Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2011

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Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2011
Results
Yes or no Votes Percentage
Yes check.svg Yes 14,192,577 77.27%
X mark.svg No 4,174,187 22.73%
Valid votes 18,366,764 99.08%
Invalid or blank votes 171,190 0.92%
Total votes 18,537,954 100.00%
Voter turnout 41.9%
Results by Governorate
Egyptian constitutional referendum 2011.svg
  Yes
  No
Source: Referendum.eg[1]
Coat of arms of Egypt (Official).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt on 19 March 2011,[2] following the 2011 Egyptian revolution. More than 14 million (77%) were in favour, while around 4 million (23%) opposed the changes; 41% of 45 million eligible voters turned out to vote.[3]

The approved constitutional reforms included a limitation on the presidency to at most two four-year terms, judicial supervision of elections, a requirement for the president to appoint at least one vice president, a commission to draft a new constitution following the parliamentary election, and easier access to presidential elections by candidates—via 30,000 signatures from at least 15 provinces, 30 members of a chamber of the legislature, or nomination by a party holding at least one seat in the legislature.[4]

The reforms were recognised by both sides to increase democratic safeguards, but opponents argued that they did not go far enough and that an election held too soon could favour the well-organised Muslim Brotherhood and members of the former ruling National Democratic Party of Hosni Mubarak. Supporters cited concerns that waiting too long could increase the chances of the military regaining power or risk destabilisation before an election.[3]

A parliamentary election is planned within the next six months, with groups already working to create new political parties, promote candidates and increase turnout among their supporters.

Background[edit]

The 1971 constitution was suspended by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces on 13 February 2011, two days after the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. It then organised a committee of jurists to draft amendments to pave the way for new parliamentary and presidential elections.[5][6]

Had the referendum resulted in a "no" vote, the 1971 constitution would have been nullified and a new one was to be drawn up before elections, which would likely have extended the planned transition period until an election to 2012.[7]

Older constitutional articles[edit]

  1. Article 75 of the Constitution of Egypt states: "The President of the Republic should be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents and enjoy civil and political rights. His age must not be less than 40 Gregorian years".[8]
  2. Article 76 of the Constitution of Egypt states: "The People's Assembly shall nominate the President of the Republic. The nomination shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite. The nomination for the President of the Republic shall be made in the People’ Assembly upon the proposal of at least one third of its members. The candidate who obtains two thirds of the votes of the members of the People's Assembly shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite. If he does not obtain the said majority the nomination process shall be repeated two days after the first vote. The candidate obtaining an absolute majority of the votes of the Assembly members shall be referred to the citizens for a plebiscite. The candidate shall be considered President of the Republic when he obtains an absolute majority of votes cast in the plebiscite. If the candidate does not obtain this majority, the Assembly shall propose the nomination of another candidate and the same procedure shall follow concerning his candidature and election".[8]
  3. Article 77 of the Constitution of Egypt that states: "The term of the presidency shall be six Gregorian years starting from the date of the announcement of result of the plebiscite. The President of the Republic may be re-elected for other successive terms".[8]
  4. Article 88 of the Constitution of Egypt that states: "The Law shall determine the conditions which members of the Assembly must fulfil as well as the rules of election and referendum, while the ballot shall be conducted under the supervision of the members of a judiciary organ".[9]
  5. Article 93 of the Constitution of Egypt states: "The People’s Assembly shall be competent to decide upon the validity of the membership of its members. The Court of Cassation shall be competent to investigate the validity of contestations on membership presented to the Assembly after referring them to the Court by the Speaker of the Assembly. The contestation shall be referred to the Court of Cassation within fifteen days as from the date on which the Assembly has been informed thereof while the investigation shall be completed within ninety days from the date on which the contestation is referred to the Court of Cassation. The result of the investigation and the decision reached by the Court shall be submitted to the Assembly to decide upon the validity of the contestation within sixty days from the date of submission of the result of the investigation to the Assembly. Memberships shall not be deemed invalid expect by a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members".[9]
  6. Article 139 of the Constitution of Egypt states: "The President of the Republic may appoint one or more Vice-Presidents define their jurisdiction and relieve them of their posts. The rules relating to the calling to account of the President of the Republic shall be applicable to the Vice-Presidents".[10]
  7. Article 148 of the Constitution of Egypt states: "The President of the Republic shall proclaim a state of emergency in the manner prescribed by the law. Such proclamation must be submitted to the People’s Assembly within the subsequent fifteen days to take a decision upon it. In case the People’s Assembly, is dissolved the matter shall be submitted to the new Assembly at its first meeting. The state of emergency in all cases, shall be for a limited period, which may not be extended unless by approval of the Assembly".[10]
  8. Article 179 of the Constitution of Egypt states: "The Socialist Public Prosecutor shall be responsible for taking the measures which secure the people’s rights, the safety of the society and its political regime, the preservation of the socialist achievements and commitment to socialist behaviour. The law shall prescribe his other competences. He shall be subject to the control of the People’s Assembly in accordance with what is prescribed by law".[11]
  9. Article 189 of the Constitution of Egypt states: "The President of the Republic as well as the People’s Assembly may request the amendment of one or more of the articles of the Constitution. The articles to be amended and the reasons justifying such amendments shall be mentioned in the request for amendment. If the request emanates from the People’s Assembly, it should be signed by at least one third of the Assembly members . In all cases, the Assembly shall discuss the amendment in principle, and the decision in this respect shall be taken by the majority of its members. If the request is rejected, the amendment of the same particular articles may not be requested again before the expiration of one year from the date of such rejection. If the People’s Assembly approves an amendment, in principle, the articles requested to be amended shall be discussed two months after the date of the said approval. If the amendment is approved by two thirds of the members of the Assembly, it shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite. If it is approved by the people it shall be considered in force from the date of the announcement of the result of the plebiscite".[12]

Proposed amendments[edit]

Summary
Women standing in line to vote on the 2011 Egyptian constitutional referendum
The men's line during the referendum, in the up-scale neighborhood of Mokattam Hill in Cairo

The proposed amendments include the following:

  • Article 75: A candidate would be ineligible if he or she had dual nationality, parents who were citizens of countries other than Egypt or married to a non-Egyptian.
  • Article 76: Easing the requirements for being a presidential candidate.
  • Article 77: Limiting the terms a president can serve to two consecutive terms, each four years only.
  • Article 88: The juridical system is responsible for monitoring the election process.
  • Article 93: would give the highest appeal court the power to rule on challenges to disputed parliamentary races, whereas before only the parliament could decide.
  • Article 139: The president must appoint a vice-president within 60 days of the start of the term
  • Article 148: would impose new restrictions on the president declaring a state of emergency, including requiring the approval of a parliamentary majority, and says it cannot exceed six months unless it is extended through a referendum.
  • (Article 179): would be canceled. The article allows the president to use military courts for "terror" cases even for civilians.
  • (Article 189): Require the newly elected parliament to write a new constitution within 60 days.
Article 75

The committee proposed a number of qualifications for a person seeking to nominate themselves in presidential elections, including:

  • The nominee must be an Egyptian citizen
  • Both of the nominee’s parents must be Egyptian citizens
  • The nominee must not be under a suspension of political and civic rights
  • Neither the nominee nor the nominee’s parents may have held foreign citizenship
  • The nominee must not be married to a foreigner
  • The nominee must be at least 40 years of age
Article 76

The committee proposed 3 tracks for nomination which candidates may choose in presidential elections:

  1. Nominees must win the endorsement of 30 elected members of Parliament;
  2. Nominees must win the endorsement of 30,000 registered voters from 15 governorates with at least 1000 endorsements from each of those governorates;
  3. Parties with at least one elected seat in parliament may nominate one of their members in presidential elections.

Members of Parliament and voters may not endorse the nomination of more than 1 candidate for president.

Article 77

The committee proposed that the term of the President be reduced to four years and that a limit of two terms be adopted.

The issue of limiting presidential powers was postponed until after the elections as part of the new constitution drafting process.[13]

Article 88

The committee proposed that elections and referendums, from voter registration to the announcement of results, be administered and supervised by an all-judge High Elections Commission, whose composition and mandate will be defined by law.

Members of the judiciary nominated by the supreme councils of the judicial agencies and appointed by the High Elections Commission will supervise ballot casting and counting.

Article 93

The Committee proposed that competence to determine the validity of membership of parliamentarians be transferred from parliament to the Supreme Constitutional Court. Challenges to the validity of the membership of a parliamentarian must be filed with the Court within 30 days of the election of the parliamentarian in question and decided upon by the Court within 90 days. The ruling the Court would be final.

Article 139

The committee proposed that the president be required to appoint one or more vice-presidents within 60 days of taking office, and that the president shall determine them and of the vice-president. If the vice-president is dismissed from office, the president must appoint a replacement.

The same qualifications that apply to the presidency would also apply to the vice-president. (See Article 75)

Article 148

The Committee proposed that the consent of a majority of the members of the People’s Assembly be required to declare a state of emergency. In addition, the Committee proposed that the state of emergency could only be declared for a period of up to 6 months. Also, a renewal of the state of emergency would require a popular referendum.

The committee proposed that if the President declares a state of emergency then the People’s Assembly must review the decision within seven days of the declaration. If the People’s Assembly is not in session at the time, the President must immediately call it to session. If the People’s Assembly is dissolved the declaration must be reviewed by it in its first session.

Article 179

The committee proposed that the Article be stricken from the constitution. No further information available.

Article 189 and 189 repeated

The committee proposed that that Shura Council function without it appointment members until such time as a president is elected to fill the appointment of 1/3 of its seats

The committee proposed that the president or at least half the members of the People’s Assembly and the Shura Council may request the drafting of a new constitution.

The committee proposed that within six months of their election the elected members of the People’s Assembly and the Shura Council must appoint, by majority vote, a 100-member constituent assembly to draft a new constitution. The constituent assembly would have to complete the draft within six months of its creation, and within 15 days of the completion of the draft constitution the president must call for a referendum on it.

Polls[edit]

A March 13 poll by the Egyptian government on its Information and Decision Support Center website said that 24,121 Egyptians (57 percent of the total number of voters) would vote against the amendments, while 15,173 Egyptians (37 percent) supported them. Five percent were undecided.[14]

Campaign[edit]

A diagram that explains the 2011 Egyptian Constitutional Referendum process based on a Yes or No vote on 19 March 2011

The Egyptian military called for a media silence over the referendum.[15] It also set up a committee to review the proposed amendments.[16] Later saying it would help to secure a vote on the proposed amendments.[17]

Though 16,000 members of the judiciary were scheduled to supervise the referendum,[18] 2000 judges threatened to boycott the supervisory process.[19]

Amidst other controversy, a court ruled against canceling the referendum following an appeal.[20]

Opponents[edit]

External video
An AD asking people to vote NO by many celebrities, public and political figures on YouTube
Another AD asking people to vote NO by many celebrities, public and political figures on YouTube

An opposition coalition (including presidential candidates Amr Moussa and Mohamed ElBaradei, the New Wafd Party, the Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution, the National Progressive Unionist Party, the el-Ghad Party and the Egyptian Arab Socialist Party) criticised the proposed amendments as not enough and that the new constitution needs to be written immediately to regulate the process and the requirements for members of parliament. They also said that the President's power was not limited enough under the proposed changes.[7]

The Christian Church was also opposed to the amendments,[21] as was the reformist faction of the Muslim Brotherhood.[22]

Proponents[edit]

The Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafi movement (including preachers such as Sheikh Mohammed Hassan(ar) and Mohammed Abdel Maksoud(ar)[23]), among other Islamist groups,[which?] think that the amendments are suitable for the time being and that the situation in Egypt is not suitable to write a new constitution at the moment. They have suggested that Article 2 of the constitution (which states that "Islam is the Religion of the State. Arabic is its official language, and the principal source of legislation is Islamic Jurisprudence"[24]) will be removed or altered if the proposed changes are not approved even though the constitutional amendment committee said that Article 2 will not be touched.[25] Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi advised Egyptians to approve the referendum.[26] The NDP also have asked their base to vote Yes.[27]

The Muslim Brotherhood and the NDP are also perceived to be in favour of an approval because early elections could benefit them the most as they already have the biggest grassroots support while smaller and newly founded parties would have little time to prepare for elections in the planned schedule.[7]

Election[edit]

Voting issues[edit]

ElBaradei Attacked by Voters on YouTube
  • Some sheikhs took the platforms on Friday and focused in their sermons to call onto worshipers to vote yes.[28]
  • The Egyptian Coptic Church and other Christian denominations in Egypt have called their Christian faithful to vote No.
  • Mohamed ElBaradei was attacked by men throwing rocks at him as he tried to vote in Mokattam. He left without voting and later voted elsewhere.[29][30][31][32]
  • A Salafist hang a sign, which distinguish between those who are voting yes, and those voting no in front of a committee.[28]
  • The two women wearing a niqāb distributed leaflets calling for a vote yes in front of a committee.[28]

Results[edit]

Another view of the men's line in Mokattam during the referendum. The queue was so long it extended well outside the built-up area and into the desert.
Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2011[1][33]
Choice Votes  %
Referendum passed Yes 14,192,577 77.27%
No 4,174,187 22.73%
Valid votes 18,366,764 99.08%
Invalid or blank votes 171,190 0.92%
Total votes 18,537,954 100.00%

By governorate[edit]

Governorate[34] Total votes Valid votes Invalid votes "Yes" votes "Yes" % "No" votes "No" %
Cairo 2,306,561 2,283,363 23,198 1,381,738 59.9% 901,625 39.1%
Alexandria 1,524,387 1,513,552 10,835 1,015,945 66.6% 497,607 32.6%
Sharqia 1,226,799 1,217,353 9,446 1,054,749 85.9% 162,604 13.3%
Minya 1,121,260 1,106,817 14,443 848,101 69.1% 258,716 21.1%
Dakahlia 1,104,724 1,096,905 7,819 874,384 79.1% 222,521 20.1%
Beheira 1,070,733 1,061,796 8,937 931,338 87.0% 130,458 12.2%
Qalyubia 960,883 952,647 8,236 771,667 80.3% 180,980 18.8%
Gharbia 933,732 926,005 7,727 729,920 73.5% 196,085 21.0%
Giza 907,696 895,908 11,788 610,779 67.3% 285,129 31.4%
Asyut 803,827 794,085 9,742 583,304 72.6% 210,781 26.2%
Monufia 759,415 753,598 5,817 652,952 86.0% 100,646 13.3%
Sohag 751,180 744,481 6,699 585,514 77.9% 158,967 21.2%
Helwan 601,720 596,886 4,834 429,821 71.4% 167,065 27.7%
6th of October 574,399 568,256 6,143 479,716 83.5% 88,540 15.4%
Beni Suef 568,437 562,955 5,482 492,441 86.6% 70,514 12.4%
Kafr el-Sheikh 568,336 564,392 3,944 496,191 87.3% 68,201 12.0%
Faiyum 544,128 538,536 5,592 486,011 89.3% 52,525 9.7%
Qena 452,480 449,898 2,582 387,292 85.6% 62,606 13.8%
Damietta 332,342 330,083 2,259 273,218 82.2% 56,865 17.1%
Ismailia 253,328 250,907 2,421 195,428 77.1% 55,479 21.9%
Aswan 247,885 245,479 2,406 203,449 82.1% 42,030 17.0%
Port Said 213,666 211,377 2,289 149,635 70.0% 61,742 29.0%
Luxor 203,683 201,467 2,216 164,241 80.6% 37,226 18.3%
Suez 173,106 171,075 2,031 134,864 77.9% 36,211 20.9%
Red Sea 104,233 102,437 1,796 64,924 62.3% 37,513 36.0%
Matruh 84,555 83,628 927 77,283 91.4% 6,345 7.5%
North Sinai 63,974 63,318 656 54,604 85.4% 8,714 13.6%
New Valley 41,357 40,890 467 37,186 89.9% 3,704 9.0%
South Sinai 39,128 38,670 458 25,882 66.1% 12,788 32.7%

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "الأرقام الفعلية للتصويت" (in Arabic). اللجنة القضائية العليا للإشراف علي استفتاء تعديل الدستور المصري. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  2. ^ Zayan, Jailan (2011-03-04). "AFP: New Egypt PM addresses crowds in Tahrir Square". Google.com. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  3. ^ a b Michael, Maggie (2011-03-11). "Constitutional amendments approved in Egypt referendum". Toronto: The Star. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  4. ^ "Commission announces proposed changes to Egyptian Constitution | Al-Masry Al-Youm: Today's News from Egypt". Al-Masry Al-Youm. 2011-02-26. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  5. ^ "Egypt cyber activists say they met military rulers". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  6. ^ "Egypt to call March referendum this week: lawyer". Reuters. 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  7. ^ a b c "BBC News - Q&A: Egypt's constitutional referendum". bbc.co.uk. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  8. ^ a b c "Chapter five: The Government, Part One: The Head of the State". Egypt.gov.eg. Retrieved October 19, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b "Chapter five: The Government, Part Two: The People's Assembly". Egypt.gov.eg. Retrieved October 19, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b "Egypt’s Government Services Portal - Egypt Constitution - Chapter Five". Egypt.gov.eg. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  11. ^ "Egypt’s Government Services Portal - Egypt Constitution - Chapter Five". Egypt.gov.eg. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  12. ^ "Egypt’s Government Services Portal - Egypt Constitution - Chapter Six: General and Transitional Provisions". Egypt.gov.eg. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  13. ^ "BBC News - Egypt's army passes draft constitutional amendments". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-02-26. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  14. ^ "Majority of Egyptians against constitutional amendments, says poll | Al-Masry Al-Youm: Today's News from Egypt". Al-Masry Al-Youm. 2011-03-13. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  15. ^ Egypt military calls for media silence on referendum beginning Friday, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  16. ^ Armed Forces form committee to analyze opposition to amendments, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  17. ^ Army to help secure vote on Constitution changes, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  18. ^ 16,000 from judiciary to supervise constitutional referendum, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  19. ^ 2000 judges threaten not to supervise referendum, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  20. ^ Court rules against canceling constitutional referendum, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  21. ^ Source: Church rejects proposed constitutional amendments, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  22. ^ Muslim Brotherhood reformist wing rejects constitutional amendments, Al-Masry Al-Youm
  23. ^ "Religious propaganda, vote-buying flourish in Egypt ahead of vote | Al-Masry Al-Youm: Today's News from Egypt". Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  24. ^ "Egypt’s Government Services Portal - Egypt Constitution - Chapter one: The State". Egypt.gov.eg. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  25. ^ "Constitutional amendment committee: Article II will not be touched | Al-Masry Al-Youm: Today's News from Egypt". Al-Masry Al-Youm. 2011-02-20. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  26. ^ "Gulf Times – Qatar’s top-selling English daily newspaper - Qatar". Gulf-times.com. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  27. ^ "Egyptian Islamists, along with NDP, campaign hard for a "Yes" vote on Constitutional amendments - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". English.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  28. ^ a b c نيفين مسعد مارس 2011 09:54:56 ص بتوقيت القاهرة. "فى خطورة تديين السياسة - نيفين مسعد - مقالات وأعمدة - جريدة الشروق". Shorouknews.com. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  29. ^ "الأخبار - عربي - مجموعة تمنع البرادعي من التصويت". Aljazeera.net. 2006-11-14. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  30. ^ ElBaradei, supporters attacked at polling station, Al-Masry Al-Youm, 19 March 2011.
  31. ^ Large turnout for Egypt's constitutional referendum, BBC News, 19 March 2011.
  32. ^ Salem, Mona. "AFP: Hundreds of Islamists stone Egypt's ElBaradei". Google.com. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  33. ^ Yolande Knell (2011-03-20). "BBC News - Egypt referendum strongly backs constitution changes". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  34. ^ "إستفتاء.مصر - نتيجة الاستفتاء على مستوى المحافظات". Referendum.eg. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Egyptian Revolution of 2011 at Wikimedia Commons

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