Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.
|Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.|
Zimbalist in 1956
November 30, 1918|
New York, New York, U.S.
|Died||May 2, 2014
Solvang, California. U.S.
Cause of death
|Town Hill Cemetery, New Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.|
|Alma mater||Yale University|
|Known for||Dandy Jim Buckley,
DC animated universe
|Home town||New York City, New York|
|Television||77 Sunset Strip,
Batman: The Animated Series
|Spouse(s)||Emily Munroe McNair (m. 1945–50)
Loranda Stephanie Spaulding (m. 1956–61)
Loranda Stephanie Spaulding (m. 1962–2007)
Efrem "Skip" Zimbalist III
|Parents||Efrem Zimbalist, Sr.,
|Awards||Golden Globe Award|
Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. (November 30, 1918 – May 2, 2014) was a Golden Globe-winning American actor known for his starring roles in the television series 77 Sunset Strip and The F.B.I. He is also known as recurring character "Dandy Jim Buckley" in the series Maverick and as the voice behind the character Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series and associated spin-offs. He also voiced Doctor Octopus from the 1990s Spider-Man animated series, and Justin Hammer from the second season of 1994 Iron Man animated series.
Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. was born in New York, New York, the son of Jewish parents—Russian-born violinist Efrem Zimbalist, Sr. and Romanian-born operatic soprano Alma Gluck. His stepmother was Mary Louise Curtis Bok Zimbalist, the founder of the Curtis Institute of Music. He attended Fay School in Southborough, Massachusetts.
Zimbalist attended Yale University in the late 1930s, worked as a page for NBC radio in New York, and served in the United States Army for five years during World War II, where he became friends with Garson Kanin. He was awarded the Purple Heart for a leg wound received during the battle of Hürtgen Forest.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014)|
Following the war, Zimbalist returned to New York and made his Broadway acting debut in The Rugged Path, starring Spencer Tracy. This led to a stage career as both an actor and producer. His producing successes included bringing three Gian Carlo Menotti operas to Broadway, one of which, The Consul, won the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1950.
In 1954–1955 he co-starred in his first television series, Concerning Miss Marlowe.
Warner Bros. star
Zimbalist's first recurring role in a Warner Bros. Television series was as roguish gambler "Dandy Jim Buckley" on Maverick opposite James Garner in 1957; making five appearances as the character. In 1958 Zimbalist played the co-lead, Stuart "Stu" Bailey, in 77 Sunset Strip, a popular detective series running until 1964. During this period he not only made several concurrent appearances in other Warner Bros. television shows such as Hawaiian Eye, The Alaskans and Bronco, but starred as the lead in several feature films for Warners such as Bombers B-52, The Deep Six, A Fever in the Blood and The Chapman Report. Zimbalist was in such demand that he was given leave by Jack Warner due to exhaustion from his busy schedule.
In 1959 he was awarded the Golden Globe for "Most Promising Newcomer – Male".
The F.B.I. television series
Zimbalist was arguably most widely known for his starring role as Inspector Lewis Erskine in the Quinn Martin television production, The F.B.I., which premiered on September 19, 1965 and ended with its final episode on September 8, 1974. Zimbalist was generous in his praise of producer Martin and of his own experience starring in the show. Those who worked with Zimbalist on the show were equally admiring of the star's professionalism and likable personality.
Zimbalist maintained a strong personal relationship with J. Edgar Hoover, who requested technical accuracy for the show, and that agents be portrayed in the best possible light. Actors who played F.B.I. employees were required by Hoover to undergo a background check. Zimbalist passed his background check with ease. He subsequently spent a week in Washington, D.C., where he was interviewed by Hoover, and at the F.B.I. academy in Quantico, Virginia. Hoover and Zimbalist remained mutual admirers for the rest of Hoover's life. Hoover would later hold Zimbalist up as an image role model for F.B.I. employees to emulate in their personal appearance.
The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation[dead link] honored the character of Lewis Erskine in 1985 with a set of retired credentials. On June 8, 2009 FBI Director Robert Mueller presented Zimbalist with a plaque of an honorary special agent for his work on the television series The F.B.I., on which he worked in collaboration with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and his friend J. Edgar Hoover. The run of the show on ABC was followed in the 1980s by a revival show, Today's FBI with Zimbalist returning as Erskine.
Other television work
After 77 Sunset Strip, he appeared in other series, including CBS's short-lived The Reporter starring Harry Guardino as a journalist, Danny Taylor of the fictitious New York Globe. He also appeared in leading and supporting roles in several feature films, including Harlow, A Fever in the Blood (a film about a ruthless politician), Wait Until Dark and Airport 1975.
Zimbalist had a recurring role as Daniel Chalmers, a white-collar con man, on his daughter Stephanie Zimbalist's 1980s television detective series, Remington Steele and in the television dramatic series, Hotel.
In 1990, he played the father of Zorro in the Christian Broadcasting Network's remake, The New Zorro. Zimbalist relinquished the role after the program's first season due to the filming at studios outside Madrid, Spain, and the role subsequently went to Henry Darrow. He had a small recurring role in the 1990s hit science fiction television series Babylon 5 as William Edgars.
Also in the 1990s, Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. played Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series as well as in Superman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Justice League, Static Shock, and the animated films Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero, and Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman and villain Doctor Octopus in Spider-Man: The Animated Series. He appeared on the Trinity Broadcasting Network and as himself in the 1998 Smithsonian Institution production of Gemstones of America. He performed as the narrator in "Good Morning, America," by Elinor Remick Warren—Cambria CD #1042 (1993).
Zimbalist penned an autobiography, My Dinner of Herbs, published by Limelight Editions, New York.
In 2008, he appeared in the short film The Delivery, where he played a professor who helps a young girl in her struggles for literacy. The film won first place in fantasy at the Dragon*Con Film Festival and was an official selection at the Los Angeles International Children's Festival and the Reel Women International Film Festival in 2009.
Personal life and religion
Efrem Zimbalist married his first wife, Emily Munroe McNair, in 1945 and she died of cancer five years later, in 1950. Zimbalist's second marriage was to Loranda Stephanie Spaulding, in 1956. She died of lung cancer on February 5, 2007, at the age of 73. Zimbalist was the father of Efrem Zimbalist III and Nancy Zimbalist (by Emily McNair) and actress Stephanie Zimbalist (by Stephanie Spaulding).
Zimbalist considered himself to be a man of abiding faith and was involved in a number of Christian media productions. His parents, Alma Gluck and Efrem Zimbalist, Sr., were assimilated non-practicing Jews who rejected their Jewish heritage. Efrem Sr. was raised in a non-practicing household and would later state, "As far as I am concerned, there has been no Jew in the family for sixty-five years." Alma and Efrem Sr. had their children baptized Christians in the Episcopal Church and raised them in that church. Efrem Jr. stated that he was taken to church every Sunday and attended St. Paul's School, an Episcopal boarding school in New Hampshire. He also attended church every Sunday with his first wife, and it was his faith which allowed him peace when she succumbed to cancer. A spiritual pilgrim, Zimbalist was an early practitioner and proponent of Transcendental Meditation, as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. He described the Maharishi Yogi as a "fascinating character", but found that his nine-year association with the meditation method "... was a total waste of energy for me." He returned to the Episcopal Church for a time. In the late 1970s, Zimbalist was drawn to the Charismatic Christianity he found on the Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN). Efrem's face and voice has appeared on scores of TBN announcements, including the station identification at the top of every hour. In a five-minute segment called "The Word", which aired on TBN at 25 after the hour, Zimbalist read through the entire Bible, verse by verse; later these segments appeared in interludes and station breaks on TBN. He once told a reporter in 1989 "for a while I did go overboard in my association with a fundamentalist group", but never made a verbal association with any ministry. As of July 2014, his voice is still used as a TBN network identification. Eventually, he resumed active participation in the Episcopal Church, feeling comfortable with that denominational style.
In 1963 and 1964, Zimbalist joined fellow actors William Lundigan, Chill Wills, and Walter Brennan, in making appearances on behalf of U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater, the Republican candidate in his election campaign against U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Zimbalist died on May 2, 2014 from natural causes at the age of 95. His daughter Stephanie announced the news, saying, "He was 95 years old, a devout Christian. He actively enjoyed his life to the last day, showering love on his extended family, playing golf and visiting with close friends." His interment was at Town Hill Cemetery in New Hartford, Connecticut, near his parents.
|Opening date||Closing date||Title||Role||Theatre||Refs|
|Nov 10, 1945||Jan 19, 1946||The Rugged Path||Gil Hartnick||Plymouth|||
|Nov 6, 1946||Feb 21, 1947||King Henry VIII||Duke of Suffolk||International Theatre|||
|Nov 8, 1946||Feb 15, 1947||What Every Woman Knows||A Butler, Ensemble||International Theatre|||
|Dec 19, 1946||Feb 22, 1947||A Pound on Demand
Androcles and the Lion
|Feb 27, 1947||Mar 15, 1947||Yellow Jack||Aristides Agramonte||International Theatre|||
|May 1, 1947||Nov 1, 1947||The Telephone
|(producer)||Ethel Barrymore Theatre|||
|Feb 24, 1948||Mar 6, 1948||Hedda Gabler||Eilert Lovborg||Cort Theatre|||
|Dec 7, 1948||Jan 9, 1949||The Telephone||(producer)||City Center|||
|Dec 7, 1948||Jan 9, 1949||The Medium||(producer)||City Center|||
|Mar 15, 1950||Nov 4, 1950||The Consul||(producer)||Ethel Barrymore Theatre|||
|Jan 17, 1956||Aug 11, 1956||Fallen Angels||Maurice Duclos||Playhouse|||
|Oct 16, 2004||Nov 7, 2004||Night of the Iguana||Nonno||Rubicon Theatre Company|
|Apr 26, 2007||May 20, 2007||Hamlet||The Player King||Rubicon Theatre Company|
Film and television
|1946||Mr. and Mrs. North||TV movie|||
|1949||House of Strangers||Tony Monetti|||
|1954–1955||Concerning Miss Marlowe||Jim Gavin||Unknown episodes|||
|1956||Star Tonight||TV series, episode: "The Long View"|||
|United States Steel Hour, TheThe United States Steel Hour||Sean O'Neill||TV series, episode "Stopover at Sublimity"|||
|1957||Conflict||Stuart Bailey||TV series, episodes: "Execution Night"
and "Anything For Money"
|Band of Angels||Lt. Ethan Sears|||
|Bombers B-52||Colonel Jim Herlihy|||
|1957–1958||Maverick||Dandy Jim Buckley||TV series, episodes: "Stampede" (1957), "Trail West to Fury", "High Card Hangs", "The Jail at Junction Flats" and "Shady Deal at Sunny Acres" (all 1958)|
|1958||Deep Six, TheThe Deep Six||Lt. Blanchard|||
|Too Much, Too Soon||Vincent Bryant|||
|Violent Road||George Lawrence|||
|Girl on the Run||Stuart Bailey||Pilot for TV series 77 Sunset Strip|||
|Sugarfoot||Kerrigan the Great||TV series, episode: "The Wizard"|
|Home Before Dark||Jacob 'Jake' Diamond|||
|1958–1964||77 Sunset Strip||Stu Bailey||163 episodes|||
|1959–1962||Hawaiian Eye||Stu Bailey||TV series, episodes: "Malahini Holiday" and "Three Tickets to Lani" (both 1959), "I Wed Three Wives" (1960) and "Blackmail in Satin" (1962)|
|1960||Alaskans, TheThe Alaskans||John Conrad||TV series, episode: "The Trial of Reno McKee"|
|Crowded Sky, TheThe Crowded Sky||Dale Heath|||
|1961||Fever in the Blood, AA Fever in the Blood||Judge Leland Hoffman|||
|By Love Possessed||Arthur Winner|||
|Bronco||Edwin Booth||TV series, episode: "The Prince of Darkness"|||
|1962||Chapman Report, TheThe Chapman Report||Paul Radford|||
|1963||Insight||TV series, episode: "The Phony"|
|1964||Insight||Charles de Foucauld||TV series, episode: "The Hermit"|
|Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre||Paul Radford||TV series, episode: "The Sojourner"|||
|Alfred Hitchcock Hour, TheThe Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Stranger||TV series, episode: "See the Monkey Dance"|
|Reporter, TheThe Reporter||Charles Durwood||TV series, episode: "Super-Star"|
|1965||Insight||TV series, episode: "Stranger in My Shoes"|
|Rawhide||Jeff McKeever||TV series, episode: "The Diehard"|
|Reward, TheThe Reward||Frank Bryant|||
|1965–1974||F.B.I., TheThe F.B.I.||Inspector Lewis Erskine||TV series, 241 episodes|||
|1966||Insight||TV series, episode: "The Coffee House"|
|1967||Cosa Nostra, Arch Enemy of the F.B.I.||Inspector Lewis Erskine||TV movie|||
|Wait Until Dark||Sam Hendrix|||
|1968||Insight||Don Ford||TV series, episode: "He Lived With Us, Ate With Us, What Else, Dear?"|
|1970||Insight||TV series, episode: "The Day God Died"|
|1974||Airport 1975||Captain Stacy|||
|Insight||TV series, episode: "When You See Arcturus"|
|1975||Who Is the Black Dahlia?||Sgt. Harry Hansen||TV movie|||
|1978||Family Upside Down, AA Family Upside Down||Mike Long||TV movie|||
|Terror Out of the Sky||David Martin||TV movie|||
|1979||Best Place to Be, TheThe Best Place to Be||Bill Reardan||TV movie|||
|Gathering, Part II, TheThe Gathering, Part II||Victor Wainwright||TV movie|||
|Insight||God||TV series, episode: "Checkmate"|
|Insight||TV series, episode: "A Family of Winners"|
|1980||Scruples||Ellis Ikehorn||TV mini-series|||
|1982||Avenging, TheThe Avenging||Jacob Anderson|||
|Beyond Witch Mountain||Aristotle Bolt||TV movie|||
|Family in Blue||Marty Malone||TV movie|||
|1983||Insight||TV series, episode: "The Hit Man"|
|Tempest, TheThe Tempest||Prospero||Video|||
|Charley's Aunt||Col. Francis Chesney||TV movie|||
|Baby Sister||Tom Burroughs||TV movie|||
|Shooting Stars||Robert Cluso||TV movie|||
|Fantasy Island||Mr. Baldwin||TV series, episode: "The Butler's Affair/Roarke's Sacrifice"|
|Remington Steele||Daniel Chalmers||TV series, episode: "Sting of Steele"|||
|1984||Love Boat, TheThe Love Boat||Dan Whitman||TV series, episode: "Polly's Poker Palace, Parts 1 and 2"|
|Hardcastle and McCormick||Emmett Parnell||TV series, episode: "The Georgia Street Motors"|||
|Partners in Crime||Grant Latham||TV series, episode: "Murder in the Museum"|
|Cover Up||E.G. Dawson||TV series, episode: "Writer's Block"|
|Remington Steele||Daniel Chalmers||TV series, episode: "Blue Blooded Steele"|||
|Hotel||Alexander Heath||TV series, episode: "Flesh and Blood"|||
|You Are the Jury||Narrator||TV series: "The Case of the People of Florida v Joseph Lamdrum"|||
|1985||Finder of Lost Loves||Judge Alex Hale||TV series, episode: "Mister Wonderful"|
|Remington Steele||Daniel Chalmers||TV series, episode: "Steele Searching, Part 2"|||
|1986||You Are the Jury||Narrator||TV series, episode: "The State of Arizona v Dr. Evan Blake"|||
|Hotel||Charles Cabot||TV series, episodes: "Opening Moves", "Queen's Gambit", "Enemies Within", "Double Jeopardy", "Hornet's Nest", "Undercurrents" and "Forsaking All Others"|||
|1987||Remington Steele||Daniel Chalmers||TV series, episode: "Steeled With a Kiss, Parts 1 and 2"|||
|1988||Hotel||Charles Cabot||TV series, episode: "Power Play"|||
|Hunter||Clarence Hyland||TV series, episode: "Murder He Wrote"|
|Murder, She Wrote||Gen. Havermeyer||TV series, episode: "The Last Flight of the Dixie Damsel"|
|1990||Zorro||Don Alejandro de la Vega||TV series, 25 episodes|||
|Murder, She Wrote||Richard Thompson Grant||TV series, episode: "Hannigan's Wake"|
|Who's the Boss?||Robert Robinson||TV series, episode: "Operation Mona"|
|1992||Murder, She Wrote||Adam Quatrain||TV series, episode: "Sugar, Spice, Malice and Vice"|
|1992–1993||Legend of Prince Valiant, TheThe Legend of Prince Valiant||King Arthur (voice)||TV series, 53 episodes|
|1992–1995||Batman: The Animated Series||Alfred||TV series, 57 episodes|||
|1993||Jack L. Warner: The Last Mogul||Narrator|
|Trade Winds||Christof Philips||TV mini-series|||
|Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers||Wolfgang||Video game|
|Batman: Mask of the Phantasm||Alfred Pennyworth||Major Motion Picture (Movie)|||
|1994||Burke's Law||Sam Gallagher||TV series, episode: "Who Killed the Legal Eagle?"|
|Nanny, TheThe Nanny||Theodore Timmons||TV series, episode: "Material Fran"|
|1995||Street Corner Kids: The Sequel, TheThe Street Corner Kids: The Sequel||Marty|
|Biker Mice from Mars||King Arthur||TV series, episode: "Knights of the Round Table, Parts 1 and 2"|
|One West Waikiki||Walter Mansfield||TV series, episode: "Flowers of Evil"|
|Gargoyles||Mace Malone||TV series, episode: "Revelations"|
|Iron Man||Justin Hammer||TV series, episodes: "The Armor Wars: Part 1 & 2", "The Beast Within"|
Dr. Otto Octavius
|TV series, 11 episodes|
|1996||Picket Fences||Hal Klosterman||TV series, episode: "Forget Selma"|
|Mighty Ducks||Dr. Denton P. Hookerman||TV series, episode: "Zap Attack"|
|1997||Babylon 5||William Edgars||TV series, episodes: "Conflicts of Interest", "Moments of Transition", "Exercise of Vital Powers", "The Face of the Enemy"|||
|Visitor, TheThe Visitor||Wayland Scott||TV series, episode: "Miracles"|
|1997–1998||New Batman Adventures, TheThe New Batman Adventures||Alfred Pennyworth||12 episodes|||
|1997–1999||Superman: The Animated Series||Alfred Pennyworth||4 episodes|||
|1998||Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero||Alfred Pennyworth|||
|Batman Superman Movie: World's Finest, TheThe Batman Superman Movie: World's Finest||Alfred Pennyworth|||
|1999||Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man, TheThe Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man||Dr. Octopus||animated short film|
|2000||Spider-Man||Dr. Octopus||Video game|
|2001||Batman: Vengeance||Alfred Pennyworth||Video game|||
|First Day, TheThe First Day||Benjamin Hart||TV movie|||
|2003–2004||Justice League||Alfred Pennyworth||TV series, episodes: "Hereafter Part 1", Starcrossed Part 2 & 3"|||
|2003||Static Shock||Alfred Pennyworth|||
|Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman||Alfred Pennyworth|||
|2008||Delivery, TheThe Delivery||Dr. Engel|
Television appearances as self
|1961||What About Linda?||March of Dimes fund raising program|
|1962||Here's Hollywood||November 2, 1962|
|1965||Password All-Stars||Episode: "Angie Dickinson vs. Efrem Zimbalist Jr."|
|1972||Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, TheThe Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson||February 16, 1972|
|1978||30th Primetime Emmy Awards||Presenter|
|1980||Anita Bryant Spectacular, TheThe Anita Bryant Spectacular|||
|1986||38th Primetime Emmy Awards||Presenter|
|1991||Hot Shots: The Making of an Important Movie|
|1998||Gemstones of America||Host|
|1999||Year to Remember, AA Year to Remember||Host|
|2003||Batman: Behind the Mystery|
|2008||Brothers Warner, TheThe Brothers Warner|
- "'FBI Agent' Efrem Zimbalist Jr. Remembered as Staunch Conservative". Newsmax.com. May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- Malan, Roy (May 2004). Efrem Zimbalist: A Life. Amadeus Press. p. 1. ISBN 1-57467-091-3.
- Marston Records bio of Alma Gluck
- 1922-Year Radio's Population Soared-Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.'s parents at radio station WSB, Atlanta, in 1922. Broadcasting. May 14, 1962. p. 119. Retrieved March 6, 2014.(PDF)
- Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., My Dinner of Herbs, Limelight Editions, 2004.
- Etter, Jonathan (2008). Quinn Martin, Producer: A Behind-the-Scenes History of QM Productions and Its Founder. McFarland. pp. 62–87. ISBN 978-0-7864-3867-9.
- Kessler, Ronald (2003). The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. St. Martin's Paperbacks. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-312-98977-4.
- "Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI Inc.". Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Robert S. Mueller, III (8 June 2009). "Presentation of Honorary Special Agent Badge to Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.Los Angeles, California". Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "Actor Efrem Zimbalist Jr. honored by FBI". Associated Press. 9 June 2009.
- TBN – Trinity Broadcasting Network
- Gemstones of America
- USA TODAY
- Malan, Roy (2004). Efrem Zimbalist: A Life. Amadeus Press. pp. 139–142. ISBN 978-1-57467-091-2.
- Stanford, Monty (2008). "EZimablist Jr". Christus Rex 1 (5).
- Silversten, Linda (1998). Lives Charmed: Intimate Conversations with Extraordinary People. HCI. pp. 173–194. ISBN 978-1-55874-593-3.
- Jeannie, Pugh (23 April 1979). "Efrem Zimbalist Jr. Revitalized His Faith Through Christian TV". St. Petersburg Times.
- Bruce Boland (2009-10-20). "emails from the public 2009 (kept for station FCC license renewal)". Trinity Broadcasting Network. p. 19. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
- Mary Evertz, "At 65 Still a Sex Symbol: Veteran Actor Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. is Back on Stage," St. Petersburg (Florida) Times, May 26, 1989.
- "The Impact of the Draft Goldwater Committee on the Republican Party". ashbrook.org(archive.org). Retrieved 2013-08-24.
- Statement from Stephanie Zimbalist and Efrem Zimbalist III
- "The Rugged Path". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- Monush 2003, p. 816.
- "King Henry VIII". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "What Every Woman Knows". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "A Pound on Demand / Androcles and the Lion". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Yellow Jack". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "The Telephone/The Medium". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Hedda Gable". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "The Telephone". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "The Medium". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "The Consul". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Fallen Angels". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- Roberts 2009, p. 90.
- Terrace 2011, p. 1011.
- Terrace 2013a, p. 15.
- Terrace 2013, pp. 121–122.
- Marill 2011, p. 57.
- Neibaur 2004, p. 178.
- Terrace 2013, p. 79.
- Roberts 2009, p. 383.
- Coursen 2010, p. 127.
- Terrace 2013b, p. 90.
- Abbott 2009, p. 165.
- Terrace 2013a, p. 331.
- Garcia & Phillips 2012, p. 21.
- Terrace 2013b, p. 33.
- Abbott, Jon (2009). Stephen J. Cannell Television Productions: A History of All Series and Pilots. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 9780786454013.
- Coursen, Herbert R. (2010). Contemporary Shakespeare Production (Studies in Shakespeare). Peter Lang International Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-1433109249.
- Garcia, Frank; Phillips, Mark (2012). Science Fiction Television Series, 1990–2004: Histories, Casts and Credits for 58 Shows. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786469178.
- Marill, Alvin H. (2011). Television Westerns: Six Decades of Sagebrush Sheriffs, Scalawags, and Sidewinders. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810881327.
- Monush, Barry (2003). Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Vol. 1: From the Silent Era to 1965. Hal Leonard Corporation (Applause). ISBN 978-1557835512.
- Neibaur, James L. (2004). The Bob Hope Films. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786410507.
- Roberts, Jerry (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Film Directors. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810861381.
- Terrace, Vincent (2013). Television Introductions: Narrated TV Program Openings since 1949. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810892491.
- Terrace, Vincent (2013a). Encyclopedia of Television Pilots: 1937–2012. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786474455.
- Terrace, Vincent (2013b). Television Specials: 5,336 Entertainment Programs, 1936–2012. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786474448.
- Terrace, Vincent (2011). Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2010. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 0786464771.
- Zimbalist Jr., Efrem (2004). My Dinner of Herbs. Limelight Editions. ISBN 978-0-87910-988-2.
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