Egyptian Army

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Egyptian Army
Flag of the Army of Egypt.svg
Egyptian Army Insignia
Country  Egypt
March "We painted on the heart" (Arabic: رسمنا على القلب وجه الوطن‎, rasamna ala al qalb wagh al watan)
Commanders
Second Field Army Major General Mohammed el-Shahat
Third Field Army Major General Osama Askar


The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces, and is the largest army in both the Middle East and Africa. It is estimated to number around 468,500 personnel, in addition 1,000,000 reservists for a total of 1,468,500 strong.[1] The modern army was established during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805-1849), who is considered to be the "founder of modern Egypt". Its most significant engagements in the 20th Century were in Egypt's five wars with the State of Israel (in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1967-1970, and 1973), one of which, the Suez Crisis of 1956, also saw it do combat with the armies of Britain, and France. The Egyptian army was also engaged heavily in the protracted North Yemen Civil War, and the brief Libyan-Egyptian War in July, 1977. Its last major engagements was Operation Desert Storm, the liberation of Kuwait from Iraqi occupation in 1991, in which Egyptian army constituted the second largest contingent of allied forces.

History[edit]

Structure[edit]

Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC 1 with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia.2 Its history occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during the New Kingdom, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in this late period, and the rule of the pharaohs officially ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province.3 For most parts of its long history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The main military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out. The arid plains they wanted to get rid of and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who occasionally tried to raid or settle in the fertile Nile river valley. Nevertheless the great expanses of the desert formed a barrier that protected the river valley and was almost impossible for massive armies to cross. The Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the borders east and west of the Nile Delta, in the Eastern Desert, and in Nubia to the south. Small garrisons could prevent minor incursions, but if a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked city walls and other defenses. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three kingdoms and two intermediate periods. During the three Kingdoms Egypt was unified under one government. During the Intermediate periods (the periods of time between Kingdoms) government control was in the hands of the various nomes (provinces within Egypt) and various foreigners. The geography of Egypt served to isolate the country and allowed it to thrive. This circumstance set the stage for many of Egypt's military conquests. They weakened their enemies by using small projectile weapons, like bows and arrows. They also had chariots which they used to charge at the enemy. And also of the most famous kings of Egypt at all, King Narmer unified country, and King Ahmose I chased the Hyksos, and King Tuthmosis III the greatest kings of Egypt and the founder of the first empire in history "the Egyptian empire" .

Under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty[edit]

Following his seizure of power in Egypt, and declaration of himself as Khedive of the country, Muhammad Ali Pasha set about establishing a bona fide Egyptian military. Prior to his rule, Egypt had been governed by the Ottoman Empire, and while he still technically owed fealty to the Ottoman Porte, Muhammad Ali sought to gain full independence for Egypt. To further this aim, he brought in European weapons and expertise, and built an army that defeated the Ottoman Sultan, wresting control from the Porte of the Levant, and Hejaz.[2] The Egyptian Army was involved in the following wars during Muhammad Ali's reign:

In addition, he utilised his army to conquer Sudan, and unite it with Egypt.

Egypt was involved in the long-running 1881-99 Mahdist War in the Sudan.

The Making of a Professional Army[edit]

King Farouk I of Egypt inspecting small army units in Abdeen Square.

During Muhammad Ali Pasha's reign, the Egyptian army became a much more strictly regimented and professional army. The recruits were separated from daily civilian life and a sense of the impersonal of law was imposed. The new recruits were also drawn from the fellah, not from Sudanese slaves or Mamluks.

In previous times, the wives and family were allowed to follow the army as they were camped out. This was no longer the case. Isolating the recruits in barracks, military schools and training camps was the first essential step towards the creation of the professional, disciplined force of soldiers.

Inside these barracks, soldiers were also subjected to new practices. The rules and regulations were not made to inflict punishment on the recruits but rather to impose a sense of respect for the law; the threat of punishment was enough to keep them in line and from deserting. The roll-call was taken twice a day and those found missing would be declared deserters and would have to face the punishment for their actions.[3] Troops were kept busy to prevent the men from being left idle in the camps. The trivial tasks that filled the soldiers live was an attempt to keep the men constantly engaged in useful tasks and not thinking about leaving.

Passing laws with a strict punishment regime was not sufficient for the soldiers to internalize the different army regulations that they were asked to obey. For this to succeed these soldiers had to be interned and isolated from outside influences. They then had to be taught to follow rules and regulations that came with army life. This process helped to transform the fellah into disciplined soldiers.[4]

After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952[edit]

After the defeat of the Egyptian army in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, a revolutionary organisation was created secretly by the Egyptian officers under the name of Free Officers. This Free Officers, led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser, overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. The Free Officers then forced the British troops based in the Suez Canal to leave Egypt in what became known later as Anglo - Egyptian Treaty (1954), marking the end of Britain's military presence in Egypt. During the Cold War, the army actively fought in the Suez Crisis, known in Egypt and the Arab World as the Tripartite Aggression, the North Yemen Civil War from 1962 to 1967, the 1967 Six Day War, the 1969-1970 War of Attrition, the 1973 October War, and the 1977 Libyan-Egyptian War.

The North Yemen Civil War[edit]

Within three months of sending troops to Yemen in 1962, Nasser realized that this would require a larger commitment than anticipated. By early 1963, he would begin a four-year quest to extricate Egyptian forces from Yemen, using an unsuccessful face-saving mechanism, only to find himself committing more troops. A little less than 5,000 troops were sent in October 1962. Two months later, Egypt had 15,000 regular troops deployed. By late 1963, the number was increased to 36,000; and in late 1964, the number rose to 50,000 Egyptian troops in Yemen. Late 1965 represented the high-water mark of Egyptian troop commitment in Yemen at 55,000 troops, which were broken into 13 infantry regiments of one artillery division, one tank division and several Special Forces as well as airborne regiments. All the Egyptian field commanders complained of a total lack of topographical maps causing a real problem in the first months of the war.

The Six Day War[edit]

On May 1967, Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to passage of Israeli ships. On 26 May Nasser declared, "The battle will be a general one and our basic objective will be to destroy Israel".[5] Israel considered the Straits of Tiran closure a Casus belli. In the 1967 Six Day War, Israel attacked Egypt and occupied the Sinai Peninsula.

Before the June 1967 War, the army divided its personnel into four regional commands (Suez, Sinai, Nile Delta, and Nile Valley up to the Sudan).[6] The remainder of Egypt's territory, over 75%, was the sole responsibility of the Frontier Corps.

Presidents Sadat and Mubarak[edit]

After the 1967 debacle, the army was reorganised into two field armies, the Second Army and the Third Army, both of which were stationed in the eastern part of the country.

The October War of 1973 began with a massive and successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal. After crossing the cease-fire lines, Egyptian forces advanced virtually unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula. After three days, Israel had mobilized most of its forces and managed to halt the Egyptian offensive, settling into a stalemate. The Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and initially made threatening gains into Israeli-held territory. As Egyptian president Anwar Sadat began to worry about Syria's fortunes, he believed that capturing two strategic mountain passes located deeper in the Sinai would make his position stronger during the negotiations. He therefore ordered the Egyptians to go back on the offensive, but the attack was quickly repulsed. The Israelis then counterattacked at the juncture of the Second and Third Armies, crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt, and began slowly advancing southward and westward in over a week of heavy fighting which inflicted heavy casualties on both sides. On October 22 a United Nations-brokered ceasefire quickly unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Israelis had improved their positions considerably and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army and the city of Suez. This development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. As a result, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were just 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo.

It has been argued that only the relatively good performance of the Egyptian Army in the October War of 1973, especially during the crossing of the Suez Canal (Operation Badr) and in the Battle of Suez and in the Mansoura Air Battle and in the Battle of Ismailia, which allowed the Egyptians to claim victory and take part in the 1977 Camp David Accords. The army had an estimated strength of 320,000 in 1989. About 180,000 of these were conscripts.[7] Beyond the Second Army and Third Army in the east, most of the remaining troops were stationed in the Nile Delta region, around the upper Nile, and along the Libyan border. These troops were organized into eight military districts. Commando and airborne units were stationed near Cairo under central control but could be transferred quickly to one of the field armies if needed. District commanders, who generally held the rank of major general, maintained liaison with governors and other civil authorities on matters of domestic security.

Decision making in the army continued to be highly centralized during the 1980s.[7] Officers below brigade level rarely made tactical decisions and required the approval of higher-ranking authorities before they modified any operations. Senior army officers were aware of this situation and began taking steps to encourage initiative at the lower levels of command. A shortage of well-trained enlisted personnel became a serious problem for the army as it adopted increasingly complex weapons systems. Observers estimated in 1986 that 75 percent of all conscripts were illiterate when they entered the military.

Since the 1980s the army has built closer and closer ties with the United States, as evidenced in the bi-annual Operation Bright Star exercises. This cooperation eased integration of the Egyptian Army into the Gulf War coalition of 1990-91, during which the Egyptian II Corps under Maj. Gen. Salah Mohamed Attia Halaby, with 3rd Mechanised Division and 4th Armoured Division, fought as part of the Arab Joint Forces Command North.[8]

The Army conducted Exercise Badr '96 in 1996 in the Sinai.[9] The exercises in the Sinai were part of a larger exercise that involved 35,000 men in total.

Today conscripts without a college degree serve three years as enlisted soldiers.[citation needed] Conscripts with a General Secondary School Degree serve two years as enlisted soldiers. Conscripts with a college degree serve 14 months as enlisted or 27 months as a reserve officer.

On 31 January 2011, during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Israeli media reported that the 9th, 2nd, and 7th Divisions of the Army had been ordered into Cairo to help restore order.[10]

Medical breakthrough of 2014[edit]

It was reported at a press conference on 22 February 2014 by Egyptian Gen. Ibrahim Abdel-Atti, chief of the medical branch, that the Egyptian Army has "defeated AIDS... with a rate of 100%" as well as Hepatitis C. Abdel-Atti claimed to construct a method to extract the disease and break it into amino acids, "so that the virus becomes nutrition for the body instead of disease." It is said that this treatment process could be take anywhere between 20 days to 6 months to cure having no side effects. Egypt intends to delay exporting their new technology to generate medical tourism into the country. later on, it was found out that such allegations were false.[11][12][13][14]

Structure[edit]

Under the Ministry of Defence (Egypt) is the Egyptian Military Operations Authority with its headquarters in Cairo.[15] The Egyptian Armed Forces' Chief of Staff's office is in Cairo. He is also chief of staff of the army. Formally, he is also chief of staff of the air force and navy as well, but apparently the commanders of the other two services frequently report directly to the Minister of Defence/Commander-in-Chief.[16] From the Chief of Staff's office are directed three command-and-control headquarters and nine command-and-control field headquarters.

HQ, Central Military High Command: Heliopolis, Cairo[edit]

  • HQ, Central Military Region: Greater Cairo
    • Field HQ, Heliopolis, Central Military Region
    • Field HQ, El Qanater, Central Military Region
      • Sub-Field HQ, Tanta, Central Military Region
      • Sub-Field HQ, Zagazig, Central Military Region
    • Field HQ, Qom Ushim, El Fayum, Central Military Region
    • Field HQ, Beni Suef, Central Military Region

HQ, Northern Military Region: Alexandria[edit]

  • Field HQ, Alexandria, Northern Military Region
    • Sub-Field HQ, Abou Qir, Northern Military Region
    • Sub-Field HQ, Mariout, Northern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Rashid, Northern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Damietta, Northern Military Region

HQ, Eastern Military Region: El Suez[edit]

  • Field HQ, Port Said, Northern Suez Canal Military Region
  • Field HQ, Ismaelia, Central Suez Canal Military Region
  • Field HQ, El Mansoura, El Daqahliya, Eastern Delta Military Region
  • Field HQ, El Suez, Southern Suez Canal Military Region
  • Field HQ, Cairo-Suez Highway Military Region
  • Field HQ, Hurghada, Red Sea Military Region

HQ, Western Military Region: Mersa Matruh[edit]

  • Field HQ, Sidi Barrani, Western Military Region
  • Field HQ, Marsa Alam, Western Military Region
  • Field HQ, Salloum, Western Military Region

HQ, Southern Military Region: Assiut[edit]

  • Field HQ, El Menia, Southern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Qena, Southern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Sohag, Southern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Aswan, Southern Military Region

Field armies[edit]

  • First Field Army: H.Q. in Cairo (H.Q. Command & 3 field H.Q.)
    • 1st Corps: Field H.Q. In Heliopolis, Cairo, Central Military Region
      • 1 Republican Guard Armoured Division (1st)
      • 1 Independent Mechanized Brigade (24th)
      • 2 Field Artillery Brigades (116th & 117th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment (135th)
    • 2nd Corps: Field H.Q. in Alexandria, Northern and Western Military Regions
      • 1 Mechanized Division (6th)
      • 1 Independent Armoured Brigade (18th)
      • 1 Independent Infantry Brigade (218th)
      • 2 Field Artillery Brigades (118th & 119th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment (129th)
    • 3rd Corps: Field H.Q. in Assiut, Western and Southern Military Regions
      • 1 Mechanized Division (8th)
      • 1 Independent Armoured Brigade (36th)
      • 2 Field Artillery Brigades (120th & 121st)
      • 1 Air Mobile Brigade (222nd)
  • Second Field Army: H.Q. Ismaelia (H.Q. Command & 3 field H.Q.)
    • 1st Corps: Field H.Q. in Port Said, Northern Suez Canal Military Zone
      • 1 Armoured Division (21st)
      • 1 Mechanized Division (7th) (former 2nd Infantry Division)
      • 2 Field Artillery Brigades (122nd & 123rd)
      • 1 airborne Brigade (412th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment (117th)
    • 2nd Corps: Field H.Q. in Ismaelia, Central Suez Canal Military Zone
      • 1 Armoured Division (4th)
      • 1 Mechanized Division (17th)
      • 2 Field Artillery Brigades (124th & 125th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment (123rd)
    • 3rd Corps: Field H.Q. in El Mansoura, El Daqahliya, Eastern Delta Military Region
      • 1 Armoured Division (6th)
      • 1 Mechanized Division (19th)
      • 1 Independent Infantry Brigade (219th)
      • 1 Field Artillery Brigades (126th)
      • 1 Heavy Mortar Brigade (815th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment (153rd)
  • Third Field Army: H.Q. Suez (H.Q. Command & 3 field H.Q.)
    • 1st Corps: Field H.Q. in Cairo-Suez Highway Military Region
      • 1 Armoured Division (9th)
      • 1 Mechanized Division (23rd)
      • 1 Independent Mechanized Brigade (94th)
      • 1 Field Artillery Brigade (127th)
      • 1 Air Mobile Brigade (224th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment (159th)
    • 2nd Corps: Field H.Q. in Suez, Suez Canal Military Zone
      • 1 Mechanized Division (36th)
      • 1 Independent Armoured Brigade (44th)
      • 2 Field Artillery Brigades (128th & 129th)
      • 1 Heavy Mortar Brigade (816th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment(141st)
    • 3rd Corps: Field H.Q. in Hurghada, Red Sea Military Region
      • 1 Mechanized Division (16th)
      • 1 Independent Armoured Brigade (82nd)
      • 2 Independent Mechanized Brigades (110th & 111th (Former 130th Amphibious Brigade))
      • 1 Field Artillery Brigade (130th)
      • 1 Special Forces Regiment (147th)

Corps[edit]

  • Republican Guard Corps: (1 H.Q. Command)
    • Republican Guard Armoured Division (1st)
      • Republican Guard Armoured Brigade (33rd)
      • Republican Guard Armoured Brigade (35th)
      • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (510th)
      • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (512th)
  • Tactical Missile Command Corps:
    • 1st and 2nd SSM Brigades
  • Armored Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • 2nd, 4th, 7th, and 9th Armoured Divisions
    • 18th, 36th, 44th, and 82nd Independent Armoured Brigades
    • 33rd and 35th Republican Guard Armoured Brigades
  • Mechanized Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • Mechanized Division (6th)
    • Mechanized Division (7th)
    • Mechanized Division (8th)
    • Mechanized Division (16th)
    • Mechanized Division (17th)
    • Mechanized Division (19th)
    • Mechanized Division (23rd)
    • Mechanized Division (36th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (24th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (94th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (110th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (111th) (former 130th Amphibious Brigade)
    • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (510th)
    • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (512th)
  • Infantry Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 2 Field H.Q.)
    • Independent Infantry Brigade (218th)
    • Independent Infantry Brigade (219th)
    • ATGW Brigade (33rd)
    • ATGW Brigade (44th)
    • ATGW Brigade (55th)
    • ATGW Brigade (66th)
    • ATGW Brigade (77th)
    • ATGW Brigade (88th)
  • Artillery Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • Republican Guard's S/P Field Artillery Brigade (10th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (101st)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (102nd)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (103rd)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (104th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (105th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (106th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (107th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (108th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (109th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (111th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (113th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (115th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (116th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (117th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (118th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (119th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (120th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (121st)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (122nd)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (123rd)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (124th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (125th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (126th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (127th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (128th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (129th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (130th)
    • Heavy Mortar Brigade (815th)
    • Heavy Mortar Brigade (816th)
  • Airborne Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 2 Field H.Q.)
    • Airborne Brigade (414th)
  • Air Mobile Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 2 Field H.Q.)
    • Air Mobile Bridage (222nd)
  • Special Forces Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (117th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (123rd)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (129th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (135th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (141st)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (147th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (153rd)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (159th)
  • Signal Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Signal H.Q.)
    • 18 Signal Battalions (601 to 619th)
  • Engineering Corps: (H.Q. COM. & 6 Field Engineers Command H.Q.)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (35th)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (37th)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (39th)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (41st)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (43rd)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (45th)
  • Medical Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Medical H.Q.) (18 Military Hospitals, 3 Hospital Ships, 4 Hospital Barges)
    • 27 Field Medical Battalions (1st to 27th)
      • 108 Field Medical Companies (201st to 308th)
  • Supply Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Supply H.Q.)
    • 36 Field Supply Battalions (501st to 536th)
  • Quartermasters Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Quartermasters H.Q.)
    • 9 Central Military depots
    • 16 Regional Mililtary depots
    • 32 Field Military depots
  • Military Police Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field H.Q.)
    • 12 Inland MP Battalions (222, 224, 226, 228, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240, 242, 244)
    • 12 Field MP Battalions (221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 239, 241, 243)
  • Frontier Corps (1 H.Q. Command & 5 Field H.Q.)
    • 20 Battalions: 12,000 men, mostly Bedouins, in a lightly armed paramilitary force equipped this force with remote sensors, night-vision binoculars, communications vehicles, and high-speed motorboats and responsible for:
      • Border surveillance: 10 battalions
      • General peacekeeping: 2 battalions
      • Drug interdiction: 5 battalions
      • Prevention of smuggling: 3 battalions

Order of battle[edit]

These commands include the following formations:

  • 4 Armoured Divisions (4th, 6th, 9th & 21st) 4 H.Q. Commands (4 C3 H.Q.)
    • 8 Armoured Brigades (312th, 314th, 316th, 318th, 320th, 322nd, 324th, 326th)
      • 24 Armoured Battalions (1st to 24th)
        • 80 Armoured Companies
        • 8 Command Companies
        • 8 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 8 Mechanized Battalions (1st to 8th)
        • 24 Mechanized Companies
        • 4 Command Companies
        • 4 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 Mechanized Brigades (512th, 516th, 520th & 524th)
      • 12 Mechanized Battalions (13th to 25th)
        • 24 Mechanized Companies
        • 4 Command Companies
        • 4 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 4 Armoured Battalions (25th to 28th)
        • 12 Armoured Companies
        • 2 Command Companies
        • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 S/P Artillery Brigades (102nd, 104th, 106th, 108th)
    • 4 S/P Artillery Command H.Q. (Brigade level)
      • 16 S/P Artillery Battalions (36th to 51st)
        • 48 S/P Artillery Batteries
  • 8 Mechanized Infantry Divisions (2nd, 3rd, 7th, 16th, 18th, 19th, 23rd, 36th) 8 H.Q. Commands (8 C3 H.Q.)[17]
    • 16 Mechanized Brigades (712th to 727th)
      • 36 Mechanized Battalions (111th to 145th)
        • 120 Mechanized Companies
        • 12 Command Companies
        • 12 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 18 Armoured Battalions (30th to 47th)
        • 54 Armoured Companies
        • 9 Command Companies
        • 9 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 8 Armoured Brigades (10th to 17th)
      • 24 Armoured Battalions (65th to 88th)
        • 80 Armoured Companies
        • 8 Command Companies
        • 8 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 8 Mechanized Battalions (41st to 48th)
        • 24 Mechanized Companies
        • 8 Command Companies
        • 8 Recon Companies
    • 8 S/P Artillery Brigades (101st, 103rd, 105th, 107th, 109th, 111th, 113th, 115th)
      • 24 S/P Artillery Battalions (6th to 29th)
        • 96 S/P Batteries
  • 1 Republican Guard Armoured Division (1st) H.Q. Command (C3 H.Q.)
    • 2 Armoured Brigades (33rd & 35th)
      • 4 Armoured Battalions (118th, 119th, 120th, 121st)
        • 16 Armoured Companies
        • 4 Command Companies
        • 4 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 2 Mechanized Battalions (41st & 42nd)
        • 8 Mechanized Companies
        • 2 Command Companies
        • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 2 Mechanized Brigades (510th & 512th)
      • 6 Mechanized Battalions (41st, 42nd, 43rd, 44th, 45th, 46th)
        • 18 Mechanized Companies
        • 3 Command Companies
        • 3 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 2 Armoured Battalions (116th & 117th)
        • 6 Armoured Companies
        • 1 Command Company
        • 1 Signal/Recon Company
    • 1 S/P Artillery Brigade (10th) Command H.Q. (Brigade level)
      • 4 S/P Artillery Battalions (1st to 4th)
        • 16 S/P Artillery Batteries
  • 4 Independent Armoured Brigades (18th, 36th, 44th & 82nd)
    • 12 Armoured Battalions (77th, 78th, 79th, 80th, 81st, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 85th, 86th, 87th, 88th)
      • 36 Armoured Companies
      • 6 Command Companies
      • 6 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 Mechanized Battalions (91st, 92nd, 93rd, 95th)
      • 12 Mechanized Companies
      • 2 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
  • 4 Independent Mechanized Brigades (24th, 94th, 110th, 111th [former 130th Amphibious Brigade])
    • 12 Mechanized Battalions (33rd, 34th, 35th, 36th, 37th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 44th)
      • 36 Mechanized Companies
      • 12 Com/Recon Companies
    • 4 Armoured Battalions (96th, 97th, 98th, 99th)
      • 12 Armoured Companies
      • 2 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
  • 2 Independent Infantry Brigades (218th & 219th)
    • 4 Infantry Battalions (712th, 713th, 714th, 715th)
      • 10 Infantry Companies
      • 4 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 Mechanized Battalions (100th, 101st, 102nd, 103rd)
      • 12 Mechanized Companies
      • 2 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 2 Armoured Battalions (17th & 18th)
      • 6 Armoured Companies
      • 1 Command Company
      • 1 Signal/Recon Company
  • 1 Air Mobile Brigade (222nd) (1 H.Q.)
    • 3 Air Mobile Mechanized Battalions (5th, 6th, 7th)
      • 9 Mechanized Companies
      • 1 Command Company
      • 1 Recon/Signal Company
      • 1 Air Defense Company
    • 1 Air Mobile Armored Battalion (56th)
      • 3 Air Mobile Light Armored Companies
      • 1 Air Mobile Command/Recon Company
  • 1 Airborne Brigade (414th) (1 H.Q.)
    • 3 Airborne Battalions (224th, 225th, 226th)
      • 10 Airborne Companies
      • 1 Airborne Command Company
      • 1 Airborne Recon Company
    • 1 Airborne Mechanized Battalion (176th)
      • 3 Mechanized Companies
      • 1 Command/Recon/Signal Company
  • 8 Special Forces Regiments/Groups (Brigade level) (117th, 123rd, 129th, 135th, 141st, 147th, 153rd, 159th) (1 H.Q.) (of which 3 Lightning/Saaqa regiments and 3 Commandos regiments, the remaining 2 are the Marine Commandos and the Infiltration Anti-terror units)
    • 18 Commandos Battalions: (230th to 247th)
      • 72 Commandos Companies
    • 3 Marine Commandos Battalions (515th, 616th, 818th)
      • 12 Marine Commandos Companies
    • 3 Infiltration Anti-terror Battalions (777th, 888th, 999th)
      • 12 Infiltration Companies
  • 15 Heavy Artillery Brigades (116th to 130th) 15 S/P Artillery Command H.Q. (Brigade level)
    • 60 Artillery Battalions (314th to 373rd)
      • 240 Artillery Batteries (1st to 240th)
  • 2 Heavy Mortar Brigades (815th & 816th) 8 S/P Heavy Mortar Command H.Q. (Brigade Level)
    • 8 S/P Heavy Mortar Battalions (333rd, 334th, 335th, 336th, 337th, 339th, 340th 341st)
      • 32 S/P Heavy Mortar Batteries (1st to 32nd)
  • 6 ATGW Brigades (33rd, 44th, 55th, 66th, 77th, 88th)
  • 6 Engineering Brigades (35th, 37th, 39th, 41st, 43rd, 45th)
    • 12 Engineers Battalions (65th to 82nd)
    • 6 Field Engineers Battalions (610th to 615th)
      • 6 Construction Engineering Companies
      • 6 Demolition Engineering Companies
      • 6 Mine Clearance Engineering Companies
      • 6 Maintenance & Logistics Engineering Companies
    • 4 Field Engineering Salvage Battalions
    • 2 Field Engineering Special Operations Battalions
  • 2 Tactical SSM Brigades (1st, 2nd), comprising:

Ranks and insignia[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Army ranks

Commissioned Officers[edit]

Commissioned Officer rank insignia of the Egyptian Army
Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier Major General Lieutenant General Colonel General Field Marshal
Arabic: ملازم Arabic: ملازم أول Arabic: نقيب Arabic: رائد Arabic: مقدم Arabic: عقيد Arabic: عميد Arabic: لواء Arabic: فريق Arabic: فريق أول Arabic: مشير
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Lieutenant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-FirstLieutenant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Captain.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Major.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-LieutenantColonel.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Colonel.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-BrigadierGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-MajorGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-LieutenantGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-ColonelGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-FieldMarshal.svg

Enlisted personnel[edit]

Warrant Officer rank insignia Non-commissioned Officer rank insignia Enlisted rank insignia
First Warrant Officer Warrant Officer First Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Private
Arabic: مساعد أول' Arabic: مساعد Arabic: رقيب أول Arabic: رقيب Arabic: عريف Arabic: جندى
EgyptianArmyInsignia-ChiefWarrantOfficer.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-WarrantOfficer.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-StaffSergeant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Sergeant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Corporal.svg

Uniform[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Army Uniform

The Egyptian Army uses an British style ceremonial outfit, and a desert camouflage overall implemented in 2012. The Identification between different branches in the Egyptian Army depends on the branch insignia on the left upper arm and the color of the beret. Also, the airborne, Thunderbolt, and republican guard each has its own camouflage overall.

Camouflage Suit[edit]

Egyptian Army camouflage uniform
Egyptian Army Airborne camouflage uniform
Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform
Egyptian Republican Guard camouflage uniform

Berets[edit]

Branch Beret
Officer Brigadier General
Airborne
Paratroops Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Paratroops brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Paratroops general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Armored
Armored corps Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Armored corps brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Armored corps general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Artillery
Artillery Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Artillery brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Artillery General Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Border Guard
Borderguard Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Borderguard brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Borderguard general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Infantry
Infantry Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Infantry brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
General command Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Military Police
Military police Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Military police brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Military police general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Moral affairs
Moral Afaires Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Moral Affaires brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Moral Affaires general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Reconnaissance brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Reconnaissance general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Thunderbolt brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Thunderbolt General Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Others
Egyptian Army Beret.png
Egyptian Army Brigadier Beret.png
Egyptian Army General Beret.png

Weapons inventory[edit]

Egypt's varied army weapons inventory complicates logistical support for the army. National policy since the 1970s has included the creation of a domestic arms industry (including the Arab Organization for Industrialization) capable of indigenous maintenance and upgrades to existing equipment, with the ultimate aim of Egyptian production of major ground systems.[18] This target was finally met with the commencement of M-1 Abrams production in 1992.[19] (Egypt had received permission to build an M-1 factory in 1984.) Prior to this, large acquisitions had included nearly 700 M-60A1 main battle tanks from the US from March 1990, as well as nearly 500 Hellfire anti-tank guided missiles.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2006, p.183
  2. ^ Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991, Council on Foreign Relations/University of Nebraska, 2002, p.14
  3. ^ Famhy, From peasants to soldiers: discipline and training, 128.
  4. ^ Famhy, From peasants to soldiers: discipline and training, 138.
  5. ^ Samir A. Mutawi (18 July 2002). Jordan in the 1967 War. Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-521-52858-0. "On 26 May he declared, "The battle will be a general one and our basic objective will be to destroy Israel" 
  6. ^ John Keegan, World Armies, Second Edition, MacMillan, 1983, p.165 ISBN 978-0-333-34079-0
  7. ^ a b Library of Congress Country Study, Egypt, Army, 1990
  8. ^ http://www.tim-thompson.com/gwobjfg.html, accessed February 2009
  9. ^ http://www.gamla.org.il/english/article/1999/aug/jpost.htm
  10. ^ http://www.mako.co.il/news-specials/egypt/Article-64af2c4c648dd21004.htm
  11. ^ Berman, Lazar (26 February 2014). "AIDS cured! (says Egypt’s military)". Times of Israel. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  12. ^ Weinstein, Jamie (26 February 2014). "Egyptian army ridiculously claims it has cured AIDS and Hepatitis C Read more: http://dailycaller.com/2014/02/26/egyptian-army-ridiculously-claims-that-it-has-cured-aids-and-hepatitis-c/#ixzz2uRl9VDk8". Daily Caller. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  13. ^ "Egypt presidential advisor: Army health devices for virus C & AIDS must comply with int'l standards". Ahram Online. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  14. ^ Inoyori, Ryan (26 February 2014). "HIV Cure: 'Complete Cure' Machine Invented To Treat Hepatitis C And HIV With 95% to 100% Guarantee". International Business Times. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  15. ^ See also Order of Battle at http://www.orbat.com/site/cwa_open/toc.htm, accessed August 2009
  16. ^ John Keegan, World Armies, Second Edition, MacMillan, 1983, ISBN 978-0-333-34079-0
  17. ^ Historical Notes and Scenarios Booklet, Suez '73: The Battle of the Chinese Farm (boardgame), Game Designers' Workshop, 1981
  18. ^ Chris Westhorp (ed.) 'The World's Armies,' Salamander Books, 1991, 'Egypt,' p.115
  19. ^ http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Sentinel-Security-Assessment-North-Africa/Procurement-Egypt.html, accessed August 2009

Further reading[edit]