Eight Miles High
|"Eight Miles High"|
1966 U.S. picture sleeve
|Single by The Byrds|
|from the album Fifth Dimension|
|Released||March 14, 1966|
|Recorded||January 24 and January 25, 1966, Columbia Studios, Hollywood, CA|
|Genre||Psychedelic rock, raga rock, psychedelic pop|
|Writer(s)||Gene Clark, Jim McGuinn, David Crosby|
|The Byrds singles chronology|
"Eight Miles High" is a song by the American rock band The Byrds, written by Gene Clark, Jim McGuinn (a.k.a. Roger McGuinn), and David Crosby and first released as a single on March 14, 1966 (see 1966 in music). The single reached the Top 20 of the Billboard Hot 100 and the Top 30 of the UK Singles Chart. The song was also included on the band's third album, Fifth Dimension, released on July 18, 1966. "Eight Miles High" became The Byrds' third and final U.S. Top 20 hit, and was also their last release before the departure of Gene Clark, who was the band's principal songwriter at the time.
The song was subject to a U.S. radio ban shortly after its release, following allegations published in the broadcasting trade journal the Gavin Report regarding perceived drug connotations in its lyrics. The band strenuously denied these allegations at the time, but in later years both Clark and Crosby admitted that the song was at least partly inspired by their own drug use. The failure of "Eight Miles High" to reach the Billboard Top 10 is usually attributed to the broadcasting ban, but some commentators have suggested that the song's complexity and uncommercial nature were greater factors.
Musically influenced by Ravi Shankar and John Coltrane, "Eight Miles High", along with its McGuinn and Crosby-penned B-side "Why", was influential in developing the musical styles of psychedelic rock, raga rock and psychedelic pop. As such, the song is often cited by critics as being the first psychedelic rock song, as well as a classic of the counterculture era.
The song's lyrics are, for the most part, about the group's flight to London in August 1965 and their accompanying English tour, as illustrated by the opening couplet: "Eight miles high and when you touch down, you'll find that it's stranger than known." Although commercial airliners fly at an altitude of six to seven miles, it was felt that "eight miles high" sounded more poetic than six and also recalled the title of The Beatles' song "Eight Days a Week".
According to Clark, the lyrics were primarily his creation, with a minor contribution being David Crosby's line, "Rain grey town, known for its sound", a reference to London being home to the British Invasion that was dominating the U.S. charts at the time. Other lyrics found in the song that explicitly refer to The Byrds' stay in England include the couplet: "Nowhere is there warmth to be found/Among those afraid of losing their ground", which is a reference to the hostile reaction of the UK music press and to the English group The Birds serving the band with a copyright infringement writ, due to the similarities in name. In addition, "Round the squares, huddled in storms/Some laughing, some just shapeless forms" describes the fans who waited for the band outside their hotels, while the line "Sidewalk scenes and black limousines" refers to the excited crowds that jostled the band as they exited their chauffeur driven cars.
Although the basic idea for the song had been discussed during the band's flight to England, it didn't actually begin to take shape until The Byrds' November 1965 tour of the U.S. In order to alleviate the boredom of travelling from show to show during the tour, Crosby had brought along cassette recordings of Ravi Shankar's music and the John Coltrane albums Impressions and Africa/Brass, which were on constant rotation on the tour bus. The influence of these recordings on the band would manifest itself in the music of "Eight Miles High" and its B-side "Why".
Clark began writing the song's lyrics on November 24, 1965, when he scribbled down some rough ideas for later development, following a discussion with guitarist Brian Jones, prior to The Byrds making a concert appearance supporting The Rolling Stones. Over the following days, Clark expanded this fragment into a full poem, eventually setting the words to music and giving them a melody. Clark then showed the song to McGuinn and Crosby, with the former suggesting that the song be arranged to incorporate the influence of Coltrane. Since Clark's death, however, McGuinn has contended that it was he who conceived the initial idea of writing a song about an airplane ride and that he and Crosby both contributed lyrics to Clark's unfinished draft. In his book, Mr. Tambourine Man: The Life and Legacy of The Byrds' Gene Clark, author John Einarson disputes this claim and ponders whether McGuinn's story would be the same were Clark still alive.
An excerpt from the intro of "Eight Miles High", demonstrating the John Coltrane-influenced, free form guitar playing of Roger McGuinn and the droning quality of the song's vocals.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The master recording of "Eight Miles High" was recorded on January 24 and 25, 1966, at Columbia Studios in Hollywood, with record producer Allen Stanton guiding the band through the recording process. John Einarson has noted that the influence of Coltrane's saxophone playing and, in particular, his song "India" from the Impressions album, can be clearly heard in "Eight Miles High"—most noticeably in McGuinn's reoccurring twelve-string guitar solo. In addition to this striking guitar motif, the song is also highlighted by Chris Hillman's driving and hypnotic bass line, Crosby's chunky rhythm guitar playing and the band's ethereal harmonies.
"Eight Miles High" also exhibits the influence of sitarist Ravi Shankar, particularly in the droning quality of the song's vocal melody and in McGuinn's guitar playing. However, the song does not actually feature the sound of the sitar, despite The Byrds having appeared brandishing the instrument at a contemporary press conference held to promote the single. In a 1966 promotional interview, which was added to the expanded CD reissue of the Fifth Dimension album, Crosby said that the song's ending made him "feel like a plane landing."
An earlier version of "Eight Miles High" was recorded at RCA Studios in Los Angeles on December 22, 1965, but Columbia Records refused to release that recording because it had not been produced at a Columbia-owned studio. McGuinn has since stated that he believes this original version of the song to be more spontaneous sounding than the better known Columbia release. That opinion was echoed by Crosby, who commented "It was a stunner, it was better, it was stronger. It had more flow to it. It was the way we wanted it to be." This original version of "Eight Miles High" initially saw release on the 1987 archival album Never Before and was also included as a bonus track on the 1996 Columbia/Legacy CD reissue of Fifth Dimension.
Release and legacy
U.S. radio ban
"Eight Miles High" was released on March 14, 1966 in the U.S. and May 29, 1966 in the UK, reaching number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100, and number 24 on the UK Singles Chart. Following its release, the band faced allegations of advocating the use of recreational drugs from Bill Gavin's Record Report, a weekly newsletter circulated to U.S. radio stations. This resulted in "Eight Miles High" being banned in a number of states within a week of the report being published, a factor which contributed to the single's failure to break into the Billboard Top 10. The Byrds and their publicist, Derek Taylor, countered by strenuously denying that the song was drug-related, with Taylor issuing an indignant press release unequivocally stating that the song was about the band's trip to England and not drug use. However, by the early 1980s, both Crosby and Clark were prepared to admit that the song was not entirely as innocent as they had originally declared, with the former stating "Of course it was a drug song! We were stoned when we wrote it." Clark was less blunt, explaining in interview that "it was about a lot of things. It was about the airplane trip to England, it was about drugs, it was about all that. A piece of poetry of that nature is not limited to having it have to be just about airplanes or having it have to be just about drugs. It was inclusive because during those days the new experimenting with all the drugs was a very vogue thing to do."
Research analyst Mark Teehan, writing for Popular Musicology Online, has challenged the widely held view among critics, music historians and The Byrds themselves that the U.S. radio ban hurt sales of "Eight Miles High". Having examined the local music surveys and the Billboard regional retail sales charts, as they relate to the national charting of "Eight Miles High", Teehan has uncovered evidence suggesting that the progressive and uncommercial nature of the song was a much bigger factor in its failure to reach the Billboard Top 10. The author's research revealed that "Eight Miles High" failed to reach the Top Five in any of his sample of 23 regional markets, and most telling, among the thirty radio stations included within this sample, it reached the Top 10 on only seven of them (23%).
Teehan also points out that although the Gavin Report recommended that radio stations withdraw the single from airplay, many stations did not comply with this request. In addition, Teehan notes that the radio ban was not suggested by the Gavin Report until April 29, 1966, almost seven weeks after the single had initially been released—ample time for it to have made its mark on the charts. Teehan has also uncovered evidence showing that "Eight Miles High" was already decelerating on the national charts prior to the end of April 1966. The author concludes that the groundbreaking song lacked strong commercial appeal by virtue of its complexity, unique sound and excessive length (commercial radio stations were reluctant to play songs that were over two-and-a-half minutes long during the mid-1960s), and that it also suffered from uncoordinated and inefficient promotion by Columbia Records.
Influence and reception
The song's use of Indian and free-form jazz influences, along with its impressionistic lyrics, were immediately influential on the emerging genre of psychedelic rock. As such, a number of authors and music historians, including Eric V. D. Luft, Domenic Priore and Dwight Rounds, have described "Eight Miles High" as being the first bona fide psychedelic rock song. In his book Riot On Sunset Strip: Rock 'n' Roll's Last Stand in Hollywood, Priore also cites "Eight Miles High" as being the record that kicked off the psychedelic craze, explaining "prior to 'Eight Miles High,' there were no pop records with incessant, hypnotic basslines juxtaposed by droning, trance-induced improvisational guitar."
The song was also responsible for the naming of the musical subgenre raga rock, when journalist Sally Kempton, in her review of the single for The Village Voice, first used the term to describe the record's experimental fusion of eastern and western music. However, although Kempton was the first person to use the term "raga rock" in print, she had actually borrowed the phrase from the promotional material that The Byrds' press office had supplied to accompany the "Eight Miles High" single release. In a 1968 interview for the Pop Chronicles radio documentary, McGuinn denied that the song was in fact an example of "raga rock", while Crosby, speaking in 1998, dismissed the term entirely, stating "they kept trying to label us; every time we turned around, they came up with a new one ... it's a bunch of bullshit." Nonetheless, the experimental nature of the song placed The Byrds firmly at the forefront of the burgeoning psychedelic movement, along with The Yardbirds, The Beatles, Donovan and The Rolling Stones, who were all exploring similar musical territory concurrently.
Contemporary reviews for the single were mostly positive, with Billboard magazine describing the song as a "Big beat rhythm rocker with soft lyric ballad vocal and off-beat instrumental backing." Record World magazine also praised the song, commenting "It's an eerie tune with lyrics bound to hypnotize. Will climb heights." In the UK, Music Echo described the song as "wild and oriental but still beaty". The publication also suggested that with the release of "Eight Miles High" The Byrds had jumped ahead of The Beatles in terms of creativity, stating "[By] getting their single out now they've beaten The Beatles to the punch, for Paul [McCartney] admitted recently that the Liverpool foursome are working on a similar sound for their new album and single." In recent years, Richie Unterberger, writing for the Allmusic website, has described "Eight Miles High" as "one of the greatest singles of the '60s."
In 1999, the song was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, an honor reserved for "recordings of lasting qualitative or historical significance that are at least 25 years old." In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked "Eight Miles High" at number 151 on their list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time and in March 2005, Q magazine placed the song at number 50 on their list of the 100 Greatest Guitar Tracks.
During the same month that "Eight Miles High" was released as a single, The Byrds' main songwriter, Gene Clark, left the band. His fear of flying was stated as the official reason for his departure, although other contributing factors, including his tendency towards anxiety and paranoia, as well as his increasing isolation within the group, were also at work. Following the release of "Eight Miles High" and Clark's departure, The Byrds never again managed to place a single in the Billboard Top 20.
The Byrds performed "Eight Miles High" on a number of television programs during the 1960s and 1970s, including Popside, Drop In, Midweek, and Beat-Club. Additionally, the song would go on to become a staple of the band's live concert repertoire, until their final disbandment in 1973. A sixteen-minute live version of "Eight Miles High" was included on the Byrds' (Untitled) album in 1970 and another live version was released as part of the 2008 album, Live at Royal Albert Hall 1971. The song was also performed live by a reformed line-up of The Byrds featuring Roger McGuinn, David Crosby and Chris Hillman in January 1989.
The song would remain a favorite of Clark's during his post-Byrds solo career and would often be performed live at his concert appearances until his death in 1991. McGuinn also continues to perform an intricate acoustic guitar rendition of the song in his live concerts. Crosby has revisited "Eight Miles High" infrequently during his post-Byrds career, but it was performed during Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young's reunion tour of 2000, with Neil Young handling McGuinn's complex guitar solo, while the other three members sang the song's three-part harmonies. Additionally, The Byrds' bass player, Chris Hillman, recorded an acoustic version of "Eight Miles High" as part of his 2005 album, The Other Side.
In addition to its appearance on the Fifth Dimension album, "Eight Miles High" also appears on several Byrds' compilations, including The Byrds' Greatest Hits, History of The Byrds, The Original Singles: 1965–1967, Volume 1, The Byrds, The Very Best of The Byrds, The Essential Byrds and There Is a Season.
Cover versions and media references
"Eight Miles High" has been covered by many different bands and artists, including, The Ventures, Leathercoated Minds, Lighthouse, Leo Kottke, Roxy Music, Ride, Stewart/Gaskin, Robyn Hitchcock, Rockfour, Les Fradkin, and The Postmarks. In addition, Hüsker Dü released the song as a single prior to the release of their Zen Arcade LP in 1984. The song was also covered in 1969 by Golden Earring, who put a nineteen-minute version on their Eight Miles High album. The Emerson, Lake & Palmer spinoff group 3 recorded the song with revised lyrics on their 1988 album, To the Power of Three. Crowded House have also covered the song with ex-Byrd Roger McGuinn, on their I Feel Possessed EP.
Don McLean's song "American Pie" makes reference to "Eight Miles High" with the lines "The Birds [sic] flew off with a fall-out shelter/Eight miles high and falling fast." The First Edition's 1968 hit, "Just Dropped In (To See What Condition My Condition Was In)", contains a reference to the song with the line "I tripped on a cloud and fell a-eight miles high." The independent rock band Okkervil River also reference "Eight Miles High" in their song "Plus Ones", from the 2007 album The Stage Names. Bruce Springsteen's song "Life Itself", from his 2009 album Working on a Dream, features guitar playing and production techniques reminiscent of "Eight Miles High" by The Byrds.
The Byrds' version of "Eight Miles High" was featured in the 1983 film Purple Haze. It also appears in both the "Le Voyage dans la Lune" and "The Original Wives Club" episodes of the television miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 541–544. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
- Whitburn, Joel. (2008). Top Pop Singles 1955–2006. Record Research Inc. p. 130. ISBN 0-89820-172-1.
- Brown, Tony. (2000). The Complete Book of the British Charts. Omnibus Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-7119-7670-8.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Fifth Dimension album review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Einarson, John. (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man: The Life and Legacy of The Byrds' Gene Clark. Backbeat Books. pp. 82–86. ISBN 0-87930-793-5.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 158–163. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 152–157. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
- Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 1-906002-15-0.
- Teehan, Mark. "The Byrds, "Eight Miles High", the Gavin Report, and Media Censorship of Alleged 'Drug Songs' in 1966: An Assessment". Popular Musicology Online. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "Pop Chronicles: Show 35 – The Rubberization of Soul: The Great Pop Renaissance". University of North Texas. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- Bellman, Jonathan. (1997). The Exotic In Western Music. Northeastern Publishing. p. 351. ISBN 1-55553-319-1.
- "Song Stories: Eight Miles High". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- Perrone, James E. (2004). Music of the Counterculture Era. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 113–114. ISBN 0-313326-89-4.
- McGuinn, Camilla. "Eight Miles High". Roger McGuinn's Official Blog. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- Fitzsimmons, Mick. "Sold on Song: Eight Miles High". BBC. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. p. 95. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. p. 141. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
- Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. p. 75. ISBN 1-906002-15-0.
- Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. p. 72. ISBN 1-906002-15-0.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. p. 620. ISBN 978-0-9529540-1-9.
- Priore, Domenic. (2007). Riot On Sunset Strip: Rock 'n' Roll's Last Stand in Hollywood. Jawbone Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-906002-04-6.
- Eder, Bruce. "Eight Miles High". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- Lavezzoli, Peter. (2007). The Dawn of Indian music in the West. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 155–157. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.
- Crosby, David. (1990). Long Time Gone: The Autobiography of David Crosby. Mandarin Paperbacks. p. 99. ISBN 0-7493-0283-6.
- Connors, Tim. "Fifth Dimension". Byrdwatcher: A Field Guide to the Byrds of Los Angeles. Euclid Business Network. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1996). Fifth Dimension (1996 CD liner notes).
- Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. pp. 84–87. ISBN 1-906002-15-0.
- "Psychedelic/Garage Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
- Luft, Eric V. D. (2009). Die at the Right Time!: A Subjective Cultural History of the American Sixties. Gegenstaz Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-9655179-2-8.
- Priore, Domenic (200). SMiLE: The Story of Brian Wilson's Lost Masterpiece. Sanctuary. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-86074-627-7.
- Rounds, Dwight (2007). The Year the Music Died: 1964-1972: A Commentary on the Best Era of Pop. Bridgeway Books. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-933538-69-3.
- Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. p. 88. ISBN 1-906002-15-0.
- Connors, Tim. "The Byrdwatcher Interview with David Crosby: Part Five". Euclid Business Network Incorporated. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- "GRAMMY Hall of Fame: Past Recipients". GRAMMY.org. The Recording Academy. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- "The 500 Greatest Songs Of All Time". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
- "100 Greatest Guitar Tracks". Rockandrollreport.com. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- Einarson, John. (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man: The Life and Legacy of The Byrds' Gene Clark. Backbeat Books. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-87930-793-5.
- Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 591–617. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
- Eder, Bruce. "(Untitled) album review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- Leggett, Steve. "Live at Royal Albert Hall 1971 album review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- Landers, Rick. "Roger McGuinn Interview". Modern Guitars Magazine. Rick Landers. Retrieved 2009-11-24.
- Deming, Mark. "The Other Side album review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- "Eight Miles High album appearances". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-11-27.
- "Eight Miles High cover versions". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
- "Hüsker Dü – Commercial Releases". Hüsker Dü Annotated Discography. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- "Golden Earring – Eight Miles High album review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- Ankeny, Jason. "To the Power of Three album review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- All Music Guide. "I Feel Possessed EP review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- "Don McLean's American Pie – Official Lyrics". Don McLean Online. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- Fontenot, Robert. "American Pie: What's the meaning of Verse 4". About.com. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- Monger, James Christopher. "The Stage Names album review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- Stephen, M. Deusner. "Working on a Dream album review". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- "Working on a Dream album review". Uncut. IPC Media. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
- "Purple Haze: Soundtrack". Internet Movie Database. Amazon.com. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- "From the Earth to the Moon – Le Voyage dans la Lune soundtrack". Internet Movie Database. Amazon.com. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- "From the Earth to the Moon – The Original Wives Club soundtrack". Internet Movie Database. Amazon.com. Retrieved 2010-05-18.