Ehmetjan Qasim

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Ehmetjan Qasimi
Ахмаджан Касыми1.jpg
Vice Chairman of the Xinjiang Provincial Coalition Government
In office
12 June 1946 – 27 August 1949
Personal details
Born 15 April 1914
Yining, Xinjiang, China
Died 27 August 1949
Soviet Union
Profession Politician
Ehmetjan Qasim
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 阿合買提江·哈斯木
Simplified Chinese 阿合买提江·哈斯木
Uyghur name
Uyghur
ئەخمەتجان قاسىمى

Ehmetjan Qasimi (15 April 1914–27 August 1949[1]) was a Uyghur political leader in Xinjiang province of the Republic of China.

Life and Political Career[edit]

Ehmetjan was born in Ghulzha (Yining in Chinese) in 1914. He studied at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East, Moscow in 1936 and was a member of Communist Party of Soviet Union. Ehmetjan was described as "Stalin's man" and as a "communist-minded progressive".[2] Qasim Russified his surname to "Kasimov" and became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

He was a member of the governing council of the Second East Turkestan Republic, a Soviet-backed administration founded in three northwestern districts of Xinjiang during the Ili Rebellion in November 1944.[3] Qasimi himself was not involved with the planning of the rebellion.[4] The Second ETR was initially led by Elihan Tore, who favored forming a conservative Islamic government.[5] Tore disappeared in the Soviet Union in 1946. Qasimi was a leader of the pro-Soviet Sinkiang Turkic People's National Liberation Committee (STPNLC).[5]

In June 1946, Qasimi reached a political agreement with the Nationalist Chinese leader Zhang Zhizhong to form a coalition provincial government in Dihua (present day Urumqi).[6] The Second ETR was disbanded in name but the three districts retained autonomy.[5] As a vice-chairman of the coalition government, Qasimi called for unity and support for the government.[7] He explained that the people of Ili had risen in rebellion only to secure their rights under the Chinese constitution.[8] He was a member of Xinjiang's delegation to the National Assembly in Nanjing.[8]

In the summer of 1949, as Chinese Nationalists were losing the civil war to the Chinese Communists, the Soviet Union planned for ETR leaders to switch sides. On August 22, 1949, Vasiliy Borisov, the Soviet Vice-Consul at Yining, accompanied ETR leadership in auto trip to USSR for urgent talks with Soviet officials about future of ETR, where they were told to cooperate with Communist Party of China. They were invited by Chinese Communist leader, Mao Zedong to attend the First Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Beijing to prepare for the founding of the People's Republic of China. On August 24, 1949 Ehmetjan, Abdulkerim Abbas, Ishaq Beg Munonov, Dalelkhan Sugirbayev, Luo Zhi and other top ETR representatives (11 men in all) boarded a plane in Almaty, the capital of the Kazakh SSR, for Beijing. On September 3, the Soviet Union informed Saifuddin Azizi, another leader of the ETR, who was not on the flight that the plane had crashed near Lake Baikal en route to Beijing, killing all on board.[9]

Saifuddin and two other ETR leaders then traveled to Beijing by train where they agreed to incorporate the Three Districts into the newly founded People's Republic of China and accept important positions within the administration. News of plane crash and death of Ehmetjan was not publicly announced in Xinjiang until early December, after the People's Liberation Army had secured the region.

Family[edit]

Ehmetjan Qasimi was married in January 1945 to Mahinur Qasim (Maynor Kasim; 玛依努尔•哈斯木), a native of Korgas County in Ili.[10] The couple had a son and a daughter.[10] In 1952, Mahinur Qasim became the mayor of Yining and joined the Chinese Communist Party.[10] She later served as a member of Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and a vice chair of the All-China Women's Federation.[11] She has been a prominent advocate of women and children's rights.[12] Her memoir of her husband, Remembering Ehmetijan, was published in China in 2011.[10]

Legacy[edit]

In the People's Republic of China, Ehmetjan Qasimi is remembered as a martyr and hero in the struggle against the Nationalist regime.[13] His remains were returned to China in April 1950 and later reburied in a martyr’s memorial cemetery in Yining.[13] The cemetery has a stele with calligraphy by Mao Zedong, praising Qasimi and his fellow martyrs for their contributions to the Chinese people’s revolution and mourning their death en route to the Inaugural Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Beijing.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ also transliterated as Ehmetjan Qasimi, Exmetjan Qasimi, Ahmetjan Khasim, Ahmet Jan Kasimi, Aḥmadjān Qāsim, or Ahmetcan Kasim
  2. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 174
  3. ^ Benson 1990:138
  4. ^ Benson 1990:140
  5. ^ a b c Mark Dickens, "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911-1949" Last Accessed 2010-11-14
  6. ^ Benson 1990:63, 70
  7. ^ Benson 1990:84, 101
  8. ^ a b Benson 1990:86
  9. ^ Donald H. McMillen, Chinese Communist Power and Policy in Xinjiang, 1949-1977 (Boulder, Colorado:Westview Press, 1979), p. 30
  10. ^ a b c d (Chinese) 回忆阿合买提江(上下)
  11. ^ (Chinese) 第七届全国妇联领导机构主要成员
  12. ^ (Chinese) 自治区领导会见玛依努尔·哈斯木祝贺她荣获中国内藤国际育儿奖 2002-12-18
  13. ^ a b c (Chinese) "三区革命烈士陵园(三区革命历史纪念馆):伊宁市" 人民网 2008-10-18

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
none
Co-Vice Chairman of the Xinjiang Provincial Coalition Government (along with Burhan Shahidi, and then Abdul Kerim Han Maksum)
1946–1949
Succeeded by
none