Alcoholic beverage

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A selection of various kinds of alcoholic beverage.
The interior of a liquor store in the United States. The global alcoholic drinks industry is expected to exceed $1 trillion this year.[1]

An alcoholic beverage is a drink that typically contains 3%–60% ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three classes: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled beverages). They are legally consumed in most countries around the world. More than 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption.[2]

Alcoholic beverages have been produced and consumed by humans since the Neolithic Era, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states.[3]

Food and drink[edit]

Food energy[edit]

Alcoholic beverages are a source of food energy. The USDA uses a figure of 6.93 kcal per gram of alcohol (5.47 kcal per ml) for calculating food energy.[4] In addition to alcohol, many alcoholic beverages contain carbohydrates. For example, beer usually contains 10-15 g of carbohydrates (40-60 kcal) per 12 fl.oz. However, aside from the direct effect of its caloric content, alcohol is known to potentiate the insulin response of the human body to glucose, which, in essence, "instructs" the body to convert consumed carbohydrates into fat and to suppress carbohydrate and fat oxidation.[5][6]

Sensation of warmth[edit]

In cold climates, potent alcoholic beverages such as vodka are popularly seen as a way to “warm up” the body, possibly because alcohol is a quickly absorbed source of food energy and because it dilates peripheral blood vessels (peripherovascular dilation). This is a misconception because the “warmth” is actually caused by a transfer of heat from the body’s core to its extremities, where it is quickly lost to the environment. However, the perception alone may be welcomed when only comfort, rather than hypothermia, is a concern.

Apéritifs and digestifs[edit]

An apéritif is any alcoholic beverage usually served before a meal to stimulate the appetite while a digestif is any alcoholic beverage served after a meal, in theory to aid digestion. Fortified wine, liqueur, and dry champagne are common apéritifs. Because apéritifs are served before dining, the emphasis is usually on dry rather than sweet.

Flavoring[edit]

Alcohol is a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils. This attribute facilitates the use of flavoring and coloring compounds in alcoholic beverages, especially distilled beverages. Flavors may be naturally present in the beverage’s raw material. Beer and wine may be flavored before fermentation. Spirits may be flavored before, during, or after distillation.

Sometimes flavor is obtained by allowing the beverage to stand for months or years in oak barrels, usually American or French oak.

A few brands of spirits have fruit or herbs inserted into the bottle at the time of bottling.

Serving sizes[edit]

In the United Kingdom, serving size in licensed premises is regulated under the Weights and Measures Act (1985). Spirits (gin, whisky, rum, and vodka) are sold in 25 ml or 35 ml quantities or multiples thereof.[7] Beer is typically served in pints (568 ml), but is also served in half-pints or third-pints.

In Ireland, the serving size of spirits is 35.5 ml or 71 ml. Beer is usually served in pints or half-pints ("glasses"). In the Netherlands and Belgium, standard servings are 250 and 500 ml for pilsner; 300 and 330 ml for ales.

The shape of a glass can have a significant effect on how much one pours. A Cornell University study of students and bartenders' pouring showed both groups pour more into short, wide glasses than into tall, slender glasses.[8] Aiming to pour one shot of alcohol (1.5 ounces or 44.3 ml), students on average poured 45.5 ml & 59.6 ml (30% more) respectively into the tall and short glasses. The bartenders scored similarly, on average pouring 20.5% more into the short glasses. More experienced bartenders were more accurate, pouring 10.3% less alcohol than less experienced bartenders. Practice reduced the tendency of both groups to over pour for tall, slender glasses but not for short, wide glasses. These misperceptions are attributed to two perceptual biases: (1) Estimating that tall, slender glasses have more volume than shorter, wider glasses; and (2) Over focusing on the height of the liquid and disregarding the width.

Standard drinks[edit]

A "standard drink" of hard liquor does not necessarily reflect a typical serving size, such as seen here

A standard drink is a notional drink that contains a specified amount of pure alcohol. The standard drink is used in many countries to quantify alcohol intake. It is usually expressed as a measure of beer, wine, or spirits. One standard drink always contains the same amount of alcohol regardless of serving size or the type of alcoholic beverage.

The standard drink varies significantly from country to country. For example, it is 7.62 ml (6 grams) of alcohol in Austria, but in Japan it is 25 ml (19.75 grams).

In the United Kingdom, there is a system of units of alcohol which serves as a guideline for alcohol consumption. A single unit of alcohol is defined as 10 ml. The number of units present in a typical drink is sometimes printed on bottles. The system is intended as an aid to people who are regulating the amount of alcohol they drink; it is not used to determine serving sizes.

In the United States, the standard drink contains 0.6 US fluid ounces (18 ml) of alcohol. This is approximately the amount of alcohol in a 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) glass of beer, a 5-US-fluid-ounce (150 ml) glass of wine, or a 1.5-US-fluid-ounce (44 ml) glass of a 40% ABV (80 US proof) spirit.

Fermented beverages[edit]

Beer[edit]

Kriek, a variety of beer brewed with cherries

Beer is at present the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world,....[9]

Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash. It is made from barley or a blend of several grains. If the fermented mash is distilled, then the beverage is a spirit.

Cider[edit]

Cider or cyder (/ˈsdər/ SY-dər) is a fermented alcoholic beverage made from any fruit juice; apple juice (traditional and most common), peaches, pears ("Perry" cider) or other fruit. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine".[10]

Wine[edit]

Wine is a fermented beverage produced from grapes. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and also a long aging process (months or years), resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. Sparkling wine can be made by means of a secondary fermentation.

Beverages called "fruit wines" are made from fruits such as plums, cherries, or apples. The kind of fruit must be specified on the label.

Congeners[edit]

Fermentation with the stems, seeds, and skins of the grapes will increase the tannin content of the wine.

In the alcoholic beverages industry, congeners are substances produced during fermentation.

These substances include small amounts of chemicals such as occasionally desired other alcohols, like propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, but also compounds that are never desired like, acetone, acetaldehyde, esters, glycols, and ethyl acetate. Congeners are responsible for most of the taste and aroma of distilled alcoholic beverages, and contribute to the taste of non-distilled drinks.[11] It has been suggested that these substances contribute to the symptoms of a hangover.[12]

Excessive concentrations of some alcohols (other than ethanol) may cause off-flavors, sometimes described as "spicy", "hot", or "solvent-like".

Some beverages, such as rum, whisky (especially Bourbon), incompletely rectified vodka (e.g. Siwucha), and traditional ales and ciders, are expected to have relatively high concentrations of non-hazardous aroma alcohols as part of their flavor profile;[13] European legislation demands minimum content of higher alcohols in certain distilled beverages (spirits) to give them their expected distinct flavour.[14] However, in other beverages, such as Korn, vodka, and lagers, the presence of other alcohols than ethanol is considered fusel alcohols.[13]

Tannins are congeners found in wine in the presence of phenolic compounds. Wine tannins add bitterness, has a drying sensation, tastes herbaceous and is often described as astringent. Wine tannins adds balance, complexity, structure and makes a wine last longer so it plays an important role in the aging of wine.[15]

Chemical alcohol classification Simple or higher (consumable) alcohol IUPAC nomenclature Common name Content of tot. alcohol[13]  % intoxication by alcoholic beverage (Typical alcohol content / Typical alcohol content x Content of tot. alcohol x Potency compared to EtOH) Color/Form[16] Odor[16] Taste[16] Moderate intoxicating loading dose BAC poisoning LD50 in rat, oral[17] Therapeutic index (Potency compared to EtOH/EtOH LD50:LD50 ratio) Potency compared to EtOH EtOH LD50:LD50 ratio
Primary Simple 2-phenylethanol Phenethyl alcohol 0.1% in non-yeasted cider (Kieser 1964): 100 mg/100 mL ? ? Intense odour of roses Burning ? ? 1790 mg/kg ? ? ?
Primary Simple Ethanol EtOH Up to 95.6% in rectified spirit - Clear, colorless, very mobile liquid Mild, rather pleasant; like wine or whiskey. Weak, ethereal, vinous odor. Burning 20-50 mL/40% 0.4% 7060 mg/kg - - -
Primary Simple Propan-1-ol Propanol 2.8% (mean) in Jamaican rum: 2384–3130 mg/100 mL. Up to 3500 mg/L (0.35%) in spirits.[18] 8.4% (40/40×0.028×3) Colorless liquid Similar to ethanol Characteristic ripe, fruity flavor. Burning taste ? ? 1870 mg/kg 0.8 (mean): 0.5-1.1 3 (mean): 2-4 3.8
Primary Simple Tryptophol ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Primary Higher 2-Methyl-1-propanol 2M1P 0.9% (mean) in Rye mash cistern room: 534–1197 mg/100 mL ? Colorless, oily liquid. Clear, colorless, refractive, mobile liquid. Suffocating odor of fusel oil. Slightly suffocating; nonresidual alcoholic. Sweet, musty odor Sweet whiskey taste ? ? 2460 mg/kg ? ? ?
Primary Higher 3-methyl-1-butanol 3M1B 1.5% (mean) in French Brandy: 859–2108 mg/100 mL ? Oily, clear liquid. Colorless liquid. Characteristic, disagreeable odor. Pungent, repulsive taste ? ? 1300 mg/kg ? ? 5.4
Secondary Higher 2-Methyl-1-butanol 2M1B 1.2% (mean) in Bourbon: 910–1390 mg/100 mL ? Oily, clear liquid. Colorless liquid Characteristic, disagreeable odor. Pungent, repulsive taste ? ? 4170 mg/kg[19] ? ? 1.7
Tertiary Higher 2-Methyl-2-butanol 2M2B 0.07% in beer: 70 mg/100 mL (see tert-Pentyl alcohol in ref) Found in cassava fermented beverages 0.14% (5/5×0.0007×20) Colorless liquid Characteristic odor. Camphor odor Burning taste 2.0-4.0 gram ? 1000 mg/kg 2.8 20 7.1
Tertiary Higher 2-Methylpropan-2-ol 2M2P Identified, not quantified, in beer[20] ? Colorless liquid or solid (crystals) (above 78 degrees F) Camphor-like odor ? ? ? 2743 mg/kg ? ? 2.6

Distilled beverages[edit]

These flaming cocktails illustrate that a distilled beverage will readily catch fire and burn.

A distilled beverage, spirit, or liquor is an alcoholic beverage produced by distilling (i.e., concentrating by distillation) ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.[21] Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits.[22] For the most common distilled beverages, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%. The term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones (implicitly weaker). Vodka, gin, baijiu, tequila, whiskey, brandy, and soju are examples of distilled beverages. Distilling concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with methanol and fusel alcohols (fermentation by-products partially removed by distillation) in applejack. Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, which is derived from an Arabic word that means “finely divided” (a reference to distillation).

Fortified wine is wine, such as port or sherry, to which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added.[23] Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is simply wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, sherry, madeira, marsala, commandaria, and the aromatized wine vermouth.[24]

Rectified spirit[edit]

Rectified spirit, also called "neutral grain spirit," is alcohol which has been purified by means of "rectification" (i.e., repeated distillation). The term "neutral" refers to the spirit's lacking the flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity. Rectified spirit also lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation (as is done, for example, with gin). Other kinds of spirits, such as whiskey, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage in order to preserve the flavor of the mash.

Rectified spirit is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95% ABV. It is often used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants. It is used in mixed drinks, liqueurs, and tinctures, but also as a household solvent.

Alcohol by volume (ABV)[edit]

Alcohol concentration[edit]

The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume  (ABV, the number of ml of pure ethanol in 100 ml of beverage) or as proof. In the United States, proof is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit (e.g. 80 proof = 40% ABV). Degrees proof were formerly used in the United Kingdom, where 100 degrees proof was equivalent to 57.1% ABV. Historically, this was the most dilute spirit that would sustain the combustion of gunpowder.

Ordinary distillation cannot produce alcohol of more than 95.6% ABV (191.2 proof) because at that point alcohol is an azeotrope with water. A spirit which contains a very high level of alcohol and does not contain any added flavoring is commonly called a neutral spirit. Generally, any distilled alcoholic beverage of 170 proof or higher is considered to be a neutral spirit.[25]

Most yeasts cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18%, so that is the practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer, and sake. However, some strains of yeast have been developed that can reproduce in solutions of up to 25% ABV.[citation needed]

Alcohol-free beverage definition controversy[edit]

Alcohol is legal in most countries of the world where a drinking culture exists. In countries where alcohol is illegal, similar beverages which are "alcohol-free" may be permitted. The definition of "alcohol-free" may vary from country to country.

The term "alcohol-free "(e.g., alcohol-free beer) is often used to describe a beverage that contains 0.0% ABV. Such beverages are permitted by Islam and are popular in countries that enforce alcohol prohibition, such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iran.

In the European Union, the labels of beverages containing more than 1.2% ABV must state the actual alcoholic strength (i.e., show the word "alcohol" or the abbreviation "alc." followed by the symbol "% vol.")[26]

Most of the "alcohol-free" beverages sold in Sweden's state-run liquor monopoly, Systembolaget, actually contain alcohol. Some people say that these labels are misleading and are a threat to recovering alcoholics.[27] Systembolaget defines "alcohol-free" as a beverage that contains no more than 0.5% alcohol by volume.[28]

Typical alcohol levels[edit]

Beers ABV
Pilsner 3–6%
ESB (Bitter) 3–6%
Lager 4-5%
Porter 4-5%
Brown Ale 4-6%
IPA (India Pale Ale) 6-7%
Stout 5-10%
Wines ABV
Sparkling Wine 8–12%
Table Wine 9–14%
Retsina 10-11%
Dry White 10-12%
Cabernet 11-14%
Barley Wine 11–15%
Fortified wines ABV
Sherry 17–22%
Marsala Wine 15-17%
Madeira Wine 15-18%
Vermouth 15-18%
Port Wine 16-20%
Bum Wine 15-20%
Spirits ABV
Light Liqueurs 15-25%
Vodka/Whiskey/Rum 40%
Cask Strength Whiskey 60%
Absinthe 55–90%
Neutral Grain Spirits 95%
Rectified Spirits 96%
Absolute Alcohol 96-98%
Other drinks ABV
Fruit Juice < 0.1%
Alcopops 3-7%
Wine Breezers/Coolers 4-7%
Cider 4–8%

[29]

Alcohol and health[edit]

2004 data of alcohol consumption per capita (age 15 or older), per year, by country, in liters of pure alcohol.[30]

Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration. Long-term effects of alcohol include alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease, cancer and damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.[31][32][33] Alcohol is converted to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the liver.[34]

Drinking small amounts of alcohol can offer some protection for people at risk of heart disease, but large amounts can increase the risk of stroke, high blood pressure, and other conditions.[34]

Alcoholic beverages contain calories, which may contribute to an increase in body weight (see beer belly). Each gram of alcohol provides 7.1 kcal, and each milliliter provides 5.6 kcal.[35]

Psychoactive drug[edit]

Results of the ISCD 2010 study ranking the levels of damage caused by drugs, in the opinion of drug-harm experts.

Ethanol (simply called alcohol) is a psychoactive drug[36][37] primarily found in alcoholic beverages. Alcohol is one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world (Meropol, 1996)[38] often used for self-medication,[39] and as recreational drug use.[40]

Since ancient times, people around the world have been drinking alcoholic beverages. Reasons for drinking alcoholic beverages vary and include:

In countries that have a drinking culture, social stigma may cause many people not to view alcohol as a drug because it is an important part of social events. In these countries, many young binge drinkers prefer to call themselves hedonists rather than binge drinkers[41] or recreational drug users. Undergraduate students often position themselves outside the categories of "serious" or "anti-social" drinkers.[42] However, about 40 percent of college students in the United States[43] could be considered alcoholics according to new criteria in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 but most college binge drinkers and drug users don't develop lifelong problems.[44][45]

Controversial entheogen[edit]

Some religions forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic beverages for various reasons. These include Islam, Jainism, Sikhism, the Bahá'í Faith, the Church of God In Christ, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of Christ, Scientist, the United Pentecostal Church International, Theravada, most Mahayana schools of Buddhism, some Protestant denominations of Christianity, some sects of Taoism (Five Precepts (Taoism) and Ten Precepts (Taoism)), and some sects of Hinduism. In some regions with a dominant religion the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages is forbidden to everybody, regardless of religion. For instance, some Islamic states, including member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brunei, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen, prohibit alcoholic beverages because they are forbidden by Islam.[46]

In some religions alcoholic beverages are used for ritual purposes. For example, the Roman Catholic Church uses wine in the celebration of the Eucharist; in Judaism kosher wine is used in holidays and rituals.

Carnival in the Netherlands is historically a Roman Catholic feast which is well known for its excessive drinking of alcohol.

Legal status[edit]

Alcohol laws regulate the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Such laws often seek to reduce the availability of these beverages for the purpose of reducing the health and social effects of their consumption.

In particular, such laws specify the legal drinking age which usually varies between 16 and 25 years, sometimes depending on the type of drink. Some countries do not have a legal drinking or purchasing age, but most set the age at 18 years.[2] This can also take the form of distribution only in licensed stores or in monopoly stores. Often, this is combined with some form of taxation. In some jurisdictions alcoholic beverages have been totally prohibited for reasons of religion (e.g., Islamic countries with certain interpretations of sharia law) or perceived public morals and health (e.g., Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933).

Timeline[edit]

Members of a German Student Corps drinking (Duchy of Brunswick, 1837).
  • 10,000 BC: Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented beverages existed at least as early as the Neolithic period (cir. 10,000 BC).[47]
  • 7000–5600 BC: Examination and analysis of ancient pottery jars from the neolithic village of Jiahu in the Henan province of northern China revealed residue left behind by the alcoholic beverages they had once contained. According to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, chemical analysis of the residue confirmed that a fermented drink made of grape and hawthorn fruit wine, honey mead and rice beer was being produced in 7000–5600 BC (McGovern et al., 2005; McGovern 2009).[48][49] The results of this analysis were published in December 2004.[50]
  • 12th century: Distilled alcoholic beverages were first recorded in Europe in the mid-12th century. By the early 14th century, they had spread throughout the European continent.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "Minimum Age Limits Worldwide". International Center for Alcohol Policies. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  3. ^ Arnold, John P (2005). Origin and History of Beer and Brewing: From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology. Cleveland, Ohio: Reprint Edition by BeerBooks. ISBN 0-9662084-1-2. 
  4. ^ "Composition of Foods Raw, Processed, Prepared USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 26 Documentation and User Guide". USDA. Aug 2013. p. 14. 
  5. ^ Robert Metz et al. (1969). "Potentiation of the Plasma Insulin Response to Glucose by Prior Administration of Alcohol". Diabetes. 
  6. ^ "Ethanol Causes Acute Inhibition of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Oxidation and Insulin Resistance". J.Clin.Invest. 1988. 
  7. ^ "fifedirect - Licensing & Regulations - Calling Time on Short Measures!". Fifefire.gov.uk. 2008-07-29. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  8. ^ Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert (2005). "Shape of glass and amount of alcohol poured: comparative study of effect of practice and concentration". BMJ 331 (7531): 1512–14. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7531.1512. 
  9. ^ Nelson, Max (2005). The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 0-415-31121-7. Retrieved 21 September 2010. 
  10. ^ Martin Dworkin, Stanley Falkow (2006). The Prokaryotes: Proteobacteria: alpha and beta subclasses. Springer. p. 169. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  11. ^ Understanding Congeners in Wine, Wines & Vines. Accessed 2011-4-20
  12. ^ Whisky hangover 'worse than vodka, a study suggests', BBC News. Accessed 2009-12-19
  13. ^ a b c Aroma of Beer, Wine and Distilled Alcoholic Beverages
  14. ^ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18295386
  15. ^ http://winefolly.com/review/wine-characteristics/
  16. ^ a b c Pubchem Compound, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
  17. ^ "ChemIDplus Advanced". Chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
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  24. ^ Robinson, J., ed. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 279. ISBN 0-19-860990-6. 
  25. ^ Lichine, Alexis. Alexis Lichine’s New Encyclopedia of Wines & Spirits (5th edition) (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987), 365.
  26. ^ "Beverage Alcohol Labeling Requirements by Country". Icap.org. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  27. ^ "Sweden's alcohol-free drink label 'misleading'". Thelocal.se. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  28. ^ "Alcohol-free products". Systembolaget.se. 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  29. ^ http://www.alcoholcontents.com/
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  32. ^ Testino G (2008). "Alcoholic diseases in hepato-gastroenterology: a point of view". Hepatogastroenterology 55 (82–83): 371–7. PMID 18613369. 
  33. ^ Caan, Woody; Belleroche, Jackie de, eds. (11 April 2002). Drink, Drugs and Dependence: From Science to Clinical Practice (1st ed.). Routledge. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-415-27891-1. 
  34. ^ a b Cancer research UK: Alcohol and cancer "There is no doubt that alcohol can cause seven types of cancer"
  35. ^ Nielsen, S.J. et al. (2012). Calories Consumed from Alcoholic Beverages by U.S. Adults, 2007-2010. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
  36. ^ USA (2013-03-25). "Disparity between tonic and phasic ethanol-induced dopamine increases in the nucleus accumbens of rats". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  37. ^ Drugs and society - Page 189, Glen (Glen R.) Hanson, Peter J. Venturelli, Annette E. Fleckenstein - 2006
  38. ^ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1010220-overview
  39. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23280888
  40. ^ http://blog.oup.com/2010/01/drugs-2/
  41. ^ Szmigin, I.; Griffin, C.; Mistral, W.; Bengry-Howell, A.; Weale, L.; Hackley, C. (2008). "Re-framing 'binge drinking' as calculated hedonism: Empirical evidence from the UK". International Journal of Drug Policy 19 (5): 359–366. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2007.08.009. PMID 17981452.  edit
  42. ^ Guise, J. M. F.; Gill, J. S. (2006). "'Binge drinking? It's good, it's harmless fun': A discourse analysis of accounts of female undergraduate drinking in Scotland". Health Education Research 22 (6): 895–906. doi:10.1093/her/cym034. PMID 17675648.  edit
  43. ^ Time: DSM-5 Could Categorize 40% of College Students as Alcoholics, 14 May 2012 The article reports that the new DSM-5 criteria could increase the number of people diagnosed as alcoholics by 60%
  44. ^ Szalavitz, Maia (2012-05-14). "DSM-5 Could Categorize 40% of College Students as Alcoholics | TIME.com". Healthland.time.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  45. ^ Sanderson, Megan (2012-05-22). "About 37 percent of college students could now be considered alcoholics | Emerald Media". Dailyemerald.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  46. ^ "Saudi Arabia". Travel.state.gov. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  47. ^ Charles H, Patrick (1952). Alcohol, Culture, and Society. Durham, NC: Duke University Press (reprint edition by AMS Press, New York, 1970). pp. 26–27. ISBN 9780404049065. 
  48. ^ Chrzan, Janet (2013). Alcohol: Social Drinking in Cultural Context. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 9780415892490. 
  49. ^ McGovern, P. E.; Zhang, J.; Tang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Hall, G. R.; Moreau, R. A.; Nunez, A.; Butrym, E. D.; Richards, M. P.; Wang, C. -S.; Cheng, G.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, C. (2004). "Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (51): 17593–17598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407921102. PMC 539767. PMID 15590771.  edit
  50. ^ Roach, John. "Cheers! Eight ancient drinks uncorked by science". http://www.nbcnews.com (Nbc News). Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  51. ^ Forbes, Robert James (1970). A Short History of the Art of Distillation: From the Beginnings up to the Death of Cellier Blumenthal. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-00617-1. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 

External links[edit]