||Timothy M. Dolan|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo|
|Ordination||December 15, 1957
by Martin John O'Connor
|Consecration||May 22, 1985
by Bernardin Gantin
|Created Cardinal||February 21, 2001
by John Paul II
April 2, 1932 |
Oak Park, Illinois, US
|Motto||In the Holiness of Truth|
|Coat of arms|
|Ordination history of Edward Egan|
|Principal consecrator||Bernardin Gantin (Pref. Cong. Epis.)|
|Date of consecration||May 22, 1985|
|Josu Iriondo||December 12, 2001|
|Timothy Anthony McDonnell||December 12, 2001|
|Dominick John Lagonegro||December 12, 2001|
|Robert Joseph Cunningham||May 18, 2004|
|Gerald Thomas Walsh||September 21, 2004|
|Dennis Joseph Sullivan||September 21, 2004|
|Charles Daniel Balvo||June 29, 2005|
|Robert E. Guglielmone||March 25, 2009|
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Edward Michael Egan (born April 2, 1932) is an American Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Bridgeport from 1988 to 2000, and as Archbishop of New York from 2000 to 2009. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 2001.
Early life and education
The third of four children, Edward Egan was born in Oak Park, Illinois, to Thomas and Genevieve (née Costello) Egan. His father was a sales manager and his mother was a homemaker and former teacher; his parents' families were from County Mayo and County Clare, Ireland. In 1943, Egan and his older brother contracted polio, causing them to miss two years of school while convalescing at home.
He graduated from Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary, where he had been student body president and editor of the student newspaper and yearbook, in 1951. Egan then entered St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, from where he obtained a Bachelor's degree in Philosophy. He was then sent to continue his formation for the priesthood at the Pontifical North American College in Rome, taking his academic courses in theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.
Egan was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Martin John O'Connor on December 15, 1957, and earned a Licentiate of Sacred Theology from the Gregorian in 1958. Upon his return to the United States, he served as curate of Holy Name Cathedral, Chicago, assistant chancellor for the Archdiocese, and secretary to Cardinal Albert Gregory Meyer until 1960. During this time, he also taught evening classes for potential Catholic converts and served as a chaplain at Wesley Memorial Hospital.
In 1960, Egan returned to the Gregorian in Rome to pursue his doctoral studies. During his studies, he became assistant vice-rector and repetitor of moral theology and canon law at the Pontifical North American College. He received his doctorate in canon law summa cum laude in 1964. Egan, returning to the Archdiocese of Chicago, became secretary to John Cardinal Cody. As his secretary, he "saw Cardinal Cody take the heat for good causes" such as civil rights and desegregation.
Egan was later appointed Secretary of the Archdiocesan Commissions on Ecumenism and Human Relations, sitting on several interfaith organizations and establishing dialogue with Jews and Protestants alike. From 1969 to 1971, he served as co-chancellor for the Archdiocese. Egan once again returned to Rome in 1971, when Pope Paul VI named him an auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. While serving on the Roman Rota, he was also a professor of canon law at the Gregorian and of civil and criminal procedure at the Studio Rotale. Egan served as a commissioner of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship and a consultor of the Congregation for the Clergy as well. In 1982, he was chosen to be one of the six canonists who reviewed the new Code of Canon Law with Pope John Paul II before its promulgation in 1983.
On April 1, 1985, Egan was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of New York and Titular Bishop of Allegheny by John Paul II. He received his episcopal consecration on the following May 22 from Cardinal Bernardin Gantin, with Archbishop John Joseph O'Connor and Bishop John Richard Keating serving as co-consecrators, in Rome. He selected as his episcopal motto: "In the Holiness of the Truth" (Ephesians 4:24). As an auxiliary, he served as Vicar for Education in the Archdiocese from 1985 to 1988.
Bishop of Bridgeport
During his tenure, he oversaw the reorganization of Catholic schools. He also raised $45 million for diocesan schools through a fundraising campaign, "Faith in the Future." The diocesan Catholic Charities under his tenure became the largest private social service agency in Fairfield County. With regard to the 12 Hispanic parishes in the diocese, he brought Spanish priests to Bridgeport from Colombia. He also established a home for retired priests and a school for children with special needs.
Within the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, he served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Pontifical North American College and of the Committee on Science and Human Values. He was also a member of the Committee on Canonical Affairs, the Committee on Education, the Committee on National Collections, and the Committee on Nominations, and served two terms on the Conference's Administrative Board.
Archbishop of New York
On becoming archbishop of New York, Egan made it a priority to encourage vocations to the priesthood. Besides private initiatives, each year on the Feast of St. Joseph (March 19) he offered a Mass to which high school and college men attracted to the priestly vocation were invited. He appointed two priests as vocation directors to aid him in promoting the vocation to the priesthood.
He was elevated to the Cardinalate by Pope John Paul II at the Consistory of February 21, 2001 becoming the Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Ioannis et Pauli (Sts. John and Paul). This was the same title held by all of the archbishops of New York since Cardinal Francis Spellman in 1946 was given the title by Pope Pius XII, who had held it himself when he was Cardinal Pacelli.
A main concern of the Cardinal was the archdiocesan seminary in Yonkers, New York. In March 2001, he announced his decision to restructure the seminary faculty. A Staten Island pastor, Monsignor Peter Finn was chosen as seminary rector. Among others, the Cardinal added Avery Dulles, S.J., Sister Sara Butler, M.S.B.T., and Father John Augustine DiNoia, O.P. (before he was called to Rome to be undersecretary for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in 2002) to the faculty. The minor seminary, then in Riverdale, New York was moved to the campus of the major seminary. To maintain regular contact with the seminarians, Egan invited the seminarians to serve his 10:15 am Mass at Saint Patrick's Cathedral on one Sunday each month, and afterward would meet with them in his residence. Moreover, each year, he himself conducted a day of prayer and reflection for the seminary students and faculty.
For the retired priests of the archdiocese, Egan established the John Cardinal O'Connor residence in the Riverdale section of the Bronx. In 2002 the "Institución del Mérito Humanitario" with its seat in Barcelona (Spain) awarded him with the "Gran Cruz al Mérito Humanitario". In 2002 Pope John Paul II named Egan, along with five other cardinals, to the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, the Church's highest court in matters of Canon Law.
In June 2003, Egan was accused of concealing the names of priests who have been accused of child molestation and found not guilty by the Church. His spokesman argued that the innocent should be protected, while groups such as Voice of the Faithful criticized the process as being out of the public view.
In December 2006, Egan began hosting a weekly program on The Catholic Channel of Sirius Satellite Radio in which he discussed a variety of topics, including events in the Archdiocese and issues in the Church. The station launched by the Cardinal's initiative also broadcasts his Sunday Mass from the Cathedral. At other times scheduled programs include news, human-interest stories and inspirational themes, reflections on Scripture, Catholic education, social ministry, sacred music, interviews, call-in, and spiritual guidance.
Egan, after more than a year of careful study and consultation, announced on January 19, 2007, that ten parishes of the Archdiocese would be canonically suppressed and eleven would be merged with other parishes. At the same time he made known that he had decided not to close or merge nine parishes and six missions originally recommended either for closing or merger. Moreover, five new parishes would be established, three in Orange County, and one each in Staten Island and Dutchess County due to population increases. Building projects were also approved for nine parishes. The closures caused some discontent.
Egan, in keeping with the Code of Canon Law, offered his resignation as archbishop of New York to Pope Benedict XVI on April 2, 2007, when he reached 75 years of age. His resignation became official on February 23, 2009, when Pope Benedict XVI appointed Archbishop Timothy Dolan as his successor, who took possession of the archdiocese on April 15, 2009. Egan is the first Archbishop of New York to retire; all previous Archbishops of New York died in office, even after the introduction of the requirement for bishops to offer their resignation from their positions of pastoral care upon reaching age 75.
On December 15, 2007, Egan celebrated his 50th anniversary as a priest. He was appointed by the pope to the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on January 26, 2008. In January 2009, he publicly condemned the controversial statements made by Society of Saint Pius X Bishop Richard Williamson.
He is a member of the Board of Trustees at the Catholic University of America and a member of the Board of Governors at Ave Maria School of Law. He reached age 80 on April 2, 2012, and from then on he would be able to participate in discussions prior to conclave voting, but not enter a conclave.
Egan was admitted to St. Vincent's Hospital on April 4, 2009, after experiencing stomach pains. After undergoing various tests, he was released from the hospital on April 7, and was later given a pacemaker in a low-risk surgery. He was well enough to preside over the following liturgical services for Holy Week.
Views and controversies
In a strongly worded article published next to a photo of an unborn baby in the womb, Cardinal Edward Egan compared tolerating abortions to the reasoning used by Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin to commit mass murders. With regard to self-professed Catholic politicians who support abortion, Egan adhered to the Church's discipline of forbidding Holy Communion to such persons due to the public scandal. In April 2008, after newspapers had published photographs of former Mayor of New York Rudolph Giuliani receiving Communion at a Mass in St. Patrick's Cathedral offered by Pope Benedict XVI, Egan issued a public statement:
The Catholic Church clearly teaches that abortion is a grave offense against the will of God. Throughout my years as Archbishop of New York, I have repeated this teaching in sermons, articles, addresses, and interviews without hesitation or compromise of any kind. Thus it was that I had an understanding with Mr. Rudolph Giuliani, when I became Archbishop of New York and he was serving as Mayor of New York, that he was not to receive the Eucharist because of his well-known support of abortion. I deeply regret that Mr. Giuliani received the Eucharist during the Papal visit here in New York, and I will be seeking a meeting with him to insist that he abide by our understanding.
Cardinal Edward Egan assailed the notion of gay marriage and criticized Hollywood for "desecrating" marriage and destroying "something sacred and holy." Egan said the specter of legal same-sex marriage would have a devastating effect on traditional values already eroded by a crude pop culture, the Daily News reported.
Abuse affairs in Bridgeport
The Connecticut Supreme Court ruled in May 2009 that records detailing sexual abuse allegations by priests in the Diocese of Bridgeport should be released, a case that may provide an embarrassing footnote to the career of recently retired New York Cardinal Edward Egan. The court's 4-1 ruling covers more than 12,600 pages of documents from 23 lawsuits against six priests that have been under seal since the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bridgeport settled the cases in 2001 (cf Sexual abuse scandal in Bridgeport diocese).
In April 2002, in a letter read out at Mass, Egan apologized saying,"If in hindsight we also discover that mistakes may have been made as regards prompt removal of priests and assistance to victims, I am deeply sorry." Ten years later, in February 2012, the retired cardinal retracted his apology. In an interview with Connecticut magazine he said: “I never should have said that,” and, “I don’t think we did anything wrong.” He repeatedly denied any sexual abuse happened while he was leading Bridgeport diocese.
In a radio interview given on March 10, 2009, Egan stated that clerical celibacy in the Latin Rite could be open to discussion. He added, "I think it has to be looked at, and I'm not so sure it wouldn't be a good idea to decide on the basis of geography and culture—not to make an across-the-board determination." He further noted that Eastern Rite priests are allowed to marry, with "no problem at all." Egan later moderated his statement, saying, "Celibacy is one of the Church's greatest blessings. I will have to be more careful about trying to explain a somewhat complicated matter in 90 seconds."
- Barron, James; Nemy, Enid (June 16, 2000). "Public Lives". The New York Times.
- Eyewitness News Team (January 19, 2007). "Catholic church closures announced". wabc.com.
- McFadden, Robert D. (February 12, 2007). "Protest Vigil Begins at Church Set to Be Closed by Archdiocese". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- "Statement on Remarks by Bishop Richard Williamson". Archdiocese of New York. February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
- Palmo, Rocco (April 5, 2009). "Ed On The Mend". Whispers in the Loggia.
- "Cardinal Egan To Receive Pacemaker On Monday". KDKA. April 5, 2009.
- Palmo, Rocco (April 9, 2009). "He Is Risen". Whispers in the Loggia.
- Palmo, Rocco (April 7, 2009). "Hosannas in Gotham". Whispers in the Loggia.
- "New York Cardinal Egan hospitalized". UPI. April 6, 2009.
- Cardinal Egan: Abortion support equal to Nazism
- April 28, 2008 Statement of Cardinal Egan
- "RIPS GAY WEDDINGS Egan: Society's making a mockery of marriage". Daily News (New York). February 9, 2004.
- Conn. court seeks release of church abuse papers
- Murphy, Dean E. (April 21, 2002). "SCANDAL IN THE CHURCH: THE NEW YORK CARDINAL; Egan Says He May Have Mishandled Sex Abuse Cases". The New York Times.
- Newman, Andy (February 7, 2012). "Cardinal Egan Criticized for Retracting Apology on Sexual Abuse Crisis". The New York Times.
- Connor, Tom (February 2012). "Cardinal Egan: Ten Years After". Connecticut Magazine.
- "NY cardinal predicts 'discussion' on celibacy". Our Sunday Visitor. March 10, 2009.
- "Cardinal Egan says possibility of married priests not to be dismissed". Catholic Review Online. March 12, 2009.
- "Cardinal Egan and Celibacy". Catholic New York. March 26, 2009.
- Archdiocese of New York
- Egan's monthly column in Catholic New York
- Statements by Egan
- Egan interviewed by David Ushery
- Pastoral Visit
- Dedicates Fordham Church
|Catholic Church titles|
Walter William Curtis
|Bishop of Bridgeport
November 5, 1988 – May 11, 2000
William E. Lori
John Joseph O'Connor
|Archbishop of New York
May 11, 2000 – February 23, 2009
Timothy Michael Dolan