Effects of time zones on North American broadcasting
The scheduling of television programming in North America must cope with eighteen time zones: the United States (excluding territories) has six time zones (Hawaii-Aleutian, Alaska, Pacific, Mountain, Central, and Eastern), with further variation in the observance of daylight saving time. Canada also has six time zones (Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern, Atlantic and Newfoundland). Mexico has three time zones (Pacific, Mountain and Central). Greenland has three (Atlantic time, UTC−03 and UTC−01, with UTC−02 not used). This requires broadcast and pay television networks in each country to shift programs in time to show them in different regions.
- 1 Canada
- 2 Greenland
- 3 Mexico
- 4 United States
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Canadian broadcasting networks, with six time zones and a much larger percentage of its audience residing in the Mountain Time Zone than in the Central Time Zone, are sometimes able to avoid the issues that affect American programming by airing pre-recorded programs on local time. CBC Television and CTV created delay centres in Calgary, Alberta, in the early 1960s in order to allow programming to air in each time zone based on the region. The sole exception is in Newfoundland and Labrador, which has a time zone oddity of running a half-hour later than the nearby Maritimes region. This is particularly a problem in Saskatchewan as most of the province does not observe daylight saving time and remains on Central Standard Time year-round. While Saskatchewan, Manitoba and parts of northwestern Ontario share the same clock setting during the winter season, Saskatchewan and Alberta share the same clock setting during the summer season, despite the fact that Alberta is in the Mountain Time Zone. Schedules must therefore be adjusted for the summer season in some areas.
In the vast majority of cases, local time schedules on CBC Television stations (and, for that matter, the CBC's radio networks) are identical in all markets, except for certain types of live programming and the aforementioned oddity of the Newfoundland Time Zone; CBC stations in Newfoundland use the same network feeds as the Maritimes so programs are scheduled for 30 minutes "later" than other parts of the country, typically noted in the CBC's network promotions with phrasing such as "6 o'clock, 6:30 in Newfoundland".
However, particularly among private broadcasters, there are often significant variances in local schedules from one time zone to the next due to the preference for showing American programs at the same time as the American network affiliates available through local cable and satellite television providers, which maintains a Canadian broadcaster's right to simultaneous substitution. This is further complicated by the fact that the affiliates available are not necessarily from the same time zone: the eastmost time zone in the United States is the Eastern Time Zone, so viewers in Atlantic Canada always receive American network affiliates from that time zone. Meanwhile, even though there are American network stations in the Mountain Time Zone (which normally broadcast network programs from 7:00 to 10:00 p.m. local time), for reasons unknown, the American stations available in Alberta have always come from the Pacific Time Zone. Hence in both the Atlantic and Mountain time zones, American "prime time" actually runs from 9:00 p.m. to midnight.
Accordingly, while private Canadian networks have generally adopted the American practice of broadcasting simultaneously to the Eastern and Central time zones ("8:00, 7:00 Central"), in recent years they have standardized on a different approach for stations in the Atlantic and Mountain time zones. In these markets, American programming is simulcast between 9:00 and 11:00 p.m. local (8:00 to 10:00 on the American stations being simsubbed), while the American "10:00 p.m." program, despite often being dramatically darker or more adult in tone, is usually telecast earlier in the evening at 8:00 p.m. local time. In the case of lengthy events such as movies or awards shows which extend into the 10:00 p.m. ET/PT hour, the program will usually be scheduled to air within the local primetime block if possible (although surrendering any local simsub privileges for that program in the process) or simply aired to its conclusion in the case of live events (particularly in the Atlantic time zone). In Newfoundland, the lone local private station CJON-DT currently follows the lead of its Maritime counterparts in most cases, but again with a further 30-minute "delay" for Newfoundland Time.
A small number of Canadian television networks are not broadcast to a national audience such as over-the-air networks CTV Two and City – which are broadcast only in certain markets and which do not have and stations in the the Yukon Territory, Nunavut, or the Northwest Territories – and premium cable channels Movie Central and The Movie Network – which broadcast in separate areas of Canada (Movie Central in the Territories and Western Canada and The Movie Network in Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic Provinces). Such channels may not require significant timeshifting, since they only cover a few time zones instead of serving all six time zones that serve the country. Ici Radio-Canada Télé, the French counterpart of CBC Television, has four feeds to allow programs to air at the same time in each zone's local time, except for the Atlantic and Newfoundland time zones, which telecast programs at the same time as in the Eastern Time zone, but 60 and 90 minutes later respectively on their clocks (e.g. 20h00 HE/21h00 HA/21h30 HT).
Some specialty cable and satellite television channels in Canada have two broadcast feeds for Eastern and Western Canada (such as YTV, Teletoon and The Comedy Network). The Eastern feed airs programs on an Eastern Time schedule, while the Western feed airs the same programming three hours later on Pacific Time. The separation between feeds is typically implemented at the border between Manitoba and Ontario, however one channel, the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, implements the separation at the border between Manitoba and Saskatchewan. All other specialty cable channels have one feed for all time zones, including French language channels that predominantly serve Francophone areas of the country, mostly in Quebec.
The UTC−03:00 Standard Time Zone is commonly used as a de facto official time by the Greenlander main broadcasting station Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa; there are three time zones but most of the island's population resides in the UTC−03:00 zone, which covers the central one-third of Greenland. Thus broadcasters sometimes avoid timeshifting issues by airing programs on UTC-03:00 time. This is a problem in the eastern town of Ittoqqortoormiit as the settlement and its surrounding area uses UTC−01:00 Standard Time Zone. Both time zones observe daylight saving time with European Union DST rules.
The UTC−04:00 Standard Time Zone is used in northwestern Greenland, and the area around Thule Air Base observes North American DST rules, known in Canada as the Atlantic Time Zone and in the Caribbean as the "Eastern Caribbean Time Zone". The UTC−02:00 Standard Time Zone is not used.
The Central Time Zone is commonly used as a sort of de facto official time for the Mexican broadcasting networks, with three time zones to span. Since a much larger percentage of its audience resides in the Central Time Zone than in the Mountain Time Zone, stations often broadcast their programs on Central Time. This is particularly a problem in Sonora since the whole state does not use daylight saving time and it remains on Mountain Standard Time year-round (this matches the practice of Arizona, with which it shares a long border). The thinly-populated Revillagigedo Islands do not use daylight saving time and they remain on Mountain Standard Time year-round, with the minor exception of Clarion Island which remains in the Pacific Standard Time year-round.
When the American government extended its daylight time period in 2007, Mexico did not change its effective dates. This means that in most of the country, daylight saving time starts three or four weeks later and ends one week earlier than in the United States and Canada. However, the northern border cities in four of the six states that border on the United States (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas), plus the entire state of Baja California, activate daylight saving time on the same dates as the United States and Canada. During the period when the United States and Canada are on daylight saving time and most of Mexico is not:
- Baja California is one hour behind Mexico City;
- The northern border cities of Chihuahua have the same time as Mexico City;
- Northern border cities in Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas are one hour ahead of Mexico City.
Time zone feeds
With four time zones in the contiguous United States, American broadcast television networks and cable/satellite channels generally broadcast at least two separate feeds to their owned-and-operated stations and affiliates: the "eastern feed" that is aired simultaneously in the Eastern and Central Time Zones, and the "western feed" that is tape-delayed three hours for those in the Pacific Time Zone. This ensures that a program, for example, that airs at 8:00 p.m. on the East Coast is also shown locally at 8:00 p.m. on the Pacific Coast. Networks may also broadcast a third feed specifically for the Mountain Time Zone, where they are usually broadcast on a one-hour delay from the Eastern Time Zone. Otherwise, some stations in the Mountain Time Zone use the western feed.
The Eastern Time Zone is commonly used as a de facto official time for the United States – since it includes the nation's capital city Washington, D.C., the country's largest city, New York City, and about one-half of the country's population. Because of this, television schedules are almost always posted in Eastern Time. Broadcast networks and cable channels also advertise airtimes in Eastern Time, sometimes also including either Central Time or Pacific Time. This has led to conventions like "tonight at 9:00/8:00 Central" (referring to the eastern feed), "tonight at 9:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific" (referring to both the eastern feed and the three-hour delayed western feed), and "tonight at 9:00/8:00 Central and Mountain" (also including the Mountain feed).
A few cable channels may not audibly refer to the Central time airtime of a program, though their promos may also visually include references to its broadcast in both the Eastern and Central time zones. So when a viewer only hears "tonight at 8:00", regardless of whether the promo visually includes it or not, probably the show they are referring to is scheduled to be telecast at 7:00 p.m. in the Central Time Zone.
Some networks also broadcast an East Coast feed which includes the Eastern, Central, and Mountain Time Zones, and a West Coast feed which includes Pacific Time, the Alaska Time Zone, and the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone.
Effectively, the East, Mountain, and West network feeds allow prime time on the over-the-air broadcast television networks to end at 10:00 p.m. Central and Mountain and 11:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific. When it first expanded its programming into primetime in April 1987, Fox became the first major U.S. broadcast network to offer a "common prime" schedule; this type of scheduling subtracts an hour from the primetime schedule, reducing it to two hours on Monday through Saturdays and three hours on Sundays – ending evening network programming earlier than NBC, CBS and ABC did – and continue to do (Fox did expand its Sunday primetime schedule into the 10:00 p.m. timeslot in September 1987, before giving back to that hour to its stations in 1993). The WB and UPN followed the "common prime" scheduling model when they both launched in January 1995, this was replicated by The CW and the MyNetworkTV program service upon their launches in September 2006.
Only the Eastern and Pacific Time Zones run primetime network programming beginning at 8:00 p.m. (7:00 on Sundays); the other four time zones in the country – Central, Mountain, Alaska and Hawaii-Aleutian – run primetime programming at 7:00 p.m. (6:00 on Sundays) – however, the major broadcast networks only simultaneously broadcast network programs to the Eastern and Central Time Zones, while the others receive all network programs separately in each zone at timeslots mirroring the two easternmost U.S. time zones. Network programming in Alaska generally follows a schedule similar to that of Central Time Zone, with the stations in Anchorage, broadcasting directly from the Pacific Time Zone feed without a tape delay. Thus, programs that are broadcast at 8:00 p.m. in Los Angeles and Seattle will be shown at 7:00 p.m. in Anchorage and Juneau. With the exception of the ABC affiliate KATN, network programming in Fairbanks, Alaska, is tape-delayed by one hour. The stations in Hawaii (all located on Oahu, with repeaters and satellite stations that relay the major network affiliates' programming to Wailuku and Hilo) also follows a schedule similar to the Central Time Zone (though the state's Fox affiliate, KHON-TV, and its satellites broadcast the network's Sunday programming on a one-hour tape delay from 7:00 to 10:00 p.m. instead of 6:00 to 9:00 p.m.).
In the territory of Guam, which is on the other side of the International Date Line from the rest of the United States, television stations broadcast primetime shows, network newscasts, and morning shows the day after they are broadcast in the mainland. However, most sports events are broadcast live. Those that are broadcast in the daytime in the mainland are shown overnight in Guam, while NBC Sunday Night Football, the World Series, and other prime time telecasts are shown the next morning, typically at 9:00 or 10:00 a.m. The only network affiliate in American Samoa, KKHJ-LP, broadcasts the Pacific time zone feed on a three-hour delay (details for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in the next section below).
In 2009, PBS began using Internet servers instead of separate feeds for time delaying of its programming to the network's member stations, the servers imitate a delayed program feed, broadcasting the program at the correct airtime as if it were being broadcast via satellite. This was done as PBS had upgraded its main program feed to high-definition (or to widescreen digital at the very least) in December 2008, but satellite capacity allowed for only Eastern and Pacific time zone feeds, prompting the removal of the Central and Mountain time zone feeds and a shared feed for Alaska and Pacific time zones in February 2009, which created complaints from PBS stations.
For some shows, the networks must utilize a fourth feed for the Central Time Zone. Morning shows like Good Morning America, Today and CBS This Morning may start too early for viewers in the Midwest and the central South; hence, they are tape-delayed to air at 7:00 a.m. Central Time. In another example, Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve with Ryan Seacrest, which is telecast every New Year's Eve, must be broadcast so that the show is correlated to when midnight strikes in every time zone. But since the program takes place from Times Square in New York City, some stations west of the Eastern Time Zone opt to air New Year's Rockin' Eve live.
Not all of the network programming is strictly scheduled, however. Network soap operas, game shows, and national news programs have recommended times to be broadcast, but the final scheduling for those shows - or any preemption thereof - is most often at the discretion of the local stations.
Cable and satellite television
Subscribers to cable or satellite television services may still only receive the East Coast feed for certain channels even if they reside on the West Coast. Some cable channels do in fact only offer one telecast to begin with, meaning viewers see the same program in all time zones. For example, when superstation WGN America telecasts the 9:00 p.m. Central Time newscast from WGN-TV in Chicago, the program is also seen at 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time in Washington, D.C., and at 8:00 p.m. Mountain Time in Denver.
On the other hand, some broadcasters offer both the East and West coast feeds of some basic cable channels for viewing in all time zones, allowing viewers who missed a particular program to watch it three hours earlier or later depending on the time zone they live in, and depending on their own personal schedules. Nickelodeon is the only American basic cable channel that telecasts dual broadcast feeds to viewers who do not subscribe to satellite television, as that channel offers an alternate feed known as Nick 2, which is essentially the opposite coast's feed of Nickelodeon (the Pacific time zone feed for East Coast viewers, and vice versa) to digital cable subscribers – while the channel's main feed for the respective time zone is carried on the local cable provider's basic package.
The usage of dual feeds of the same channel is a commonplace method for premium channels such as HBO, Showtime and Starz, in which the Pacific time zone feed of (usually only) the primary channel is packaged with the East Coast feed of the main channel and the pay service's multiplex channels (if the premium channel has any). In some cases, cable networks (such as cable news and sports channels) "fake" the dual feed approach by recycling their same-day prime time programming during the overnight hours on a three (or four) hour cycle; in this case, the programs are automatically rebroadcast at the advertised time (or one hour later) in the Pacific time zone.
Many national live events though are broadcast simultaneously nationwide – including most sporting events, national breaking news stories, the State of the Union address, presidential and Congressional election coverage and certain award shows (such as the Academy Awards). Live events that are simulcast across the country also present special problems for local stations; for such events the networks may either advertise Eastern time only, or list the times in both Eastern and Pacific (e.g. "8 p.m. Eastern/5 p.m. Pacific"). As such, a live Sunday sporting event that is played from 4 to 7 p.m. Eastern Time preempts local 6 p.m. newscasts on the East Coast. Likewise, a State of the Union address that is televised at 9 p.m. Eastern Time preempts local 6 p.m. newscasts on the West Coast.
However, many award shows, most Olympic competitions and other similar events that are broadcast live in the Eastern and Central time zones, including some that originate from Los Angeles (such as the Grammy Awards and certain reality competition shows such as Dancing with the Stars and the live rounds of shows such as The Voice and American Idol), may be tape-delayed in the Mountain and Pacific time zones, thus making it impossible for viewers in those time zones to vote after performance episodes of live reality competition shows finish airing on the East Coast. The practice of tape delay is due to the potentially higher West Coast viewership during primetime hours, and also allows potentially objectionable content occurring without warning that is not allowed on broadcast television per FCC regulations (such as fleeting profanities or wardrobe malfunctions) to be edited out for broadcast in the Mountain and Pacific time zones, if they are shown live on the East Coast feed. When programs such as these air on tape-delay to other time zones, it is not uncommon for networks to display a graphic at the beginning of the broadcast stating that the program being shown is "recorded from an earlier live broadcast" or simply "recorded earlier". As well, when one of these program's graphics may include the display of the word "live" on screen, networks may add the acronyms "EST" or "EDT" (for Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Daylight Time respectively, depending on whether or not the country is on Standard or Daylight Saving Time at the time of the broadcast) as a way of advising viewers in other time zones that the "live" broadcast they are watching is actually pre-recorded, and only aired live in the Eastern Time zone (this is a common practice with tape-delayed broadcasts of American networks' morning programs). In addition, news shows that normally air tape delayed on the West Coast, especially morning programs, may preempt the previously recorded program with a live broadcast for the West Coast when breaking news warrants an update to the newscast. This additional live broadcast generally replaces the first news segments of the program, while the remaining portion of the previously recorded program is used for the rest of the broadcast.
Similarly, media coverage of New Year's Eve celebrations in New York City often leave the Central Time Zone out. Late Night with Conan O'Brien, though produced in New York, when broadcast on New Year's Eve took advantage of its later time slot (11:37 p.m. Central time) to lampoon this inconsistency by presenting a New Year's celebration for the Central Time Zone. In some locations, New Year's Eve celebrations held in New York might be repeated or delayed one hour to correspond to the Central Time Zone. News channels such as CNN and sports channels such as ESPN that frequently broadcast live events offer a single feed that airs in all time zones. About 80 percent of American television viewers reside in the Central and Eastern time zones.
Occasionally, networks will produce and broadcast the same live event twice in one night: broadcasting once on an East Coast feed and again on a West Coast feed three hours later. This permits more viewers to watch the broadcast live in primetime (although not all), as the show can air in its usual timeslot in all markets, but incurs the expense and difficulty of delivering two live broadcasts. In some cases, the two broadcasts may intentionally differ, prompting fans to compare notes and post scenes from each version online. While rare, the technique of multiple live broadcasts has generally been used in recent times for some special live episodes of scripted programs, such as the 30 Rock episodes "Live Show" and "Live from Studio 6H", Will & Grace's "Alive and Schticking", The West Wing's "The Debate", and ER's "Ambush".
Effects on local programming
Local stations and affiliates must schedule their local and syndicated programming around their respective network's feed. Because primetime programs on the East Coast Feed is simulcast in two time zones, it affects stations in the Central Time Zone differently than those in the Eastern Time Zone. An hour of syndicated programming time (between 7 and 8 p.m. in the Eastern and Pacific time zones) is lost in the Central and Mountain time zones since network primetime in those areas starts at 7 p.m., forcing stations in Mountain or Central time (or in parts of both zones) to choose between airing their 6 p.m. newscast and another syndicated or locally-produced program, or airing shows in 'blocks' preferred by syndicators (for example, Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy! together, or Entertainment Tonight and omg! Insider).
The most common set of programming chosen by stations aligned with the Big Three television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) is to air a newscast at 5 p.m., national news at 5:30 p.m., local news at 6 p.m. and syndicated programming at 6:30 p.m., though some Fox stations that carry a newscast schedule comparable to stations tied to the Big Three (commonly stations that were former ABC, NBC and CBS affiliates themselves) carry a 60- or 90-minute block of news from 5-6 (or 6:30) p.m. with an additional half-hour of local news in the 5:30 p.m. timeslot since Fox does not air a national evening newscast; a few stations not affiliated with the Big Four networks, such as WGN-TV, KTLA in Los Angeles and WJXT in Jacksonville, Florida, follow a similar scheduling format with their early evening newscasts. Most Big Three affiliates in the Eastern and Pacific time zones follow this early evening newscast model as well, running a 90-minute block of news from 5-6:30 p.m., particularly if they run a network's national evening newscast at 6:30 p.m. ET/PT. Some stations, regardless of time zone, even show a newscast from 6-7 p.m., which if run on a network station in the Central or Mountain time zones would lead into primetime network programming. Some television stations (such as WKYC and WJW-TV in Cleveland or WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island) have recently begun using the fact that primetime in the Eastern time zone begins at 8 p.m. to their advantage by carrying a newscast during the 7 p.m. hour, generally in order to attract viewers who work longer days and cannot return home to watch a 5 or 6 p.m. newscast.
Many stations that do not carry a newscast in the 6 p.m. time slot in the Central time zone (commonly independent stations and most affiliates of non-historical networks like Fox – some Fox stations air a 6 p.m. newscast, though this is not entirely commonplace – The CW and MyNetworkTV) air situation comedies or other types of syndicated programming such as reality series during that hour. Many stations in the Central Time Zone tend to air one or both parts of the syndicated block at 5 p.m. or even earlier. Another more recent dilemma of the 7 p.m. primetime start is that a combination of longer commutes and work hours than in the past have caused many people to not come home from work until after 7 p.m., cutting into the potential ratings of shows that start at this time. Of course, the reverse is also true, as simultaneous broadcasts offer viewers the chance to watch "prime time television" without having to stay awake until 11 p.m.
Local programming such as locally-produced newscasts are not typically affected as many stations air their morning newscast at 4, 4:30, 5 or 5:30 a.m., and their early evening newscasts at 5 and/or 6 p.m.; however the late evening newscast is affected due to the differences in time between time zones, meaning that if the late local news starts at 10 p.m. Central time on one network station, an affiliate of the same network in the Eastern Time Zone airs its newscast at 11 p.m.; network evening newscasts on CBS, ABC and NBC are affected since they are usually scheduled to air at 6:30 p.m. Eastern Time (barring preemption due to network sports coverage or, at the discretion of the local station, breaking news or severe weather coverage) in order to sync up with its simultaneous broadcast in the Central Time Zone. The late night program lineups on ABC, CBS, NBC and Fox are also similarly timeshifted, as they air a half-hour later (after a newscast or syndicated programming, if the station does not run news programming) but are shifted due to the time zone differences (a bigger issue with first-run late night programs that air after 12:30 a.m. Eastern Time, since the later start time may subject these programs to a potentially decreased audience). Many Fox, CW and MyNetworkTV affiliates and some independent stations carry a prime time newscast that is similarly affected by the timeshifting of the primetime schedule, meaning that if said late evening newscast starts at 9 p.m. Mountain time on one network station, an affiliate of the same network in the Pacific time zone would air its news at 10 p.m.
Changes for Daylight Saving Time
Time changes for daylight saving time may result in broadcast television stations and cable channels accommodating the time changes by altering their schedules to allow programs to continue to air at the same time year-round. Due to the structure of daylight saving time (which begins and ends at 2 a.m. in each time zone on the respective dates), the switch from standard time to daylight saving time on the second Sunday in March requires clocks to be advanced by one hour to 3 a.m., and the reversion to standard time on the first Sunday in November requires clocks to be moved back by one hour to 1 a.m.
During the switch from standard time to DST, television stations and cable networks will usually offset the loss of one hour by eliminating programming otherwise scheduled during the 2 a.m. hour on Saturday night/early Sunday morning. Conversely, as one hour is gained when reverting to standard time, networks may offset the time change by adding an hour of additional entertainment programming not normally scheduled on Saturday night/early Sunday morning during the rest of the year to allow certain programs to air at their regularly scheduled airtime (e.g., Disney Channel will add an hour of its original series at 1 a.m. EDT in order to allow its Saturday late night film block to air its regular 2:30 a.m. slot, after the reversion to standard time). Cable channels airing paid programming during the late night period may choose not to add entertainment shows and instead add an additional hour of infomercials (e.g., Discovery Channel usually extends its infomercial block, which normally begins at 3 a.m. ET, by one hour; similarly, E! adds one hour of infomercials in the 2 a.m. EDT slot, normally ceded to general entertainment programming, followed by one hour of entertainment programs, then a block of infomercials starting in their normal 4 a.m. EST slot).
Some areas of the U.S. do not observe daylight saving time, leading to the following changes; though in all cases, sports and other event telecasts that are broadcast live always begin an hour earlier, depending on time zone:
- Stations in Arizona (only Navajo Nation reservations observe DST) change from the live Mountain Time feed to a delay from the Eastern/Central feed when DST begins, to preserve a 7 p.m. start time. This is also the case for live syndicated radio programs such as The Rush Limbaugh Show, which air live during the winter and are delayed one hour during DST;
- Shows airing on stations in Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands during DST start at the same time as Eastern and Central Time. Otherwise, primetime is on a one hour delay. This is because affiliates there receive their programs from the ET/CT master control (a similar arrangement occurs in Bermuda, which is a British territory but is the home of two affiliates of U.S. networks);
- In Alaska, Hawaii, Guam and American Samoa, primetime shows are delayed by an additional hour.
Scheduling variations for areas located between two time zones
A handful of U.S. media markets lie on bordering time zones (Pacific/Mountain, Mountain/Central or Central/Eastern). While stations will carry a program in all counties part of the Designated Market Area, counties on either side of the market will air network programming simultaneously one hour earlier or later, depending on location:
- A number of media markets based in Eastern Time Zone cities have outlying areas in the Central Time Zone, including Atlanta and Columbus, Georgia, Louisville, Kentucky, Chattanooga and Knoxville, Tennessee, Escanaba, Michigan and Terre Haute, Indiana. However, since the usual primetime lineup is fed to them at the normal times for their zones, the effects are minimal in contrast to the following examples.
- Fox affiliate KECY-TV (and its ABC-affiliated subchannel), which are licensed to El Centro, California, start primetime programming at either 6 or 7 p.m. local time, depending on Daylight Saving Time status, because Yuma County in Arizona shares a media market with El Centro. All other stations in California start primetime network shows at 8 p.m.
- Satellite stations in western North Dakota, within the Mountain time zone, have 6 p.m. starts to primetime rather than the usual 7 p.m. because the primary stations are in either Bismarck or Minot in the Central time zone. These stations also serve areas in eastern Montana, which also observes the Mountain time zone.
- The four counties in western Kansas which observe Mountain Time receive prime-time programming from 6 to 9 p.m. since they are part of the Wichita DMA (the remainder of which lies within the Central Time Zone) and the stations are satellites of the main feed in Wichita.
- Viewers in Lincoln County, Montana receive primetime shows from the Spokane, Washington DMA two hours later than locations elsewhere in the Mountain Time Zone – from either 9 p.m. to 11 p.m. (or midnight) MT Monday through Saturday and 8 p.m. to 11 (or midnight) on Sunday, depending on the network.
- "Half an hour later in Newfoundland....?" Yes, but why?"
- Based on the 2011 population estimate, 46 percent of the American population live in the Eastern time zone, 30 percent in the Central zone; 7.0 percent in the Mountain zone, and 17 percent in the Pacific zone.
- "New servers, not separate feeds, will handle PBS time-zone delays (Idaho Public Television in the News)". Idahoptv.org. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
- "SouthCoastToday.com — News Archive — Your link to SouthCoast Massachusetts and beyond". Archive.southcoasttoday.com. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
- Lynette Rice (February 22, 2012). "Oscars exec producer: 'We need to go for comedy'". EW.com (CNN). Retrieved 2012-02-22.