|United States Senator
January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1979
|Preceded by||Leverett Saltonstall|
|Succeeded by||Paul Tsongas|
|Attorney General of Massachusetts|
January 3, 1963 – January 3, 1967
|Preceded by||Edward McCormack|
|Succeeded by||Edward Martin (Acting)|
|Born||Edward William Brooke III
October 26, 1919
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Remigia Ferrari-Scacco (Divorced)
|Children||Remi (with Remigia)
Edwina (with Remigia)
Edward (with Anne)
|Alma mater||Howard University
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1941–1946|
|Unit||366th Infantry Regiment|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Edward William Brooke III (born October 26, 1919) is an American Republican politician. In 1966 he became the first African-American popularly elected to the United States Senate.[note 1] No other senator of African heritage was elected until Democrat Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois in 1993. As of 2014[update] Brooke was the only African-American Senator to serve multiple terms. He was elected to the Senate as a Republican from Massachusetts, defeating former Massachusetts governor Democrat Endicott Peabody in a landslide. He served for two terms, and was defeated by Paul Tsongas in the 1978 senate election.
Edward William Brooke III was born on October 26, 1919, in Washington, D.C., to Edward William Brooke, Jr. and Helen (Seldon) Brooke. He was the second of three children; the Brookes' first-born died at age 3 before he was born. He was raised in a middle class section of the city, and attended Dunbar High School, then one of the most prestigious high schools for African-Americans. After graduating in 1936 he enrolled in Howard University, where he first considered medicine, but ended up studying social studies and political science. He graduated in 1941, and enrolled in the United States Army immediately after the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor.
Brooke spent five years as an officer in the Army, seeing combat in Italy during World War II as a member of the segregated 366th Infantry Regiment, earning a Bronze Star. In Italy Brooke met his future wife Remigia Ferrari-Scacco, with whom he had two daughters, Remi and Edwina. Following his discharge, Brooke graduated from the Boston University School of Law in 1948. In 1950 he ran for a seat in the Massachusetts House of Representatives in both the Democratic and Republican primaries. Brooke won the Republican nomination, but lost the general election, isolating himself from a potential future in the Democratic Party. Brooke then made two more tries for office, including one for secretary of state, but lost both races. The loss in the secretary's race (to future Boston Mayor Kevin White) was particularly close, and highlighted Brooke's potential to Republican Party leaders.
Governor John Volpe sought to reward Brooke for his effort, and offered him a number of jobs, most judicial in nature. Seeking a position with a higher political profile, Brooke eventually accepted the position of chairman of Finance Commission of Boston, where he investigated financial irregularities and uncovered evidence of corruption in city affairs. He was described in the press as having "the tenacity of a terrier", and it was reported that he "restore to vigorous life an agency which many had thought moribund." He parlayed his achievements there into a successful election as Attorney General of Massachusetts in 1962; he was the first elected African-American Attorney General of any state. In this position, Brooke gained a reputation as a vigorous prosecutor of organized crime and corruption, securing convictions against a number of members of the Furcolo administration; an indictment against Furcolo was dismissed due to lack of evidence. He also coordinated with local police departments on the Boston strangler case, although the press mocked him for permitting an alleged psychic to participate in the investigation. Brooke was portrayed in the 1968 film dramatizing the case by William Marshall.
In 1966 Brooke defeated former Governor Endicott Peabody with 1,213,473 votes to 744,761, and served as a United States Senator for two terms, from January 3, 1967, to January 3, 1979. The black vote had "no measurable bearing" on the election as less than 3% of the state's population was black, and Peabody also supported civil rights for blacks. Brooke stated "I do not intend to be a national leader of the Negro people", and "condemned both Stokely Carmichael and Georgia's Lester Maddox" as extremists; nonetheless, his historic election gave Brooke "a 50-state constituency, a power base that no other Senator can claim." In 1967, he served on the President's Commission on Civil Disorders. He was a member of the liberal wing of the Republican Party and organized the Senate's "Wednesday Club" of progressive Republicans who met for Wednesday lunches and strategy discussions. Brooke, who had supported Michigan Governor George W. Romney and then New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller's bids for the 1968 GOP presidential nomination against Richard Nixon's, often differed with President Nixon on matters of social policy and civil rights.
By his second year in the Senate, Brooke had taken his place as a leading advocate against discrimination in housing and on behalf of affordable housing. With Walter Mondale, a Minnesota Democrat and fellow member of the Senate Banking Committee, he co-authored the 1968 Fair Housing Act, which prohibits discrimination in housing, and created HUD's Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity as the primary enforcer of the law. President Johnson signed the Fair Housing Act into law on April 11, one week after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Dissatisfied with the weakened enforcement provisions that emerged from the legislative process, Brooke repeatedly proposed stronger provisions during his Senate career. In 1969, Congress enacted the "Brooke Amendment" to the federal publicly assisted housing program which limited the tenants' out-of-pocket rent expenditure to 25 percent of his or her income. By the 1990s, the percentage had gradually increased, but the principle of limiting the housing 'burden' of very-low income renters survives in statute, as of 2008[update].
During the Nixon presidency, Brooke opposed repeated Administration attempts to close down the Job Corps and the Office of Economic Opportunity and to weaken the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission—all foundational elements of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society.
In 1969, Brooke was a leader of the bipartisan coalition that defeated the Senate confirmation of the President's nominee to the Supreme Court, Clement Haynsworth. A few months later, he again organized sufficient Republican support to defeat Nixon's second Supreme Court nominee Harrold Carswell. Nixon then turned to Harry A. Blackmun, later the author of the Roe v. Wade opinion.
In 1970, the Senate adopted his resolution prohibiting tests of MIRV missiles.
Despite Brooke's disagreements with Nixon, the president reportedly respected the senator's abilities; after Nixon's election he had offered to make Brooke a member of his cabinet, or ambassador to the UN. The press discussed Brooke as a possible replacement for Spiro Agnew as Nixon's running mate in the 1972 presidential election. While Nixon retained Agnew, Brooke was re-elected in 1972, defeating Democrat John J. Droney by a vote of 64%–35%.
Before the first year of his second term ended, Brooke became the first Republican to call on President Nixon to resign, on November 4, 1973, shortly after the Watergate-related "Saturday night massacre". He had risen to become the ranking Republican on the Senate Banking Committee and on two powerful Appropriations subcommittees, Labor, Health and Human Services (HHS) and Foreign Operations. From these positions, Brooke defended and strengthened the programs he identified with; for example, he was a leader in enactment of the Equal Credit Act which ensured married women the right to credit of their own.
In 1975, with the extension and expansion of the Voting Rights Act at stake, Brooke faced senator John Stennis (D-Mississippi) in "extended debate" and won the Senate's support for the extension. The press again speculated on his possible candidacy for the Vice Presidency as Gerald Ford's running mate in 1976, with Time calling him an "able legislator and a staunch party loyalist".
In 1976, he also took on the role of supporter of wide-scale, legalized abortion. The Appropriations bill for HHS became the battleground over this issue because it funds Medicaid. The pro-life movement fought, eventually successfully, to prohibit funding for abortions of low-income women insured by Medicaid. Brooke led the fight against restrictions in the Senate Appropriations Committee and in the House-Senate Conference until his defeat.
In Massachusetts, Brooke's support among Catholics weakened, and during the 1978 re-election campaign, the state's bishops spoke in opposition to his leading role, in spite of the equally pro-choice position of his Democratic opponent. In addition, he was challenged in the Republican primary by a conservative talk show host, Avi Nelson. Most seriously, Brooke "confessed that he had made a false statement about his finances in his divorce deposition. The admission...erupted into a staccato of charges that ultimately cost him his Senate seat" to Paul Tsongas. In 1992, a plea agreement by a top aide to Brooke admitted that Brooke falsely stated that neither he nor the aide had tried to influence a HUD official on behalf of a client of Brooke.
After leaving the Senate, Brooke practiced law in Washington, D.C., partner O'Connor & Hannan; of counsel, Csaplar & Bok, Boston and served as chairman of the board of the National Low Income Housing Coalition. In 1984 he became chairman of the Boston Bank of Commerce, and one year later he was named to the board of directors of Grumman. In 1996, he became the first chairman of the World Policy Council, a think tank of Alpha Phi Alpha whose purpose is to expand the fraternity's involvement in politics, and social and current policy to encompass international concerns. Brooke currently serves as the council's chairman emeritus and was honorary chairman at the Centennial Convention of Alpha Phi Alpha held in Washington, D.C., in 2006.
On June 20, 2000, a newly constructed Boston courthouse was dedicated in his honor. The Edward W. Brooke Courthouse is part of the Massachusetts Trial Court system, and houses the central division of the Boston Municipal Court, Boston Juvenile Court, Family Court, and Boston Housing Court, among others.
On June 23, 2004, President George W. Bush awarded Brooke the Presidential Medal of Freedom. That same year he received the Jeremy Nicholson Negro Achievement Award, acknowledging his outstanding contributions to the African-American community. On April 29, 2006, the Massachusetts Republican Party awarded the first annual "Edward Brooke Award" to former White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card at their 2006 State Convention.
In 2008, Barbara Walters wrote in her memoir Audition that she and Brooke had an affair lasting several years during the 1970s, while Brooke was married to his first wife. Walters said that they ended the relationship to protect their careers from possible scandal. Brooke has not commented on the claim.
Awards and honors
- Presidential Medal of Freedom
- Congressional Gold Medal. At his 2009 Congressional Gold Medal Acceptance speech, Brooke scolded policymakers for excessive partisan bickering.
- Bronze Star Medal
- American Campaign Medal
- European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
- World War II Victory Medal
- The first African-American senator, Hiram Rhodes Revels, was appointed by the Mississippi state legislature to an unexpired term in 1870. Blanche Bruce was the first African-American elected to the Senate, elected by the Mississippi state legislature to a full term in 1874. Prior to the 17th Amendment in 1913, U.S. Senators were elected by state legislatures.
- Samuelson, Tracey D. "Who is Edward Brooke?", The Christian Science Monitor, October 28, 2009. WebCitation archive.
- NAACP Spingarn Medal
- Cutler, pp. 13-14
- Cutler, pp. 14-18
- Cutler, p. 20
- Cutler, p. 23
- Jacobs, Sally. "The unfinished chapter" Boston Globe, March 5, 2000.
- "The Senate: An Individual Who Happens To Be a Negro". Time. 1967-02-17. Retrieved 2010-12-24.
- Cutler, p. 63
- Cutler, pp. 65-67
- "Former senator awarded Congressional Gold Medal". CNN. 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2009-10-28. WebCitation archive.
- Cutler, pp. 104-105
- "The Brooke Scenario". Time. 1971-12-13. Retrieved 2010-12-24.
- "A Brand New Race for 2nd Place". Time. 1975-11-17. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- Associated Press. "" Associated Press, Nov. 21, 1992.
- Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity (2005). Alpha Phi Alpha Men: "A Century of Leadership (Video). Rubicon Productions.
- Dedication of the Edward W. Brooke Courthouse, a news release from Boston University
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- Clementson, Lynette (2003-06-10). "Surprise Role for Ex-Senator: Male Breast Cancer Patient". New York Times.
- "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". United States Senate. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- ABC News.go.com: Reconstruction and Beyond: The 8 African-American Senators
- "About Us". Brooke Charter Schools. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Jo Piazza (2008-05-01). "Barbara Walters: I had an affair with married Senator Edward Brooke". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2008-05-02.[dead link]
- Frazier Moore (2008-05-02). "Former Sen. Brooke mum on reported Barbara Walters affair". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Lorber, Janie (28 October 2009). "Former Senator Scolds Lawmakers". New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- John F. Becker and Eugene E. Heaton, Jr., "The Election of Senator Edward W. Brooke," Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Autumn, 1967), pp. 346–358
- Edward Brooke (2006), Bridging The Divide: My Life. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3905-6.
- Edward Brooke (1966), The Challenge of Change: Crisis in our Two-Party System. Little, Brown, Boston.
- John Henry Cutler(1972), Ed Brooke: Biography of a Senator. Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis.
- Judson L. Jeffries, U.S. Senator Edward W. Brooke and Governor L. Douglas Wilder Tell Political Scientists How Blacks Can Win High-Profile Statewide Office, American Political Science Association, 1999.
- Timothy N. Thurber, Virginia Commonwealth University, "Goldwaterism Triumphant?: Race and the Debate Among Republicans over the Direction of the GOP, 1964–1968.” Paper presented at the 2006 Conference of the Historical Society, Chapel Hill, NC. http://www.bu.edu/historic/06conf_papers/Thurber.pdf
- Barbara Walters (2008), Audition: A Memoir. Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-26646-0.
- Edward Brooke at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Edward Brooke's oral history video excerpts at The National Visionary Leadership Project
- Edward W. Brooke Charter School A public charter school founded in Senator Brooke's honor, dedicated to building great teachers and closing the achievement gap.
- Edward Brooke's oral history video excerpts at The National Visionary Leadership Project
|Attorney General of Massachusetts
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for Senator from Massachusetts
1966, 1972, 1978
|United States Senate|
|United States Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts
Served alongside: Ted Kennedy
Harry F. Byrd, Jr.
|Oldest living United States Senator