Egyptian Air Force

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Egyptian Air Force
القوات الجوية المصرية
Egyptian Air Force emblem.svg
Egyptian Air Force emblem
Founded

1930 (as part of the army)

1937 (as an independent service)
Country  Egypt
Branch Air Force
Type Military Aviation
Role Aerial Warfare
Size 1,100 aircraft (As of 2014)[1]
30,000 Personnel (As of 2005)[2][3]
Part of Egyptian Armed Forces
Garrison/HQ Oruba street, Nasr City, Cairo
Motto 'Higher and higher for the sake of glory' (Arabic: إلى العلا في سبيل المجد‎, I‘la’ al-a‘là fī sabīl al-magd)
Anniversaries 14th of October (Mansura Air Battle)[4]
Engagements see History
Commanders
Commander – Egyptian Air Force Air Marshal Younes Hamed
Chief of Air Staff Fouaad Fouaad Abu el-Nasr[5]
Notable
commanders
Hosni Mubarak
Ahmed Shafik/Reda Hafez
Insignia
Roundel Egyptian Air Force Roundel.svg
Flag Eafflag.svg
Insignia Egyptian Air Force ranks
Aircraft flown
Attack F-16, Alpha Jet MS.2, L-59
Electronic
warfare
E-2HE2K, Beechcraft 1900, C-130, Commando Mk.2E, Mi-8
Fighter F-16, Mirage-2000, Mirage V
Attack helicopter AH-64, Mi-8, SA-342
Interceptor F-16 Fighting Falcon, Mirage 2000, J-7
Patrol Beechcraft 1900, SA-342
Reconnaissance M-324, Mi-8, Mirage V
Trainer K-8, EMB 312, G-115, L-39, UH-12
Transport C-130, C-295, An-74

The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (Arabic: القوات الجوية المصرية‎, Al-Qūwāt al-Gawwīyä al-Miṣrīyä), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The EAF is headed by an Air Marshal (Lieutenant General equivalent). Currently, the commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Younes Hamed. The force's motto is 'Higher and higher for the sake of glory' (Arabic: إلى العلا في سبيل المجد‎, I‘la’ al-a‘là fī sabīl al-magd).

The Egyptian Army Air Service was formed in 1930, and became an independent air force in 1937. It had little involvement in the Second World War. From 1948 to 1973 it took part, with generally mediocre results, in four separate wars with Israel, as well as the quasi-War of Attrition. It also supported the Egyptian Army during the North Yemen Civil War and the Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977. Since 1977 it has seen virtually no combat, but has participated in numerous exercises, including Operation Bright Star from 1985.

Currently the EAF has over 1,100 combat aircraft[6] and 245 armed helicopters.[7] The Air Force's backbone are 220 F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters. The Egyptian Air Force is the 4th largest operator of F-16s in the world, after the United States, Israel, and Turkey.[8]

History[edit]

Establishment[edit]

Egyptian Air Force Insignia (1937–1958)
Royal Egyptian Air Force ensign
First three Egyptian pilots

In late 1928, the Parliament of Egypt proposed the creation of an Egyptian Air Force. The Egyptian ministry of war announced that it needed volunteers for the new arm to become the first four Egyptian military pilots. Over 200 Egyptian officers volunteered, but in the end only three succeeded in passing strict medical tests and technical examinations.

These three went to RAF Station Abu Sueir Royal Air Force No 4 Flying Training School (No 4 FTS) located near the Suez Canal, where they were trained on a variety of aircraft. After graduation they travelled to the United Kingdom for specialised training.

On 2 November 1930, the King of Egypt and Sudan, Fuad I announced the creation of the Egyptian Army Air Force (EAAF) and in September 1931, the British de Havilland aircraft company won a contract to supply Egypt with 10 de Havilland Gipsy Moth trainers.

The first commander of the EAAF was Squadron Leader Victor Hubert Tait RAF a Canadian. Tait selected staff, weapons and built a number of airfields. In 1934 the British government provided ten Avro 626 aircraft, which were the first real Egyptian military planes. A further 17 626s together with Hawker Audaxes for army cooperation and close support and Avro Ansons for VIP work followed shortly afterward.

In 1937 the Egyptian Army Air Force was separated from the Army Command and became an independent branch named the Royal Egyptian Air Force (REAF). New stations were built in the Suez Canal Zone, and the Western Desert.

During 1938 the REAF received 2 squadrons of Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters and a squadron of then-modern Westland Lysander reconnaissance aircraft, Egypt was the last state to use the Lysander in action, during the Palestine War of 1948.

Second World War[edit]

As the Egyptian border was threatened by an Italian and German invasion during the Second World War, the Royal Air Force established more airfield in Egypt. The Royal Egyptian Air Force was sometimes treated as a part of the Royal Air Force, at other times a strict policy of neutrality was followed as Egypt maintained its official neutrality until very late in the war. As a result, few additional aircraft were supplied by Britain, however the arm did receive its first modern fighters, Hawker Hurricanes and a small number of Curtiss P-40 Tomahawks. In the immediate post-war period, cheap war surplus aircraft, including a large number of Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IXs were acquired.

A roughly 1946 order of battle for the Air Force can be found in Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II.

1948 Arab-Israeli War[edit]

Main article: 1948 Arab-Israeli War
Israeli Avia S-199 chasing one of two Egyptian aircraft which had been bombing Tel Aviv on June 3rd 1948
Egypt's bombardment of Tel Aviv during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
Nitzanim after the Egyptian bombardment during the Battle of Nitzanim

Following the British withdrawal from the British Protectorate of Palestine and the establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, Egyptian forces crossed into Palestine as part of a wider Arab League military coalition in support of the Palestinians against the Israelis. The Egyptian Air Force contribution included the Short Stirling bomber,[9] C-47 Dakotas performing as light bombers and Spitfires.

Two Israeli aircraft were shot down and on 22 May 1948, Egyptian Spitfires attacked the RAF airfield at Ramat David, believing the airfield had already been taken over by Israeli forces. The first raid surprised the British, and resulted in the destruction of several RAF aircraft on the ground, and the deaths of four airmen. The British were uncertain whether the attacking Spitfires had come from Arab or Israeli forces. When second and third raids followed shortly afterward, they met a well prepared response, and the entire Egyptian force was shot down – the last aircraft being baited for some time as the RAF pilots attempted to get a close look at its markings.

Relations with Britain were soon restored and the continuing official state of war with Israel ensured that arms purchases continued. New Spitfire Mk. 22s were purchased to replace the earlier models. In late 1949, Egypt received its first jet fighter, the British Gloster Meteor F4, and shortly after De Havilland Vampire FB5s.

After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the Egyptian Government was determined to move away from reliance on British armaments. In 1955, under President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt began acquiring weaponry, including aircraft, from the Soviet Union. Initial Soviet deliveries included MiG-15 fighters, Ilyushin Il-28 bombers, Il-14 transports, and Yak-11 trainers. Instructors from Czechoslovakia accompanied these aircraft. This period in the Egyptian Air Force's history also yielded the first indigenous aircraft production as the country began manufacturing its own Czechoslovak-designed Gomhouria Bü 181 Bestmann primary trainers.

MiG-17 underside

The Suez Crisis[edit]

Helwan HA-300
Main article: Suez Crisis

After the Egyptian Government's nationalisation of the Suez Canal in 1956, Egypt was attacked by Israel, France, and the United Kingdom in what came to be known as the Suez Crisis. Heavy losses were sustained by the Egyptian side. The conflict, though devastating militarily, turned out to be a political victory for Egypt, and resulted in the total withdrawal of the tri-nation aggressor forces from the country. It also forced the EAF to begin rebuilding with non-British help.

In 1958, Egypt merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, and the previously separate Egyptian, and Syrian forces were combined as the United Arab Republic Air Force. Though Syria left the union in 1961, Egypt continued to use the union's official name until 1971, including for its air force.

By the mid-1960s, British aircraft had been replaced completely by Soviet hardware. The Soviet Union became the principal supplier of the EAF, and many other Arab states. This allowed the EAF to greatly modernise and boost its combat effectiveness. The MiG-21 Fishbed arrived in the early 1960s, bringing with it a Mach 2 capability. The MiG-21 would remain Egypt's primary fighter for the next two decades. In 1967, Egypt had 200 MiG-21s. The EAF also began flying the Sukhoi Su-7 fighter/bomber in the mid-1960s.

Egypt also began the Helwan HA-300 as its first supersonic aircraft. It never went beyond its 3 prototypes and initial test fights then was abandoned due to high military cost inflicted upon the Egyptian military involvement in the Yemen War and the defeat in the 1967 war with Israel.

The Yemen War[edit]

Main article: North Yemen Civil War

The Yemeni Royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, while the Yemeni Republicans were supported by Egypt. The fighting was fierce, featuring heavy urban combat as well as battles in the countryside. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved.

Strategically, the Yemen War was an opportunity for Israel. It stagnated Egyptian military plans for the reinforcement of the Sinai by shifting the Egyptian military focus to another theater of operation. Egyptian historian Mohammed Heikal writes that Israel provided arms shipments and also cultivated relationships with hundreds of European mercenaries fighting for the Royalists in Yemen. Israel established a covert air-supply bridge from Djibouti to North Yemen. The war also gave Israelis the opportunity to assess Egyptian combat tactics and adaptability.

Egyptian air and naval forces began bombing and shelling raids in the Saudi southwestern city of Najran and the coastal town of Jizan, which were staging points for royalist forces. In response, the Saudis purchased a British Thunderbird air defense system and developed their airfield in Khamis Mushayt. Riyadh also attempted to convince the United States to respond on its behalf. President Kennedy sent only a wing of jet fighters and bombers to Dhahran Airbase, demonstrating to Egypt the seriousness of his commitment to defending U.S. interests in Saudi Arabia.

The Six-Day War[edit]

Main article: Six-Day War

In the 1967 Six-Day War the EAF's combat capacity was severely damaged after the Israeli Air Force destroyed its airbases in a preemptive strike codenamed Operation Focus. During the last four days the EAF conducted only 150 sorties against Israeli units throughout the Sinai.[10] After the war, the Soviet Union replenished EAF stocks, sending large numbers of aircraft and advisors to Egypt to revitalise the EAF.

The War of Attrition[edit]

Main article: War of Attrition

The years between 1967 and 1970 involved a prolonged campaign of attrition against Israel. The EAF went through a massive construction program to build new air bases in order to increase its survivability. During this period Egypt also received replacements for losses it suffered during the Six Day War. The EAF was the first branch of the Egyptian armed forces to achieve full combat readiness.

On 15 July 1967, six Israeli Mirage III fighters violated Egyptian airspace and orders were given for two formations each consisted of two MiG-21 fighters to intercept, another formation of 2 MiGs piloted by Major Fawzy Salama & Lieutenant Medhat Zaki was ready in West Cairo airbase. Indeed the formation took off, but for protecting the airbase rather than supporting the interception. However Maj. Fawzy insisted on supporting the Egyptians already engaging Israeli fighters and ordered his wingman to follow him. Once the reinforcement arrived Israeli Mirages immediately broke out of the fight.

October War 1973[edit]

Main article: Yom Kippur War
Egyptian MiG-21 Drawing

The EAF was involved in the raid with over 220 aircraft taking part in the initial phase. Unlike their Syrian counterparts, EAF aircraft evaded Israeli radars by flying below detection height. EAF aircraft were held in reserve after that point, mainly concentrating on airfield defence in conjunction with the SA-3 'Goa', while the more mobile SA-6 'Gainful' protected Egyptian forces at low and medium level, aided by the ZSU-23-4SP and shoulder-held SA-7 SAMs.

Despite these limitations, the EAF conducted offensive sorties from time to time. The Su-7BM was used for quick strafe attacks on Israeli columns and the Mirage IIIE (sometimes confused with the Mirage 5), donated by Libya, carried out long-range attacks deep inside Sinai at Bir Gifgafa.

However, when Israeli armoured forces used a gap between the two Egyptian armies to cross the Suez Canal (Operation Stouthearted Men), they destroyed several Egyptian SAM sites, forcing the EAF into battle against the IAF. The EAF claimed victories and continued to contest IAF operations, while also launching attacks on Israeli ground forces on the East Bank of the Suez Canal. In most of these engagements, Egyptian MiG-21s (of all types) challenged Israeli Mirage IIICJs or Neshers.[11]

The IAF did not operate freely and did not have complete air supremacy it enjoyed during the previous conflict, the 1967 war. Egyptian MiGs were used with better efficiency than before which included the tactics and lessons learned from the 1967 war.[12]

It was during this war that the EAF applied the lessons it earlier learnt from the Israelis. A 32-year-old deputy MiG-21 regiment commander who has been flying since he was 15 recalls: "During the war of attrition, the Israeli air force had a favorite ambush tactic", he told Aviation Week and Space Technology. "They would penetrate with two aircraft at medium altitude where they would be quickly picked up by radar, We would scramble four or eight to attack them. But they had another dozen fighters trailing at extremely low altitude below radar coverage. As we climbed to the attack they would zoom up behind and surprise us. My regiment lost MiGs to this ambush tactic three times. But we learned the lesson and practiced the same tactics. In the final fights over Deversoir, we ambushed some Mirages the same way, and my own 'finger four' formation shot down four Mirages with the loss of one MiG."[13]

El-Mansourah air battle[edit]

On 14 October 1973, Israel launched a large scale raid with over 250 aircraft – F-4 Phantoms and A-4 Skyhawks – attempting to hit the large air base at el-Mansourah. It culminated in an almost continuous dogfight lasting no less than 53 minutes. According to Egyptian estimates over 180 aircraft were involved at one time, the majority belonging to the Israelis. At 10 pm local time, Cairo Radio broadcast "Communiqué Number 39", announcing that there had been several air battles that day over a number of Egyptian airfields, that most intensive being over the northern Delta area. It also claimed that 15 enemy aircraft had been downed by Egyptian fighters for the loss of three Egyptian aircraft, while an even greater number of Israelis had been shot down by the Army and the Air Defense Forces over Sinai and the Suez Canal. For its part, Israel Radio claimed, early the following morning, that the IAF had shot down 15 Egyptian aircraft, a figure subsequently reduced to seven.[14]

Later on, the Egyptian Government changed the country’s "Air Force Day" from 2 November to 14 October, to commemorate the Mansourah air battle.[14]

Shaba I[edit]

Main article: Shaba I

During the Shaba I crisis in Zair on 1977, Egyptian Air Force provided 50 pilots and technicians, which operated Mirage jets from the Zairian Air Force.

Libyan-Egyptian War[edit]

Main article: Libyan-Egyptian War

During the Libyan-Egyptian War, there were some skirmishes between Libyan and Egyptian fighters.[15] In one instance, two Libyan Air Force MiG-23MS engaged two EAF MiG-21MFs that had been upgraded to carry Western weaponry. The Libyan pilots made the mistake of trying to manoeuvre with the more nimble Egyptian fighters, and one MiG-23MS was shot down by EAF Maj. Sal Mohammad, while the other Libyan aircraft used its speed advantage to escape.

Operation Bright Star[edit]

EAF F-16C block 40 flies over Egypt with a USN F/A-18 and a USAF F-15 on September 28th, 2005.
Main article: Operation Bright Star

Since 1977 the Air Force has seen little active service. Perhaps its most intense training opportunity has become Operation Bright Star, a U.S. Central Command exercise. From 1985 onwards the air forces of both the U.S. and Egypt started participating in what was previously an Army only bilaterial exercise. Starting in 1987 the Navies and Special Operations Forces from both countries have also taken part in the exercise. At least nine other states now take part.

Upgrade and development[edit]

Egyptian F-16 Air Refueling
EAF Pilot

The Camp David Accords caused a change in the overall composition of the EAF. They began to rely more and more on American, French and in some cases on Chinese aircraft. The addition of these aircraft from multiple sources along with the ones already in the EAF inventory caused increasing servicability problems. In 1982, the EAF began receiving F-16 fighters under the Peace Vector Program. The EAF received a total of 220 F-16s so far. 18 aircraft were lost in accidents and 7 F-16A/Bs were grounded. These grounded F-16A/Bs were later overhauled, upgraded and returned to active service, additional F-16s were acquired to replace the lost ones. In 1986, the EAF received Mirage 2000 fighters, one lost in a training accident. Egypt also license built Alphajets, Tucano airplanes and Westland Gazelle helicopters. In 1987 the E-2C Hawkeye Airborne Early Warning (AEW) entered service and was upgraded with advanced AN/APS-145 radars. The EAF also upgraded its F-16 fighters to C/D standard that enabled them to fire the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile.

The EAF currently operates 36 AH-64 Apache attack helicopter which were initially delivered as AH-64A variant but were later upgraded to AH-64D standard.[16] On 22 May 2009, Egypt requested the purchase of 36 Apache Arrowhead sensor systems as part of an order for 12 Block II AH-64D Apache helicopters then Egypt reduced the number to 10 Helicopters.

The Egyptian Navy recently received the SH-2G Seasprite to supplement their Sea King and Gazelle helicopters.[17] 74 Grob G-115's and 120 K-8 Karakorum trainers were also ordered.[17]

Modernization[edit]

During the late 1990s, then Air Marshal Ahmed Shafik (the former Civil Aviation minister until 2011) outlined an ambitious modernization program for the Egyptian Air Force in the 21st century. The EAF planned to obtain the modern technology it needed to deter any foreign aggression, help its allies and protect national security interests. This modernization included the integration of space and air reconnaissance systems, acquisition of airborne command and control capability, aerial refueling capability, advanced next generation fighters and heavy transport aircraft.

Egypt had also made several deals with Ukrainian companies for the modernization of its old MiG-21 fleet but that too has failed and no future plans to implement any modernization of Mig-21.

The Air Force ordered 20 Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Block 52 aircraft on 3 March 2010.[18] The contract is set to complete in 2013 and includes 16 single-seat F-16C and four twin-seat F-16D aircraft. Finally, as of March 2010, Egypt was discussing co-production of the CAC/PAC JF-17 Thunder with Pakistan.[19]

On 14 August 2012, U.S pushed F-16 project for to ensure full cooperation with the new military leadership. The Defense Department has awarded a major contract to facilitate the procurement of F-16s by the Egyptian Air Force. The Pentagon selected American International Contractors for a $66.6 million contract to upgrade infrastructure for Egypt’s order of 20 F-16 Block 52 aircraft, estimated at $2.2 billion.[20] However, the Egyptian air force has one of the worst crash rates of any F-16 fleet in the world.[21] On 24 July 2013, the U.S. announced it would halt deliveries of the F-16s in response to the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.[22]

Now the EAF Operates the Egyptian Satellite EgyptSat 2 which is built by the Russian RSC Energia and the Egyptian NARSS while the incorporated cameras and payload was developed by OAO Peleng and NIRUP Geoinformatsionnye Sistemy in Belarus. EgyptSat 2 was launched on board a Soyuz-U rocket on 16 April 2014 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome[23] which was a milestone toward establishing the Egyptian Space Agency.[24]

2014 Libyan Civil Conflict[edit]

Main article: 2014 Libyan conflict

During the 2014 Libyan Civil Conflict there were conflicting reports that Egyptian warplanes bombed Islmaist militias in support of the government based in Tobruk. The foreign ministry denied any involvement in the conflict although unnamed Egyptian military officials claimed otherwise[25]

Future[edit]

The Egyptian Air Force is seeking new fighter aircraft and has showed interest in the Dassault Rafale and MiG-35. In 2012 there were talks between France and Egypt to sell the Rafale to the Egyptian Air Force but they did not reach a deal.[26]

But Egypt still interested in the Rafale, Cairo expressed during the visit in mid-September 2014 of Jean-Yves Le Drian an interest in the Rafale.[27]

Also Egypt is interested with the Russian MiG-35 4++ Fighter, and after the Egyptian president Abdelfattah El-Sisi went to Russia on October 2014 reports said that Egypt wants to purchase 24 Mig-35 fighters as part of a US$3 billion arms deal to its Air Force fleet, If the Egyptian Air Force signed a deal with Russia it will be the first country to acquire the Fighter.[28]

On September 29 the Director-General of Russia’s Aircraft Corporation MiG Sergei Korotkov said that Russia was planning to hold talks in Egypt on the country’s purchase of MiG-35 fighter jets. In the beginning of the year the Egyptian defence minister confirmed reports about a deal between Egypt and Russia, the deal consisted of Russian Fighters MiG-29M and Russia would supply it to Egypt soon.[29]

There were negotiations between the UAE and Egypt for the Emirati Mirage 2000-9 fighters to replace the Mirage 5 fighter and to increase the number of Mirage 2000s in service. The UAEAF Mirage 2000s would provide the Egyptian Air Force with a more modernized version of Mirage 2000 than it already has. [30]

Aircraft[edit]

Egyptian Air Force roundel (1945-1958).svg
Egyptian Air Force Roundel.svg

The Roundel of the EAF consists of three circles, with the outside one being red, the middle one white, and the inner one being black. These are the colors of the Egyptian flag.

The former roundels of the EAF included a similar variant with two green stars used from 1961 to 1973, and one with the old Egyptian crescent and three stars on a green background.

Aircraft Inventory[edit]

Aircraft Photo Origin Role Version Number[31][32] Comment
Combat Aircraft
F-16 Fighting Falcon Egyptian Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon.jpg  United States MRCA Total
C
D
221+20
170+16
51+4[33]
Total 221 delivered (46 built by Turkish Aerospace Industries[34]) delivered, of which 220 either block 40 or upgraded to block 40, the last order of 20 yet to be delivered (16 C and 4 D) are block 52.
Mirage 2000 Mirage 2000 - RIAT 2004 (2377770449).jpg  France
OCU
MRCA
Total
EM
BM
9
18
15
3[33]
0/36
Out of 20 delivered, Another Mirage 2000-9 Fighter Jets maybe bought from UAE.[30].Another deal with the UAE is being done to sell 36 Mirage 2000-9 from the UAE Air Force to complement the existing 18 Mirage 2000EM/BM that Egypt operates.
Dassault Rafale Rafale - RIAT 2009 (3751416421).jpg  France
MRCA
C 0/24-36 Egypt is in the process of negociation with France regarding the purchasing 24-36 Rafale,the outcome is depended on the terms of the financing agreement; probably to be financed by Saudi Arabia and the UAE.
Mirage V Argentina Air Force Dassault Mirage 5PA MARA Lofting-1.jpg  France

Interceptor
MRCA
OCU
Reconnaissance

Total
E2
SDE
SDR
SDD

82

\Big\} 76

6
Maybe less number in service.
Mikoyan MiG-29M MAKS Airshow 2013 (Ramenskoye Airport, Russia) (526-45).jpg  Russia
MRCA
M2 24 Egypt has signed an agreement with Russia in early 2014 to supply 24 Mig-29M2 Fighter Jets to the Egyptian Air Force.[29]
Mikoyan MiG-35 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-35 - MAKS 2009.jpg  Russia
MRCA
0/24 Egypt is in the process of ordering 24 Mig-35, part of a deal of over $3.0 billion from Russia. Deal should be concluded by end of 2014.
MiG-21 Fishbed Egyptian MiG-21 Drawing.jpg  Soviet Union
 Ukraine

MRCA
Interceptor
Reconnaissance
OCU
Total
MF
PFM
R
UM
56
35
12
6
3
Out of over 490 delivered. Upgraded with British avionics and armed with mixed Russian and Western weapons. To be phased out.
Chengdu J-7 Egyptian F-7 in flight, 2009.jpg  China
 Egypt
Interceptor B/M 57 Some claims as much as 60, out of total of 150 delivered. To be phased out.
Close air support
Alpha Jet Dassault alphajet Solo.jpg  France
 Egypt
COIN MS2 14 License built by AOI. Also Listed as trainer.
Air Tractor AT-802 Air Tractor AT802U (N2078Q).jpg  United States Armed Reconnaissance/Patrol AT-802U 12 The EAF AT-802Us Sent as a gift from UAE to EAF for COIN / Border Armed Patrol
Trainer Aircraft
Alpha Jet Alpha jet zj646 arp.jpg  France
 Egypt

OCU
COIN
Total
E(MS1)
MS2
54
40
14
License built by AOI. May be replaced with Hongdu L-15.
K-8 Karakorum Pakistan airforce K8.jpg  Egypt Advanced trainer E 120 110 were license built by AOI.
L-59 Super Albatros Aero.L159a.arp.jpg  Czechoslovakia Advanced trainer E 47 Out of 48 delivered.
L-39 Albatros 24 L-39 (N-757SF) Violated Reno Air Race 2014 photo D Ramey Logan.jpg  Czechoslovakia Advanced trainer ZO 10 Ex-Libyan. To be phased out.
PAC MFI-17 Mushshak Pakistan MFI-17 Super Mushshak Ryabtsev.jpg  Pakistan Basic Trainer B 54
EMB 312 Tucano Peru Air Force - Embraer T-27 Tucano - Lofting.jpg  Egypt Basic Trainer A 54 Built under license by AOI, out of 134 built; 80 delivered to Iraq.
G-115 Tutor Grob G 115E EA-3.JPG  Germany Primary trainer E 74
Z-142C Zlin242L.JPG  Czechoslovakia Primary Trainer C 48
UH-12 OH-23 inflight colour photo.jpg  United States Rotary Trainer E 17 Out of 18 delivered.
Transports
C-130 Hercules Lockheed C-130H Hercules, Egypt - Air Force JP7342099.jpg  United States
Tactical transport
Tactical transport
EW/ELINT
Total
H
H30
EC130H
26
22
2
2
30 aircraft were delivered. 4 were lost, including one during the Cyprus operation.
Beechcraft 1900 Air New Zealand Raytheon 1900D (5290904689).jpg  United States
Maritime patrol
ELINT
Total
C
C
8
4
4
Super King Air Beechcraft b200 superkingair zk453 arp.jpg  United States 200 1
C-295 Polish Air Force CASA C-295M Lofting.jpg  Spain
Tactical transport
Total
M
20
9+3+8
Out of an initial total order of 6 (3 + 3), all delivered in 2013. 6 more are ordered in 2013(of which were delivered by 2014) and another 8 in a new order on 15/4/2014 for delivery by 2016, making Egypt eventually the largest operator of C-295 fleet worldwide with total of 20.[35][36][37]
An-74 Coaler Антонов Ан-72-74 36547030450, Киев - Антонов (Гостомель) RP3309.jpg  Ukraine Tactical transport T-200A
TK-200A

\Big\} 13[38][39][40]
DHC-5 Buffalo Egyptian Air Force de Havilland DHC-5 Buffalo Janura.jpg  Canada
Tactical transport
Navigational training
Total
D
D
9
5
4
To be phased out.
Helicopter
CH-47 Chinook Egyptian Air Force Boeing CH-47D Chinook (414) Pichugin.jpg  Italy
 United States

Navigational training
Assault Support
Total
D
D
18
4
14
All 4 Navigational training CH-47C were upgraded to D standard by 2010. New order for additional 6 rebuilt CH-47D is in progress.
SH-2G Super Seasprite US Navy 080730-N-5384B-013 he Royal New Zealand Navy SH-2G Sea Sprite prepares to land aboard the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72).jpg  United States ASW G/E 13 Electronic/Navigation Suite upgraded to Egyptian Navy requirements.
AgustaWestland AW109 Philippine Navy Agusta A-109E Power.jpg  Italy AM 3 Aeromedical evacuation.[41]
AgustaWestland AW139 HB-ZUU (5404347512).jpg  Italy
 United States
SAR 2 Search and Rescue.[42][43]
AH-64 Apache US Navy 120127-N-PB383-090 A U.S. Army AH-64 Apache helicopter approaches the flight deck of the amphibious transport dock ship USS New Orleans (LP.jpg  United States Attack helicopter D 36 Modernization of current fleet is underway and an additional 10 AH-64D Longbow Block II are being delivered.
Mi-17 Hip KazakhstanMi-8MT2000(DF-SD-01-06442).jpg  Russia Assault Support H 24 Ordered in 2009 & were delivered by end 2010.
Mi-8 Hip Egyptian Mil Mi-8 Hip helicopter.JPEG  Soviet Union
Assault/Gunship
Gunship
Command
EW
Reconnaissance
MedEvac
Artillery observer
Total
T
TVK
PPA
MV
R
MB
K
42
16
10
3
4
4
3
2
Out of over 140 delivered, some replaced by Mi-17 Hip.
Sea King Sea King 070624-N-6710M-001.jpg  United Kingdom ASW Mk.47 5 Egyptian variant of the British HAS.2 model, out of 6 delivered.
Commando Royal Navy Sea King Mk 4 landing.jpg  United Kingdom
Assault Support
Assault Support
EW
Total
Mk.1
Mk.2
Mk.2E
23
2
17
4
A total of 28 were delivered, 2 Mk.2B version were relegated as VIP transport of the Presidential fleet.
Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk Arpia III.jpg  United States
Assault Support
CSAR
Assault Support
Total
A
M
M
30
22
4
4
SA-342 Gazelle Gazelle SA342M.jpg  France
 Egypt

Maritime Patrol
Battlefield Scout
Attack helicopter
Total
K
L
M
84
9
40
35
Out of 108 license-built by the Arab British Helicopter Company.
UAV
Anka-A TAI-ANKA-UAV-FAR14-3659.JPG  Turkey MALE 0+10 Ordered in 2011, may be cancelled after 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.[44]
Model-324 Scarab  United States Jet Reconnaissance UAV 52 Out of 56 delivered.
R4E-50 Sky Eye  United Kingdom Reconnaissance UAV 48
Camcopter Schiebel CAMCOPTER S-100.jpg  Austria Helicopter Reconnaissance UAV 4[45]
ASN-209  China
 Egypt
Reconnaissance UAV 21 Produced locally under license with 99.5% locally produced
Kader  Egypt Reconnaissance/Target UAV N/A
Meggitt Banshee Meggitt Banshees.jpg  United Kingdom Target Drone N/A
MQM-107 Streaker MQM107E.jpg  United States Target Drone N/A
Lipán M3 UAV Lipan II.JPG  Argentina
 Egypt
Reconnaissance UAV N/A Bought In 2007 & Produced locally under license
Yarará  Argentina
 Egypt
Reconnaissance UAV N/A Bought In 2007 & Produced locally under license
Nostromo Caburé  Argentina
 Egypt
Reconnaissance UAV N/A Bought In 2007 & Produced locally under license
Airborne Early Warning and Control
E-2 Hawkeye E-2C Hawkeye and Mount Fuji.jpg  United States AEW C HE2K 8 Egypt upgraded its E-2C aircraft to the Hawkeye 2000 (HE2K) configuration.

Presidential and Governmental (VIP) Fleet[edit]

Egyptian Air Force Lockheed C-130H Hercules
An Egyptian Air Force DHC-5D

In addition to Air Force aircraft, a number of aircraft are directly under government control (Presidential Fleet), including:

Airplane Photo Origin Number Comment
Airplane
Airbus A340 Cathay.pacific.a340-600.b-hqb.arp.jpg  European Union 1 Dedicated to the transfer of the President of Egypt.
Beechcraft Super King Air Royal Air Force King Air B200 Training Aircraft MOD 45153010.jpg  United States 4 Dedicated to the transfer of members of the government.
Boeing 707 Boeing 707-138B Qantas Jett Clipper Ella N707JT.jpg  United States 1 Was dedicated to the transfer of the president of Egypt, now relegated to secondary duties or retired.
Boeing 737 Air Berlin B737-700 Dreamliner D-ABBN.jpg  United States 4 Dedicated to the transfer of the Prime Minister of Egypt and members of the government.
Dassault Falcon 20 Dassault Falcon (Mystere) 20F-5 (PH-BPS).jpg  France 3 Dedicated to the transfer of the President of Egypt and the Prime Minister.
Gulfstream III C-20 Gulfstream.png  United States 2 Dedicated to the transfer of the President of Egypt, the Prime Minister and members of the government.
Gulfstream IV EM PRIVATE (2322612295).jpg  United States 4 Dedicated to the transfer of the President of Egypt, the Prime Minister and members of the government.
VC-130H Hercules Lockheed C-130H Hercules, Egypt - Air Force JP7342099.jpg  United States 1 Dedicated to the transfer of presidential logistics (Materials and equipments).
Helicopter
Sikorsky H-3 Sea King 2006-S-61-01.jpg  United States 2 Dedicated to the transfer of the President of Egypt, the Prime Minister and members of the government.
Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk Arpia III.jpg  United States 2 Dedicated to the transfer of the President of Egypt, the Prime Minister and members of the government.
Westland Commando MK-2B Royal Navy Sea King Mk 4.jpg  United Kingdom 2 Dedicated to the transfer of the President of Egypt, the Prime Minister and members of the government.

Historical Types[edit]

Operational Structure[edit]

  • Alexandria Air Base (HEAX)
    • 545th Tactical Helicopter Wing
      • 7th squadron
      • 11th squadron
      • 37th squadron
  • Az Zaqaziq/Abu Hamad
    • 550 Attack Heli Brigade
      • 52nd squadron
  • Beni Suef Air Base (HEBS)
    • 242 Tact Fighter Wing
      • 68th Training fighters squadron
      • 70th Training fighters squadron
  • Almaza Air Force Base (HEAZ)
    • 516 Transport Brigade
      • 2nd squadron
      • 40th squadron
      • ... squadron
      • ... squadron
    • .... Transport Brigade
  • Cairo Air Base (HECA)
    • .. Transport Brigade
      • 4th squadron
      • 16th squadron
  • Cairo West Air Base (HECW)
    • 601 AEW Brigade
      • 87th squadron
    • 222 Tact Fighter Brigade
      • 76th squadron
      • 78th squadron
  • El Minya Air Base
    • Weapon Training Brigade
      • ..squadron
    • Flying Training Brigade
      • 201 squadron
    • .. Helicopter Training Brigade
      • .. squadron
  • Fayid Air Base
    • 282 Tactical Fighter Wing
      • 86th TFS squadron
      • 88th FTS squadron
  • Hurghada Air Base (HEGN)
    • 53rd Helicopter Brigade
      • .. squadron
    • .. Fighter Brigade
      • ... squadron
  • Jiyanklis New Air Base
    • 272 Tact Fighter Wing
      • 75th TFS squadron
      • 77th TFS squadron
      • 79th TFS squadron
    • 546 ECM Brigade
      • 81st squadron
  • Kom Awshim Air Base
    • .. ECM Brigade
      • ... squadron
      • ... squadron
    • 53. Helicopter Brigade
      • 7th squadron
      • 18th squadron

Commanders[edit]

The following individuals have had command of the Egyptian Air Force:[46]

Royal Egyptian Air Force commanders[edit]

Egyptian Air Force Chiefs of Staff[edit]

Egyptian Air Force and Defense commanders[edit]

Egyptian Air Force commanders[edit]

Munitions[edit]

AIR TO AIR MISSILES

AIR TO GROUND/SURFACE MISSILES

AIR-TO-GROUND BOMBS

Advanced targeting pods

Advanced reconnaissance pods

Advanced jamming pods

  • AN/ALQ-131: Jamming ECM pod ( Used onboard C-130 and F-16 Block 40/42 )
  • AN/ALQ-184: Jamming ECM pod ( Used onboard F-16 Block 40/42 )
  • AN/ALQ-187 (V2): Jamming ECM pod ( NOTE: It is a part of the ACES EW system for the new Block 52+ jets )
  • AN/ALE-47

Radars

Unguided-rockets

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Egypt Military Strength". globalfirepower.com. 
  2. ^ "Ministry of Defense-Egypt". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  3. ^ "Egypt - Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  4. ^ Nicolle, David; Sherif Sharmy (24 September 2003). "Battle of el-Mansourah". Middle East Database. Air Combat Information Group. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  5. ^ "Chief of Air Staff". Egyptian Ministry of Defense (in Arabic). Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  6. ^ "Aircraft Strength by Country". Global Firepower. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "Helicopter Strength by Country". Global firepower. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  8. ^ "Egypt - Al Quwwat al Jawwiya Ilmisriya - Egyptian Air Force - EAF". f-16.net. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  9. ^ Crawford, Alex. "Stirlings in Egypt". ACIG.org. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  10. ^ Kenneth M. Pollack, Mark Grimsley, Peter Maslowski, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948–1991,University of Nebraska Press, 2004 p.170
  11. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/mirage.html
  12. ^ http://www.egfighters.freehosting.net/migb.html
  13. ^ Hosni Mubarak – Air Force Hero
  14. ^ a b Dr. David Nicolle and Sherif Sharmy (24 September 2003). "Battle of el-Mansourah". Retrieved 7 March 2011. 
  15. ^ Libya & Egypt, 1971–1979
  16. ^ Boeing: Boeing, U.S. Army Sign Contract for 35 Egyptian AH-64D Apaches
  17. ^ a b Scramble on the Web – Egyptian Air Force
  18. ^ Egyptian Military Purchase.
  19. ^ "Egypt mulls JF-17 co-production and signs for more F-16s". Jane's Defence. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010. 
  20. ^ "U.S. pushes F-16 project for Egypt despite Muslim Brotherhood purge of military". Worldtribune.com. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  21. ^ Eric Schmitt (20 August 2013). "Cairo Military Firmly Hooked to U.S. Lifeline". New York Times. 
  22. ^ Obama halts delivery of four F-16 jets to Egypt amid unrest - NBCnews.com, 24 July 2013
  23. ^ "Egyptian reconnaissance satellite launched by Soyuz". spaceflightnow. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  24. ^ "Egyptsat-2 a Step Towards Egyptian Space Agency". allafrica. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  25. ^ Egypt Warplanes Bombing Islamist Militias In Libya: Officials
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ [3]
  29. ^ a b http://en.itar-tass.com/economy/751819
  30. ^ a b http://www.tacticalreport.com/view_news/UAE_Egypt_and_talks_over_the_Mirage_2000-9/1580
  31. ^ Egyptian military aviation OrBat
  32. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  33. ^ a b http://www.inss.org.il/upload/%28FILE%291280140768.pdf
  34. ^ https://www.tai.com.tr/en/project/egypt-f-16-program
  35. ^ [4]
  36. ^ Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire: Key Publishing Ltd. March 2013. p. 31. 
  37. ^ "Egypt Orders Eight More Airbus C295 Tactical Transports". defense-aerospace. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  38. ^ AN-74T-200A
  39. ^ [5]
  40. ^ [6]
  41. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-EUf_i0gp2w&t=26m30s
  42. ^ http://brahmand.com/news/Egyptian-Air-Force-orders-AW139-helicopters/7061/1/24.html
  43. ^ http://www.arabianaerospace.aero/agustawestland-delivers-aw139-to-egyptian-air-force.html
  44. ^ http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2012/11/20/ankanin-ilk-yolculugu-misira
  45. ^ http://www.armada.ch/pdf/2009/1_2009/05_Shipboard_Drones.pdf
  46. ^ Commanders
  47. ^ Air Force
  48. ^ V H Tait
  49. ^ Air Force
  50. ^ Air Force
  51. ^ Air Force
  52. ^ Air Force
  53. ^ http://www.mmc.gov.eg/branches/AIRFORCE/force9.htm
  54. ^ http://www.mmc.gov.eg/branches/AIRFORCE/force10.htm
  55. ^ http://www.mmc.gov.eg/branches/AIRFORCE/force11.htm
  56. ^ a b Air Force
  57. ^ [7]
  58. ^ The Air Force
  59. ^ The Air Force
  60. ^ Air Force
  61. ^ Air Force
  62. ^ Air Force
  63. ^ Air Force
  64. ^ Air Force
  65. ^ Air Force
  66. ^ http://www.mmc.gov.eg/branches/AIRFORCE/cv1.htm
  67. ^ Air Vice Marshal

External links[edit]