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|— Pirate —|
An 18th century woodcut of Edward
|Place of birth||Ireland|
|Place of death||St. Augustine's Bay, Madagascar|
|Base of operations||West Indies|
|Commands||Several vessels, most famously the Royal James & the Fancy.|
|Battles/wars||Battle with the Cassandra that caused his crew to mutiny and maroon him for sparing some captives.|
|Wealth||Equiv. US $8.7 million today; #12 Forbes top-earning pirates|
Edward England, born Edward Seegar in Ireland, was a famous African coast and Indian Ocean pirate captain from 1717 to 1720. The ships he sailed on included the Pearl (which he renamed The Royal James) and later the Fancy, for which England exchanged the Pearl in 1720. His flag was the classic Jolly Roger with a skull above two crossed thigh bones on a black background.
Born in Ireland, England made his way to Jamaica and became a mate on a sloop. He was captured by the pirate captain Christopher Winter and forced to join the crew. Winter most likely took England to the pirate base on Nassau, Bahamas, for England is next reported as Charles Vane's quartermaster, in March, 1718. Vane's sloop, the Lark was captured by the Royal Navy, but England and the rest of the crew were released to induce the other pirates of Nassau to accept the King's pardon.
Vane granted England command of a captured vessel in mid-1718. England made for the west coast of Africa, where he plundered large numbers of slave ships. He and his crew stayed for some time in an African town, but a conflict arose over the pirates' treatment of the local women. Fighting broke out, the pirates burned the town, and set sail.
By 1720, England had reached the Indian Ocean, where he joined forces with fellow pirate captain Oliver la Buse. England and La Buse attacked an East Indiaman under the command of James Macrae; they were beaten off, but succeeded in running Macrae's vessel ashore and capturing him. England ordered Macrae's life spared; England's quartermaster, John Taylor, resented this choice, and led a vote to depose England from command. England was subsequently marooned on Mauritius with two other crew members, where they fashioned a small raft and made it to St. Augustine's Bay in Madagascar. England survived for a while by begging for food and died around the end of 1720.
- Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2013. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Woolsey, Matt (September 19, 2008). "Top-Earning Pirates". Forbes.com. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
- David Marley (2010), Pirates of the Americas: Volume 1, p. 583.
- Angus Konstam and David Cordingly (2002), The History of Pirates, p. 132.
- John Reeve Carpenter (2006), Pirates: Scourge of the Seas, p. 152.
- Charles Johnson (1724), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, p. 113.
- Colin Woodard (2008), The Republic of Pirates, ISBN 0-15-603462-X, p. 234-35.
- Pirate flags
- Edward England section on V'lé Onica's Pirate Cove website
- Merciful Pirate, Edward England