Eighth Army (Ottoman Empire)

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Eighth Army
Active 1917 – November 13, 1918[1]
Country Ottoman Empire
Type Field Army
Patron Sultans of the Ottoman Empire
Engagements Sinai and Palestine Campaign (World War I)
Battle of Megiddo
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Friedrich Kress von Kressenstein (October 2 – December 2, 1917)
Cevat Pasha (December 2, 1917 – November 3, 1918[2])

The Eighth Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Sekizinci Ordu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army. It was established during World War I.

World War I[edit]

In June 1917, Enver Pasa activated the Yildirim Army Group (also known as Thunderbolt Army Group) commanded by the German General Erich von Falkenhayn, and reinforced it with surplus Ottoman units transferred from Galicia, Romania, and Thrace.[3]

Following the formation of the Yildirim Army Group substantial forces were deployed to Syria and Palestine, where they continued to hold the Fourth Army defenses. Already in Palestine were the 3rd, 7th, 16th, and 54th Infantry Divisions while the 26th 27th, and 53rd Infantry Divisions arrived during the summer. The 3rd, 7th 16th, and 26th Infantry Divisions had fought in the Gallipoli campaign and the 3rd Cavalry Division had fought in the Caucasian Campaigns.[4][5]

On 2 October 1917, he activated the new Eighth Army, commanded by Kress von Kressenstein, and deployed it along with the Seventh Army, commanded by Mustafa Kemal to the Yildirim Army Group.[6] Seven infantry division and one cavalry division already serving in the region, formed the recently activated Ottoman Eighth Army. They were the 3rd, 7th, 16th, 26th, 27th, 53rd and 54th Infantry Divisions and the 3rd Cavalry Division.[4][5]

Order of Battle, January 1918[edit]

In January 1918, the army was structured as follows:[6]

Order of Battle, September 1918[edit]

In September 1918, the army was structured as follows:[7]

After Mudros[edit]

Order of Battle, November 1918[edit]

In November 1918, the army was structured as follows:[8]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918-1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 30. (Turkish)
  2. ^ T.C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, Genkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, Ankara, 1972, p. 23. (Turkish)
  3. ^ Erickson Ordered to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0–313–31516–7, pp. 159, 171, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: a comparative study Routledge Press, 2007, ISBN 978–0–203–96456–9 p. 115
  4. ^ a b Erickson Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: a comparative study Routledge Press, 2007, ISBN 978–0–203–96456–9 p. 102
  5. ^ a b Erickson Ordered to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0–313–31516–7, p. 172
  6. ^ a b Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 171.
  7. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 197.
  8. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 202.

External links[edit]