Effects of advertising on teen body image
The effects of advertising on body image have been studied by researchers, ranging from psychologists to marketing professionals. This is due to the fact that thousands of advertisements contain messages about physical attractiveness and beauty, examples of which include commercials for clothes, cosmetics, weight reduction, and physical fitness. Researchers have conducted studies in an attempt to see if such advertisements have effects on teenage body image, and what those effects might be.
Researchers, such as Mary Martin and James Gentry, have found that teen advertising negatively impacts teenagers’ self-esteem by setting unrealistic expectations for them about their physical appearances through the use of idealized models. Other researchers, such as Heidi Posavac, acknowledge this, but believe that this only applies to teenagers who already possess low self-esteem or a poor self-images.
In contrast, researchers, including Terry Bristol, have found teenagers to be generally unaffected by these advertisements due to the idea that repeat exposure can create an immunity to images and messages in advertisements. Moreover, some researchers, such as Paul Humphreys, have concluded that exposure to such advertisements can actually create higher self-esteem in teenagers.
According to Medimark Research Inc., a marketing research company, teenagers are important to marketers because they "have significant discretionary income; spend family money, as well as influence their parents' spending on both large and small household purchases; establish and affect fashion, lifestyle, and overall trends; and provide a 'window' into our society – a view of how it is now and what it is likely to become."
Almost half of the space of the most popular magazines for adolescent girls is made up of advertisements. In an effort to further reach young men with advertisements, branded content is now being included in video games as well.Researches are trying to determine whether or not these advertisements shape the body image and self-esteem of the impressionable teenagers that view them.
Effects on Society
The way beauty is portrayed in the media causes dissatisfaction and negative thoughts about oneself when those results are not achieved. Naomi Wolf's The Beauty Myth noted the beginning of feminist critiques fu-- societal standards regarding female beauty.  This “feminine ideal” is the goal of most women in society, although feminists have been working for decades on eradicating this idea (Brownmiller, 1984).  The first feminist mass meeting in 1914 included demands such as the 'right to ignore fashion' and the 'right not to have to wear make up'. (Bordo, 1993). 
However, these efforts to erase the 'ideal body image' are opposed by modern reality TV shows that encourage such behaviour. Extreme Makeover puts individuals through extreme physical changes to change the way they look, which is then viewed by women of all ages. This encourages people to think about their image, and change what they do not like in an unsafe manner. The Swan (2004) went one step further, and had the contestants compete in a beauty contest following their various reconstructive surgeries. These types of TV shows are teaching women that it is okay to change their image to fit the “feminine ideal”, instead of encouraging them to accept and love the body that they have been given.
Rice (1994) states that 'a woman's essential value is based on her ability to attain a thin body size'. Therefore while women continue to diet, they still dislike their bodies. Another statistic, stated by the Media Awareness Network, is that the average model weighed 8 percent less than the average women twenty years ago, compared to models weighing 23 percent less today. 
Effects on young women
A study by A. Chris Downs and Sheila Harrison from Sex Roles: A Journal of Research found that one out of every 3.8 television commercials has a message about attractiveness in it. They determined that viewers receive roughly 5,260 advertisements related to attractiveness per year (or at least 14 per day). Of these messages, 1,850 of them are specifically about beauty.
In a study published in the Journal of Advertising, Marketing professors Mary Martin and James Gentry noted that images of blonde, thin women are predominant in mass media, and that these characteristics are often portrayed as being ideal. Martin and Gentry also found that advertising can "impose a sense of inadequacy on young women's self-concepts." This is because some girls and young women compare their own physical attractiveness to the physical attractiveness of models in ads. They then experience lowered self-esteem if they do not feel that they look like the models in advertisements.
Today's models weigh 23 percent less than the average woman, while the average model two decades ago weighed eight percent less than the average woman. This current media ideal of thinness is met by only about five percent of the population.
Additionally, a study of Seventeen magazine concluded that the models featured in this popular teen magazine were far less curvy than those portrayed in women's magazines. It was also noted that the hip-to-waist ratio had decreased in these models from 1970 to 1990.
In a study published in Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, psychologists Heidi Posavac, Steven Posavac, and Emil Posavac found that many young women will express dissatisfaction with their bodies, particularly with their body weight, when they are exposed to images of thin models who are slimmer than the average woman.
Expressing similar sentiments, an aspiring young model was quoted as saying, "Deep down I still want to be a supermodel... As long as they're there, screaming at me from the television, glaring at me from the magazines, I'm stuck in the model trap. Hate them first. Then grow to like them. Love them. Emulate them. Die to be them. All the while praying the cycle will come to an end."
Academic researchers Philip Myers Jr. and Frank Biocca concluded, in their study published in the Journal of Communication, that a woman's self-perceived body image can change after watching a half-an-hour of television programming and advertising. Researchers Yoku Yamamiya and Thomas F. Cash concluded through their study that "Even a 5 minute exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images results in a more negative body image state than does exposure to images of neutral object."
Likewise, a study by Stice et al. in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology concluded that there is a direct relationship between the amount of media exposure that a young woman has and the likelihood that she will develop eating disorder symptoms.
Martin and Gentry also found that the mass media "creates and reinforces a preoccupation with physical attractiveness in young women," which can lead to bulimia, anorexia, and opting for cosmetic surgery. She also concluded that, "exposure to ultra-thin models in advertisements and magazine pictures produced depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity, and body dissatisfaction in female college students."
In a study published in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Paxton et al. found body dissatisfaction to be more prevalent in young women than in young men.
Low self-esteem that stems from teenage advertising can have detrimental effects on teenagers. Seventy-five percent of young women with low self-esteem report engaging in negative activities such as "cutting, bullying, smoking, or drinking when feeling badly about themselves."
Effects on young men
Research by Lynch et al. in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence found that the media sets unrealistic expectations for teen boys and that this can cause negative psychological impacts, including "eating disorders, body image problems, and the construction of negative gender stereotypes."
"Teenage boys can be prone to obsessive exercising, binge eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, steroid abuse and diet aid abuse." A study by insurer Blue Cross Blue shield found that in 1999 to 2000, use of steroids and similar drugs amongst boys ages 12 to 17 jumped 25 percent, with 20 percent saying they use the drug for looks rather than sports.
The Media Awareness Network notes that young men in advertisements are often portrayed as having a cool, confident, independent, or rebellious attitude. They are frequently shown as physically strong, powerful, athletic, dominant, and emotionally detached while lacking sensitivity, vulnerability, and compassion. Also, they are generally very physically attractive with clear skin. "Many ads show men engaging in physically challenging, dangerous, or aggressive sports or acts which exhibit their physical or sexual prowess." Young men can see these portrayals in ads and feel pressure to act like this as well.
One observer stated, "Advertisements in men’s magazines promote the possession of stuff as a valuable, important attribute to have, while lowering the self-esteem of men who do not own the trendiest fashions or have perfect six-pack abs."
A 2002 study found that male college students who are exposed to advertisements featuring muscular men show a significant "discrepancy between their own perceived muscularity and the level of muscularity that they ideally wanted to have."
Additionally, a study from the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology by Daniel Agliata and Stacey Tantleff-Dunn found that exposure to media images of lean and muscular men increases muscle dissatisfaction, depression, anger, and anxiety in young men.
Physician and professor of Psychology Harrison Pope theorized, “Many boys are embarrassed and ashamed of their appearance concerns, and keep them a secret. They may feel it ‘wimpy’ or ‘girlish’ to worry about their looks... [they're] increasingly vulnerable to the advertising messages of the supplement industry and other body image industries eager to capitalize on their anxieties.”
Positive or neutral effects
Effects on teenagers
Heidi Posavac, Steven Posavac, and Emil Posavac found that young women who are already content with their bodies are generally unaffected by media images of models and other attractive women. They concluded that only those who are dissatisfied with their bodies prior to viewing advertisements will then feel poorly after seeing advertisements featuring thin, attractive women.
Furthermore, Myers and Biocca found that some young women actually feel thinner after viewing advertisements featuring thin, idealized women.
Likewise, a study by psychology professors Paul Humphreys and Susan Paxton suggests that young men who view images of idealized men either feel no different or feel more positive about themselves after viewing such images.
Tamara Mangleburg and Terry Bristol's studies featured in the The Journal of Advertising found that teens are not typically swayed by images in advertisements. They suggest the more teens view advertisements, the less they are affected by them and the more they become skeptical of the messages that are in advertisements. This is because repeat exposure to ads can give them a better understanding of the motives behind such ads.
Similarly, Marsha Richins, former president of the Association for Consumer Research, theorized that, "by late adolescence... the sight of extremely attractive models is 'old news' and unlikely to provide new information that might influence self-perception". "[Yamamiya and Cash] used 20 model slides as stimuli, presented for a total duration of 5 minutes found that as the number of stimuli exceeded 10, viewers were somewhat less influenced, probably due to habituation."
Psychological researchers Christopher Ferguson, Benjamin Winegard, and Bo Winegard feel that the media’s effects on body dissatisfaction have been over-exaggerated. They believe that media does not heavily influence body dissatisfaction. Instead, they have found peers to have a much greater influence than the media in terms of body dissatisfaction in teenagers.
- Martin, Mary C. and Gentry, James W. “Stuck in the Model Trap: The Effects of Beautiful Models on Female Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents.” The Journal of Advertising (1997): 19-34
- Posavac, Heidi D., Posavac, Steven S., and Posavac, Emil J. Exposure to Media Images of Female Attractiveness and Concern with Body Weight Among Young Women Sex Roles, Volume 38, 187-201.
- Mangleburg, Tamara F. and Bristol, Terry. "Socialization and Adolescents’ Skepticism Toward Advertising", The Journal of Advertising (1998): 11-21
- "Embarrassing age spots or just plain ugly? Physical attractiveness stereotyping as an instrument of sexism on American television commercials". Springerlink.com. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "Body Image : Impact of exposure to idealised male images on adolescent boys’ body image". ScienceDirect. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Myers, Philip N. Jr. and Biocca, Frank A. The Elastic Body Image: The Effects of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions on Young Women, Journal of Communications (1992): 1-26
- "MediaPost Publications Targeting Young Males". Mediapost.com. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Newman, J., & White, L. 2012. Women, Politics, and Public Policy. Oxford University Press. p 240-245.
- Brownmiller, S. 1975. Agaist our Will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1984. Feminity. New York: Fawcett Columbine.
- Bordo, S. 1990. 'Feminism, postmodernism, and gender-scepticism.' In Linda J. Nicholson (Ed.) Feminism/postmodernism, 133-56. New York: Routledge.
- Rice, C. 1994. 'Out from under occupation: Transforming our relationships with our bodies.' Canadian Woman Studies 14:44-51.
- "Mirror, mirror – A summary of research findings on body image". Sirc.org. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Volume 20, Number 3". SpringerLink. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "11 Facts about Teens and Self-Esteem". Do Something. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Volume 30, Number 2". SpringerLink. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Eisenhauer, Lisa. "Do I Look OK?." St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, MO). Nov. 7 2005: HF1+. SIRS Researcher. Web. 25 Oct 2010.
- "Advertising and Image | Handout". Media-awareness.ca. 2010-07-08. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "Men Muscle in on Body Image Problems". LiveScience. 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "The media's representation of the ideal male body: A cause for muscle dysmorphia? – Leit – 2002 – International Journal of Eating Disorders – Wiley Online Library". Onlinelibrary.wiley.com. 2001-02-14. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "Whose Body Is This? Society's Ideal Male Body". Bodybuilding.com. 2003-12-15. Retrieved 2011-11-28.