Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt

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Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt (10 April 1892 – 20 December 1965) was a German physical anthropologist who classified humanity into races.

Von Eickstedt was born in Jersitz, Province of Posen.

Racial typology[edit]

In his book, Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit (Ethnology and the Race History of Mankind) he agreed somewhat with anthropologist William Z. Ripley, author of The Races of Europe (1899), but claimed Europeans had four basic "racial types": "Nordics" who lived in Northern Europe, "Osteuropids" who lived in eastern and central Europe, "Alpines" who lived in the mountainous belt that stretched from western to eastern Europe, and "Mediterraneans" who stretched from Southern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and the Indian Subcontinent.

Unlike Ripley, he divided these major European races into "subraces". According to Eickstedt's racial typology, Nordics were divided into the "Teuto-Nordic subrace" in the west, the "Dalo-Nordic" in the center and the "Fenno-Nordic" in the east. Eickstedt regarded the "Teuto-Nordic" as the "purest Nordic racial type," while he claimed that the "Dalo-Nordic" were mixed with Cro-Magnons. Furthermore, he divided the so-called "Alpine race" into four other subgroups: those in western Europe, the "Dinarics" in eastern Europe, "Armenoids" in Southwest Asia and "Turanids" in Central Asia. Finally, he purported that the "Mediterranean race" was composed of the "Mediterranean subrace" in the Northern Africa, the "Orientalid subrace" in the Middle East and the "Indid subrace" in the Indian Subcontinent.

Eickstedt believed some of the European subraces were progressive and others were primitive. He believed the "primitive Alpine subrace" had ceased evolving, but the progressive "Dinaric subrace" would keep evolving.

Eickstedt believed the "races of Europe" originated south of Europe in the Mesolithic Era. He claimed that the "Mediterranean race" arrived in Europe during Mesolithic times, while the "Alpine race" would have arrived from eastern Europe across Switzerland shortly after the Mediterranean race, but still in Mesolithic times. Later, the "Nordic race" would allegedly have entered Scandinavia from the east. Von Eickstedt finally claimed that the "Osteuropids" entered eastern and central Europe in modern times.

Egon von Eickstedt, Historia Mundi Volume 1, "Frühe Menschheit" (Early humanity); an attempt of classifying the species Homo sapiens dividing it into racial circles (subspecies), racial groups (series), races (varieties) and subraces (subvarieties), in binary and common nomenclature.

Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: Homo sapiens Modern human
Subspecies I: Homines sapientes albi Europids

Series A: Homines s. albi xanthochroici Blond race belt
Variety 1: Homo sapiens europaeus Nordid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. eu. nordicus Teutonordid
b) H. s. eu. dalofaelicus Dalofaelid
c) H. s. eu. finnus Fennonordid
Variety 2: H. s. slavonicus (intermedius) East-Europid
Series B: Homines s. albi melanochroici Brown race belt
Variety 1: Homo s. pelagius (meridionalis) Mediterranid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. p. mediterraneus Gracil-Mediterranid
b) H. s. p. eurafricanus Eurafricanid
c) H. s. p. atlanticus Berberid
Variety 2: Homo s. arabicus Orientalid
Variety 3: Homo s. indicus Indid
a) H. s. i. indogracilis Gracil-Indid
b) H. s. i. indoafghanus North-Indid
c) H. s. i. indobrachimorphus Indo-Brachid
Variety 4: Homo s. occidentalis Polynesid
a) H. s. o. polinesianus Polynesid
b) H. s. o. carolinensis Micronesid
Series C: Homines s. albi brachimorphi Mountain race belt
Variety 1: H. s. alpinus Alpinid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. a. cevenolicus West-Alpinid
b) H. s. a. lappo Lappid
Variety 2: H. s. dinaricus Dinarid
Variety 3: H. s. syriacus Armenid
Variety 4: H. s. eurasicus Turanid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. eur. turanicus Aralid
b) H. s. eur. pamiriensis Pamirid
Series D: Homines s. albi protomorphi Old-Europids
Variety 1: H. s. veddalis Veddid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. v. ceylonensis West-Veddid
b) H. s. v. gondicus Gondid
c) H. s. v. malicus Malid
d) H. s. v. toala Toalid
e) H. s. v. siamesis East-Veddid
Variety 2: H. s. curilanus Ainuid

Subspecies II: Homines sapientes leiotrichi
part a: H. s. asiaticus Mongolid

Series A: Homines s. asiatici arctici Polar belt
Variety 1: H. s. hyperboreus Sibirid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. h. ugrianus West-Sibirid
b) H. s. h. palaeasiaticus East-Sibirid
Variety 2: H. s. groenlandus Eskimid
Series B: Homines s. a. badii North-Mongolids
Variety 1: H. s. tatarus Tungid
Variety 2: H. s. sinicus Sinid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. s. borealis North-Sinid
b) H. s. s. medius Central-Sinid
c) H. s. s. meridianus South-Sinid
Series C: H. s. asiatici meridionalis South-Mongolids
Variety 3: H. s. palaemongolicus Paleo-Mongolid
Subvarieties:
a) Homo s. p. palaunicus Palaungid
b) H. s. p. nesidus Nesid
Series D: H. s. subnigri Khoisanids
Variety 1: H. s. hottentotus Khoisanid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. h. austroafricanus Khoid
b) H. s. h. huzuana Sanid

Subspecies II: Homines sapientes leiotrichi
part b: H. s. americani Indianids

Series E: H. s. americani cuprei North-Indianids
Variety 1: H. s. pacificus Pacifid
Variety 2: H. s. centralis Centralid
Variety 3: H. s. colombicus Silvid
Subvarieties
a) H. s. c. planidus Planid
b) H. s. c. apalacidus Appalachid
Variety 4: H. s. marginalis Margid
Series F: H. s. americani mesembrini South-Indianids
Variety 1: H. s. andinus Andid
Variety 2: H. s. patagonus Patagonid
Variety 3: H. s. brasilianus Brazilid
Variety 4: H. s. lagoanus Lagid
Variety 5: H. s. lagol-maritimus Fuegid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. l. fuegidus South-Fuegid
b) H. s. l. huarpidus Huarpid

Subspecies III: H. sapientes afri Negrids

Series A: H. s. europoafri Contact belt
Variety 1: H. s. africanus Ethiopid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. a. nuba North-Ethiopid
b) H. s. a. abessomalis East-Ethiopid
c) H. s. a. massaicus South-Ethiopid
d) H. s. a. saharicus Central-Ethiopid
e) H. s. a. maurusianus West-Ethiopid
Variety 2: H. s. indomelanicus Indomelanid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. i. karnaticus South-Melanid
b) H. s. i. kolidus North-Melanid
Series B: H. s. cafro-madegassi West-Negrids
Variety 1: H. s. niger Sudanid
Variety 2: H. s. niloticus Nilotid
Variety 3: H. s. cafer Cafrid
Variety 4: H. s. palaeniger Paleo-Negrid
Series C: H. s. alfuri East-Negrids
Variety 1: H. s. papuensis Neo-Melanesid
Variety 2: H. s. melaninus Paleo-Melanesid
Variety 3: H. s. australasicus Australid
Series D: H. s. pygmaei Pygmid
Variety 1: H. s. akkalis Bambutid
Variety 2:H. s. negrito Negritid
Subvarieties:
a) H. s. n. philippinensis Aetid
b) H. s. n. semang Semangid
c) H. s. n. mineopaeus Andamanid

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