|Classification and external resources|
The collagen fibril and EDS. (a) Normal collagen fibrils are of uniform size and spacing. Fibrils from a patient with dermatosparaxis (b) show dramatic alterations in fibril morphology with severe effects on tensile strength of connective tissues. Patients with classical EDS (c) show composite fibrils. Fibrils from a TNX-deficient patient (d) are uniform in size and no composite fibrils are seen. TNX-null (e) fibrils are less densely packed and not as well aligned to neighboring fibrils.
|ICD-10||Q79.6 (ILDS Q82.817)|
Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder with different presentations that have been classified into several primary types. EDS is caused by a defect in the structure, production, or processing of collagen or proteins that interact with collagen, such as mutations in the COL5A or COL3A genes. (This is the collagen of granulation tissue, and is produced quickly by young fibroblasts before the tougher type I collagen is synthesized. Reticular fiber. Also found in artery walls, skin, intestines and the uterus.--COL3A1).
The collagen in connective tissue helps tissues resist deformation. Collagen is an important contributor to the physical strength of skin, joints, muscles, ligaments, blood vessels and visceral organs; abnormal collagen renders these structures more elastic. The severity of the mutation can be life-threatening, but many EDS patients die from other complications caused by the illness. There is no cure, and treatment is supportive, including close monitoring of the digestive, excretory and particularly the cardiovascular systems. Occupational and physical therapy, bracing, and corrective surgery may help with the frequent injuries and pain that tend to develop in certain types of EDS, although extra caution and special practices are advised to prevent permanent damage.
The features of EDS were first described by Hippocrates in 400 BC. The syndrome is named after two physicians, Edvard Ehlers from Denmark, and Henri-Alexandre Danlos from France, who described it at the turn of the 20th century.
In the past, there were 10 recognized types of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification that reduced the number of major types to six and gave them descriptive names. These six major types are listed here. Other types of the condition may exist, but they have been reported only in single families or are not well characterized. Except for hypermobility, some of the specific mutations involved have been identified and they can be precisely identified by genetic testing; this is valuable due to a great deal of variation in individual cases. However, negative genetic test results do not rule out the diagnosis, since not all of the mutations have been discovered; therefore the clinical presentation is very important. Although the following classifications are well defined, it is rare for a case to fit neatly in a single category, and cross-over symptoms lead to under-diagnosis or mis-diagnosis. Therefore, patients should not rely on the "fact" of having a certain type of EDS if cross-over symptoms are evident because of possibly life-threatening symptoms. For example, it is possible for an individual with Classical EDS to exhibit symptoms of Hypermobility or Vascular EDS. In order of prevalence in the population, the classifications are:
|Hypermobility||type 3||Affects 1 in 10,000 to 15,000 and is caused by an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive mechanism. Mutations in either of two separate genes (which are also involved in Vascular EDS and Tenascin-X deficiency EDS, respectively) may lead to this variant. Joint hypermobility is the hallmark of this type, with less severe skin manifestations. Joint instability and chronic musculoskeletal pain are particularly prominent in this type. Patients with the Hypermobility Type experience frequent joint dislocations and subluxations (partial/incomplete dislocations), with or without trauma. As a result, pain is a common, severe, and a lifelong symptom of this type. Additionally, osteoarthritis is common, and many get it earlier in life than expected.||130020||COL3A1, TNXB|
|Classical||types 1 & 2||Affects approximately 1 in 20,000 to 50,000 people. It is caused by autosomal dominant mechanism and affects type-V collagen, as well as type I. Type 1 typically presents with severe skin involvement, and type 2 presents with mild to moderate skin involvement. Patients with the Classical Type may experience the same symptoms as the Hypermobility Type. The main difference between the Hypermobility and Classical Types are the Classical has more skin involvement while the Hypermobility Type has more joint involvement. Those with Classical EDS can also have severe joints issues like those with the Hypermobility Type.||130000, 130010||COL5A1, COL5A2, COL1A1|
|Vascular||type 4||Is an autosomal dominant defect in the type-III collagen synthesis; affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 to 250,000 people. The vascular type is considered one of the more serious forms of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome because blood vessels and organs are fragile and prone to tearing (rupture). Many patients with EDS type 4 express a characteristic facial appearance (large eyes, small chin, sunken cheeks, thin nose and lips, lobeless ears), have a small stature with a slim build, and typically have thin, pale, translucent skin (veins can usually be seen on the chest and abdomen) with very easy bruising and propensity to develop ecchymoses (bruising without trauma). About one in four people with vascular type EDS develop a significant health problem by age 20 and more than 80 percent develop life-threatening complications by age 40.||130050||COL3A1|
|Kyphoscoliosis||type 6||Is an autosomal recessive defect due to deficiency of an enzyme called lysyl hydroxylase; it is very rare, with fewer than 60 cases reported. The kyphoscoliosis type is characterised by progressive curvature of the spine (scoliosis), fragile eyes, and severe muscle weakness.||225400, 229200||PLOD1|
|Arthrochalasia||types 7A & B||Is also very rare, with about 30 cases reported. It affects type-I collagen. The arthrochalasia type is characterised by very loose joints and dislocations involving both hips. Their joints are much looser than the Hypermobility Type. It could be considered 2+ times worse than someone who has severe joint instability with the Hypermobility Type.||130060||COL1A1, COL1A2|
|Dermatosparaxis||type 7C||Also very rare, with about 10 cases reported. The dermatosparaxis type is characterised by extremely fragile and sagging skin.||225410||ADAMTS2|
Overall, research statistics of EDS show the prevalence as 1 in 2,500 to 1 in 5,000 people. Recent clinical experience suggests that this condition goes under-diagnosed and the condition is more common than these ratios indicate.
Forms of EDS within this category may present with soft, mildly stretchable skin, shortened bones, chronic diarrhea, joint hypermobility and dislocation, bladder rupture, or poor wound healing. Inheritance patterns within this group include X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive. Examples of types of related syndromes other than those above reported in the medical literature include:
- 305200 – Type 5
- 130080 – Type 8 – unspecified gene, locus 12p13
- 225310 – Type 10 – unspecified gene, locus 2q34
- 608763 – Beasley–Cohen type
- 130070 – Progeroid form – B4GALT7
- 606408 – Due to Tenascin-X deficiency – TNXB
- 130090 – Type unspecified
- 601776 – D4ST1-Deficient Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (Adducted Thumb-Clubfoot Syndrome) CHST14
Signs and symptoms
Signs vary widely based on which type of EDS the patient has. In each case, however, the signs are ultimately due to faulty or reduced amounts of collagen. EDS typically affects the joints, skin, and blood vessels. Following is a list of major signs and symptoms.
- Hyper-flexible joints (It is possible to be very flexible or have "double joints", however, this is not the same as EDS.)
- Unstable joints that are prone to:
- Early onset of advanced osteoarthritis
- Chronic degenerative joint disease
- Swan neck deformity of the fingers
- Boutonniere deformity of the fingers
- Tearing of tendons or muscles
- Deformities of the spine, such as: scoliosis (curvature of the spine), kyphosis (a thoracic hump), tethered spinal cord syndrome, occipitoatlantoaxial hypermobility
- Myalgia (muscle pain) and arthralgia (joint pain), which may be severe
- Trendelenburg's sign
- Osgood-Schlatter Disease
- Fragile skin that tears easily
- Easy bruising
- Redundant skin folds
- Molluscoid pseudotumors, especially on pressure points
- Subcutaneous spheroids
- Livedo reticularis
- Arterial rupture
- Valvular heart disease (such as mitral valve prolapse, which creates an increased risk for infective endocarditis during surgery, as well as possibly progressing to a life-threatening degree of severity of the prognosis of mitral valve prolapse)
- Dilation and/or rupture of ascending aorta
- Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
- Raynaud's Phenomenon
Other manifestations or complications:
- Hiatial hernia
- Anal prolapse
- Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)
- Nerve compression disorders (carpal tunnel syndrome, acroparesthesia, neuropathy)
- Insensitivity to local anesthetics.
- Arnold–Chiari malformation (brain disorder)
- Platelet aggregation failure (platelets do not clump together properly)
- Pregnancy complications: increased pain, mild to moderate peripartum bleeding, cervical insufficiency, uterine tearing, or premature rupture of membranes.
- Sleep Apnea
Because it is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in childhood, some instances of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome have been mischaracterized as child abuse. The pain associated with this condition is a serious complication.
As mentioned under "Classification" above, only some variations of Ehlers-Danlos can be positively identified as tied to specific genetic variation (as opposed to epigenetic or environmental factors.)
Mutations in the following genes can cause different subtypes of the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome:
- Fibrous proteins: COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL5A2, and TNXB
- Enzymes: ADAMTS2, PLOD1, B4GALT7, DSE, and D4ST1/CHST14
Mutations in these genes usually alter the structure, production, or processing of collagen or proteins that interact with collagen. Collagen provides structure and strength to connective tissue throughout the body. A defect in collagen can weaken connective tissue in the skin, bones, blood vessels, and organs, resulting in the features of the disorder.
Inheritance patterns depend on the type of Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome. Most forms of the condition are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means only one of the two copies of the gene in question must be altered to cause the disorder. The minority are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene must be altered for a person to be affected by the condition. It can also be an individual (de novo or "sporadic") mutation. Please refer to the summary for each type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome for a discussion of its inheritance pattern.
A diagnosis can be made by an evaluation of medical history and clinical observation. The Brighton criteria are widely used to assess the degree of joint hypermobility. Both DNA and biochemical studies can be used to help identify affected individuals. Diagnostic tests include: collagen gene mutation testing, collagen typing via skin biopsy, echocardiogram, and lysyl hydroxylase or oxidase activity. However, these tests are not able to confirm all cases, especially in instances of an unmapped mutation, and so clinical evaluation by a geneticist remains essential. If there are multiple affected individuals in a family, it may be possible to perform prenatal diagnosis using a DNA information technique known as a linkage study.
There are several disorders that share some characteristics with Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome. For example, in cutis laxa the skin is loose, hanging, and wrinkled. In EDS, the skin can be pulled away from the body but is elastic and returns to normal when let go. In Marfan syndrome, the joints are very mobile and similar cardiovascular complications occur. People with EDS tend to have a "Marfanoid" appearance (e.g. tall, skinny, long arms and legs, "spidery" fingers). However, it is important to note that physical appearance and features in several types of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome also have characteristics including short stature, large eyes, and the appearance of a small mouth and/or chin, due to a small palate. The palate can also have a high arch, causing dental crowding. Blood vessels can sometimes be easily seen through translucent skin, especially on the chest. In the past, Menkes disease, a copper metabolism disorder, was thought to be a form of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. It is not uncommon for patients to be misdiagnosed with Fibromyalgia, bleeding disorders or a variety of other disorders that can mimic EDS symptoms before a correct diagnosis is made. Because of these similar disorders, and complications that can arise from an unmonitored case of EDS, a correct diagnosis is very important. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is worth consideration in diagnosing a patient.
There is no cure for Ehlers Danlos Syndrome. Treatment is palliative. Close monitoring of the cardiovascular system, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and orthopedic instruments (e.g., wheelchairs, bracing, casting) may be helpful. Orthopedic instruments are helpful for the prevention of further joint damage, especially for long distances, although it is advised that individuals not become dependent on them until there are no other options for mobility. One should avoid activities that cause the joint to lock or overextend.
A physician may prescribe casting to stabilize joints. Physicians may refer a patient to an orthotist for orthotic treatment (bracing). Physicians may also consult a physical and/or occupational therapist to help strengthen muscles and to teach people how to properly use and preserve their joints.
There are different types of physiotherapy. Aquatic therapy promotes muscular development and coordination. With manual therapy, the joint will be gently mobilized within the range of motion and/or manipulations. Electrotherapy like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces local musculoskeletal pain. If conservative therapy is not helpful, surgical repair of joints may be necessary at some time. Medication to decrease pain or manage cardiac, digestive, or other related conditions may be prescribed. To decrease bruising and improve wound healing, some patients have responded to ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Special precautions are often taken by medical care workers because of the sheer amount of complications that tend to arise in EDS patients. In Vascular EDS, signs of chest or abdominal pain are to be considered trauma situations.
In general, medical intervention is limited to symptomatic therapy. Prior to pregnancy, patients with EDS should have genetic counseling. Children with EDS should be provided with information about the disorder, so they can understand why contact sports and certain other physically stressful activities should be avoided. Children should be taught early on that demonstrating the unusual positions they can maintain due to loose joints should not be done as this may cause early degeneration of the joints. Patients may find it hard to cope with the drawbacks of the disease. In this case emotional support and behavioral and psychological therapy can be useful. Support groups are found to be immensely helpful for patients dealing with major lifestyle changes and poor health. Family members, teachers and friends should be provided with information about EDS so they can accept and assist the child as necessary. Despite all these different types of conservative therapy, except bracing, results show that conservative therapy is ineffective in contrast to midcarpal instability in normal patients. L. Rombaut showed that in almost 40% of the cases, conservative therapy has a neutral or even a negative outcome. Thereby has to be noted that conservative therapy may be unsuccessful in controlling instability in the longer term.
The instability of joints, leading to (sub)luxations and joint pain, often require surgical intervention in patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Instability of almost all joints can happen, but appear most often in the lower and upper extremities, with the wrist, fingers, shoulder, knee, hip, and ankle being most common.
Common surgical procedures are joint debridement, tendon replacements, capsulorraphy and arthroplasty. Studies have shown that after surgery, degree of stabilization, pain reduction, and patient satisfaction can improve, but surgery does not guarantee an optimal result and both patients and surgeons report being dissatisfied with the results. Consensus is that conservative treatment is more effective than surgery, particularly since patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome have extra risks of surgical complications due to the disease. Three basic surgical problems arise due to EDS: the strength of the tissues is decreased, which makes the tissue less suitable for surgery; the fragilty of the bloodvessels can cause problems during surgery; and wound healing is often delayed or incomplete.
Studies have shown that local anesthetics, arterial catheters and central venous catheters cause a higher risk in haematoma formation in patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Ehlers-Danlos patients also show a resistance to local anaesthetics. Special recommendations for anesthesia in EDS patients are prepared by orphan anesthesia.eu and deal with all aspects of anesthesia for EDS patients. Detailed recommendations for anesthesia and perioperative care of patients with EDS should be used to improve individual patient safety aspects. Surgery with Ehlers-Danlos patients requires careful tissue handling and a longer immobilization afterwards.
The outlook for individuals with EDS depends on the type of EDS with which they have been diagnosed. Symptoms vary in severity, even within one sub-type, and the frequency of complications changes on an individual basis. Some individuals have negligible symptoms while others are severely restricted in their daily life. Extreme joint instability, chronic musculoskeletal pain, degenerative joint disease, frequent injuries, and spinal deformities may limit a person's mobility. Severe spinal deformities may affect breathing. In the case of extreme joint instability, dislocations may result from simple tasks such as rolling over in bed or turning a doorknob. Secondary conditions such as autonomic dysfunction or cardiovascular problems, occurring in any type, can affect prognosis and quality of life. Severe mobility-related disability is seen more often in Hypermobility-type than in Classical-type or Vascular-type.
Although all types are potentially life-threatening, the majority of individuals will have a normal lifespan. However, those with blood vessel fragility have a high risk of fatal complications. Arterial rupture is the most common cause of sudden death in EDS. Spontaneous arterial rupture most often occurs in the second or third decade, but can occur at any time. The median life-expectancy within the population with Vascular EDS is 48 years.
EDS is a lifelong condition. Affected individuals may face social obstacles related to their disease on a daily basis. Some people with EDS have reported living with fears of significant and painful ruptures, their condition worsening, becoming unemployed due to physical and emotional burdens, and social stigmatization in general.
Ehlers–Danlos syndrome is an inherited disorder estimated to occur in about 1 in 5000 births worldwide. Initially, prevalence estimates ranged from 1 in 250,000 to 1 in 500,000 people, but these estimates were soon found to be vastly inaccurate as the disorder received further study and medical professionals became more adept at accurately diagnosing EDS. In fact, many experts now believe that Ehlers–Danlos syndrome may be far more common than the currently accepted estimate due to the wide range of severities in which the disorder presents. However, the prevalence of the six types differs dramatically. The most commonly occurring type is the hypermobility type, followed by the classical type. The other types of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome are very rare. For example, fewer than 10 infants and children with the dermatosparaxis type have been described worldwide. Ehlers–Danlos affects both males and females of all racial and ethnic backgrounds, although some types are more common among certain groups than others.
Society and culture
- In the 19th century, there were several sideshow performers billed variously as The Elastic Skin Man, The India Rubber Man and Frog Boy. They included such well known individuals (in their time) as Felix Wehrle, James Morris and Avery Childs.
- Several current celebrities have EDS:
- Actress Cherylee Houston has type 3 EDS and uses a wheelchair; she made history by becoming Coronation Street's first full-time disabled actress.
- The condition may have contributed to the virtuoso violinist Niccolò Paganini's skill as he was able to play wider fingerings than the normal violinist.
- Eric the Midget, a member of Howard Stern's Wack Pack has Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Type VII.
- Adult film star Mandy Morbid has discussed the impact EDS has on her mobility and her life.
- Rei Haycraft, lead singer for the hard rock band, Raimee, artist, and illustrator. Haycraft has created songs and a documentary about living with Ehlers-Danlos, as well as written songs about its impact on her life.
- The condition is mentioned in the song "Dorsal Horn Concerto" by the British comedy band the Amateur Transplants.
- The condition has been mentioned in many television shows, including:
- CSI New York in the first season episode, "Blood, Sweat and Tears."
- FOX series Bones in the season 4 episode "The Perfect Pieces in the Purple Pond."
- House in the episodes "House's Head" (Season 4, Episode 15) and "The Dig (House)" (Season 7, Episode 18).
- The Law & Order episode "Dignity" (Season 20, Episode 5). In the episode, a third-trimester fetus is diagnosed with the condition and is slated for abortion; shortly later, the doctor who is due to perform the abortion is murdered in church.
- USA Network series Royal Pains episode "After the Fireworks" (Season 4, Episode 1).
- The subject of the Season 7 premiere of the A&E series Intervention, Linda, claims to have EDS.
- "The Doctors" Cirque Du Soleil's "O" episode. In this episode, the doctors discuss flexibility and EDS.
In other animals
Ehlers–Danlos-like syndromes have been shown to be hereditary in Himalayan cats, some domestic shorthair cats, and in certain breeds of cattle. It is seen as a sporadic condition in domestic dogs. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) is a similar condition seen in many breeds of horses. Though it was originally notated in the Peruvian Paso and thought to be a condition of overwork and older age, the disease is being recognized in all age groups and all activity levels. It has even been noted in newborn foals. The latest research has led to the renaming of the disease as Equine Systemic Proteoglycan Accumulation, after the possible systemic and hereditary components now being delineated by the University of Georgia.
- Abdominal aortic aneurism
- Arnold-Chiari malformation
- Joint dislocation
- Dural ectasia
- Gorlin sign
- Marfan syndrome
- mitral valve prolapse
- Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
- Tethered spinal cord syndrome
- Tricuspid regurgitation
- Wrinkly skin syndrome
- "EDS Tips for Surgery". Arthritisinsight.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- "Uncovered: How U.S. Health System Can Fail Even the Insured – A Woman Endures 16-Month Odyssey To Get a Diagnosis", John Carreyrou, Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2007
- Byers PH, Murray ML (2012). "Heritable collagen disorders: the paradigm of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". Journal of Investigative Dermatology 15 (132): E6–11. doi:10.1038/skinbio.2012.3. PMID 23154631.
- Beighton P, De Paepe A, Steinmann B, Tsipouras P, Wenstrup RJ (1998). "Ehlers–Danlos syndromes: revised nosology, Villefranche, 1997. Ehlers–Danlos National Foundation (USA) and Ehlers–Danlos Support Group (UK)". American Journal of Medical Genetics 77 (1): 31–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19980428)77:1<31::AID-AJMG8>3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 9557891.
- Levy, Howard (2004). “The Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type.” University of Washington: NIH. Retrieved from http://newtons-online.net/documents/EDS%20b.pdf
- "What is EDS". ednf.org. EDNF. Retrieved 2014-06-13.
- Lawrence EJ (2005). "The clinical presentation of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome". Adv Neonatal Care 5 (6): 301–14. doi:10.1016/j.adnc.2005.09.006. PMID 16338669.
- "Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Erçöçen AR, Yenidünya MO, Yilmaz S, Ozbek MR (1997). "Dynamic swan neck deformity in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". J Hand Surg Br 22 (1): 128–30. doi:10.1016/S0266-7681(97)80039-3. PMID 9061548.
- "Vascular Type-EDS". Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Network C.A.R.E.S. Inc.
- Milhorat TH, Bolognese PA, Nishikawa M, McDonnell NB, Francomano CA (December 2007). "Syndrome of occipitoatlantoaxial hypermobility, cranial settling, and chiari malformation type I in patients with hereditary disorders of connective tissue". Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine 7 (6): 601–9. doi:10.3171/SPI-07/12/601. PMID 18074684.
- Gedalia A, Press J, Klein M, Buskila D (1993). "Joint hypermobility and fibromyalgia in schoolchildren". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 52 (7): 494–6. doi:10.1136/ard.52.7.494. PMC 1005086. PMID 8346976.
- Dommerholt, Jan. "CSF Ehlers Danlos Colloquium, Dr Jan Dommerholt". Chiari & Syringomyelia Foundation. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Vigorita, Vincent J; Mintz, Douglas & Ghelman, Bernard (2008). Orthopaedic pathology (2nd ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. pp. 5–6. ISBN 0781796709.
- "Classical Type-EDS". Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Network C.A.R.E.S Inc.
- Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type. 1993. PMID 20301456.
- Wenstrup et al., R.J (2001). The Ehlers–Danlos Syndromes: Management of Genetic Syndromes. pp. 131–149.
- "Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: Definition from". Answers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Arendt-Nielsen, Lars. "Patients Suffering from Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Type III Do Not Respond to Local Anesthetics".
- Neurosurgery spine
- "Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Nlm.nih.gov. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Lind J, Wallenburg HC (April 2002). "Pregnancy and the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a retrospective study in a Dutch population". Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 81 (4): 293–300. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0412.2002.810403.x. PMID 11952457.
- Guilleminault C, Primeau M, Chiu HY, Yuen KM, Leger D, Metlaine A (2013). "Sleep-disordered breathing in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a genetic model of OSA". Chest 144 (5): 1503–11. doi:10.1378/chest.13-0174. PMID 23929538.
- The Press Enterprise, Redlands mother stung by untrue suspicions presses for accountability in child abuse inquiries, 2008-04-03
- "Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome". Rarediseases.about.com. 2006-05-25. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Rombaut L, Malfait F, De Wandele I, Cools A, Thijs Y, De Paepe A, Calders P (July 2011). "Medication, Surgery, and Physiotherapy Among Patients With the Hypermobility Type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome". Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 92 (7): 1106–1112. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.016. PMID 21636074.
- Rombaut L, Malfait F, De Wandele I, Cools A, Thijs Y, De Paepe A, Calders P (2011). "Medication, surgery, and physiotherapy among patients with the hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". Arch Phys Med Rehabil 92 (7): 1106–12. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.016. PMID 21636074.
- Woerdeman LA, Ritt MJ, Meijer B, Maas M, (2000). "Wrist problems in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". European Journal of Plastic Surgery 23 (4): 208–210. doi:10.1007/s002380050252.
- Callewaert B, Malfait F, Loeys B, De Paepe A (March 2008). "Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and Marfan syndrome". Best practice & research. Clinical Rheumatology 22 (1): 165–189. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2007.12.005. PMID 18328988.
- "Medscape: Medscape Access". Emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Ono H, Gilula LA, Evanoff BA, Grand D (April 1996). "Midcarpal instability: is capitolunate instability pattern an clinical condition?". Journal of Hand Surgery (Br) 21 (2): 197–201. doi:10.1016/S0266-7681(96)80096-9. PMID 8732399.
- Parapia LA, Jackson C (April 2008). "Ehlers-Danlos syndrome – a historical review". British Journal of Haematology 141 (1): 132–35. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.06994.x. PMID 18324963.
- "Downloads | Ehlers–Danlos syndrome | Published Guidelines | Rare Diseases | OrphanAnesthesia". Orphananesthesia.eu. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- "Clinical and Genetic Features of Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Type IV, the Vascular Type". The New England Journal of Medicine.
- "Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Epidemiology". Medscape.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Michael Mitchell, Monsters of the Gilded Age: The photographs of Charles Eisenmann, Toronto: Gage, 1979, p. 99, 100.
- "Houston hits out at "preconceived ideas" - Coronation Street News - Soaps". Digital Spy. 2010-05-22. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Yücel D (January 1995). "Was Paganini born with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome phenotype 4 or 3?". Clin Chem 41 (1): 124–5. PMID 7813066.
- Kimberly Kane, "Zak Loves Mandy, And They'll Keep Making Art and Porn Until One of Them Dies", Vice, Oct 16 2012
- "But You Don't Look Sick: Living With Chronic Pain (Ehlers Danlos Syndrome)". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Video on YouTube
- "Intervention – Episode Guide". www.aetv.com. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- Halper et al. “Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis as a systemic disorder characterized by proteoglycan accumulation”. Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 2006
- Halper et al. “Glycan profiling of a defect in decorin glycosylation in equine systemic proteoglycan accumulation, a potential model of progeroid form of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome”. Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 2010
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.|
- Ehlers–Danlos syndrome at DMOZ
- Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome, Classic Type. Includes: Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Type I, Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Type II
- University of Washington Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Multi-page explanation of EDS, including symptoms, genetics, diagnosis, and treatment
- National Institute of Health on Hypermobility EDS
- GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Type IV
- eds at NIH/UW GeneTests
- Ehlers–Danlos National Foundation
- Hypermobile – A blog about Ehlers Danlos Syndrome The lack of clinical distinction between the hypermobility type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and the joint hypermobility syndrome (a.k.a. hypermobility syndrome)
- Management of pain and fatigue in the joint hypermobility syndrome (a.k.a. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type): principles and proposal for a multidisciplinary approach
- Anesthesia for EDS patients - Guidelines at orphananesthesia.eu