Eilean Donan Castle
|OS grid reference||NG880260|
|Gaelic name||Eilean Donnain|
|Meaning of name||Island of Donnán|
|Area and summit|
|Highest elevation||3 metres (9.8 ft)|
|Population rank||94 out of 101|
|Island group||Loch Duich|
Area and population ranks are for all Scottish islands and all inhabited Scottish islands respectively. Population data is from 2001 census.
Eilean Donan (Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Donnain) is a small island in Loch Duich in the western Highlands of Scotland. It lies about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the village of Dornie, and is dominated by a picturesque castle which frequently appears in photographs, film and television. Eilean Donan is part of the Kintail National Scenic Area, one of 40 in Scotland. In 2001, the island had a recorded population of just one person.
Eilean Donan (which means simply "island of Donnán") is named after Donnán of Eigg, a Celtic saint martyred in 617. Donnán is said to have established a church on the island, though no trace of this remains. The castle was founded in the thirteenth century, and became a stronghold of the Clan Mackenzie and their allies the Clan Macrae. In the early eighteenth century the Mackenzies were involved in the Jacobite rebellions, which led to the castle's destruction by government ships in 1719. The present buildings are the result of twentieth-century reconstruction of the ruins by Lieutenant-Colonel John Macrae-Gilstrap.
It is possible that an early Christian monastic cell was founded on the island in the 6th or 7th century, dedicated to Donnán of Eigg, an Irish saint who was martyred on Eigg in April 617. No remains of any Christian buildings survive, though fragments of vitrified stone, subjected to very high temperatures, have been discovered indicating the presence of an Iron Age or early medieval fortification.
Origins of the castle 
In the earlier thirteenth century, during the reign of Alexander II (ruled 1214–1249), a large curtain-wall castle (wall of enceinte) was constructed, enclosing much of the island. At this time the area was at the boundary of the Norse-Celtic Lordship of the Isles and the Earldom of Ross: Eilean Donan provided a strong defensive position against Norse expeditions. A founding legend relates that the son of a chief of the Mathesons acquired the power of communicating with the birds. As a result, and after many adventures overseas, he gained wealth, power, and the respect of Alexander II, who asked him to build the castle to defend his realm. At a later date it became a stronghold of the Mackenzies of Kintail, originally vassals of Uilleam, Earl of Ross. At this early stage, the castle is said to have been garrisoned by Macraes and Maclennans, both clans which were later closely associated with the Mackenzies. Traditional Mackenzie clan histories relate that Earl William sought advantage from the Treaty of Perth of 1266, by which King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the Hebrides to Scotland, and demanded that his kinsman Kenneth Mackenzie return the castle to allow his expansion into the islands; Mackenzie refused, and Earl William led an assault against Eilean Donan which was repulsed by the Mackenzies and their allies.
The Mackenzie clan histories also claim (with little, if any, supporting contemporary evidence) that Robert the Bruce was sheltered at Eilean Donan during the winter of 1306 to 1307, although the castle saw no other action during the Wars of Scottish Independence. In 1331 Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, sent an officer to Eilean Donan to warn the occupants of his forthcoming visit. In preparation 50 wrongdoers were rounded up and executed, their heads being displayed on the castle walls to Moray's approval. By the middle of the 14th century the Mackenzies are said to have been on the losing side in the ongoing feuding with the Earls of Ross: Earl Uilleam III granted Kintail to Raghnall mac Ruaidhri, Lord of Garmoran in 1342. With the assistance of Leod Macgilleandrais, the Earl allegedly apprehended Kenneth Mackenzie, 3rd of Kintail, and had him executed in 1346 at Inverness. Through this period Eilean Donan is said to have been held by Duncan Macaulay for the Mackenzies, against the Earl and his allies. Kenneth's young son Murdo Mackenzie supposedly evaded the Earl's attempts to eliminate him, and on the return of David II from exile he was allegedly confirmed in the lands of Kintail and Eilean Donan by a charter of 1362 (of which, however, no trace survives to the present day). At some point in the earlier 14th century it is thought that the Clan Macrae began to settle in Kintail as a body, having migrated from the Beauly Firth, and there gained the trust of the Mackenzie lairds through possible kinship and an advantageous marriage. The Macraes began to act as Mackenzie's bodyguards, acquiring the soubriquet "Mackenzie's shirt of mail".
Clan feuding 
James I, determined to pacify the Highlands, journeyed to Inverness in 1427 and invited the principal chiefs to meet him there. Allegedly among them was the young Alexander Mackenzie, 6th of Kintail, who along with the other chiefs was arrested on his arrival. Mackenzie clan histories relate that, although several chiefs were executed or imprisoned, Alexander, due to his youth, was instead sent to Perth to attend school. Alexander's uncles attempted to seize control of Kintail, but the constable Duncan Macaulay continued to hold Eilean Donan on his behalf. Fionnla Dubh mac Gillechriosd, considered by clan historians to be the founder of the Clan Macrae in Kintail, was dispatched to fetch the young laird back. During his lairdship Alexander appears to have supported the monarchy against the MacDonald Lords of the Isles and was allegedly rewarded by another charter of Kintail in 1463. Alexander died in about 1488 at a great age, and was succeeded by Kenneth Mackenzie, 7th of Kintail, victor of the Battle of Blar Na Pairce against the MacDonalds. Kenneth died a few years later and was succeeded first by his eldest son, then on his death in 1497 by his second son, John of Killin, who was still a minor. His uncle, Hector Roy Mackenzie, attempted to usurp the Mackenzie lands and installed his own constable in Eilean Donan; Malcolm Mac Ian Charrich Macrae. Hector's lawless activities caused the Mackenzies to be branded rebels, and in 1503 the Earl of Huntly offered to deliver Eilean Donan to the king, and to hold it on his behalf. James IV supplied a ship to support the enterprise. Eventually John compelled his uncle to relinquish his claim, and Hector agreed to hand over Eilean Donan. The constable refused however, and John's supporters laid siege. Malcolm Mac Ian Charrich was eventually persuaded by Hector to relinquish the castle, after which he was dismissed as constable and Christopher Macrae (Gillechriosd Mac Fionnlagh Mhic Rath) was appointed in his place in around 1511. John of Killin obtained a further charter of Kintail and Eilean Donan in 1509.
In 1539 the castle was attacked by Donald Gorm Macdonald of Sleat. After ravaging the lands of MacLeod of Dunvegan on Skye, Donald Gorm attacked the Mackenzie lands of Kinlochewe where Miles (Maolmure), brother of Christopher Macrae, was killed. After a series of retaliatory raids, Donald Gorm learned that Eilean Donan was weakly garrisoned and launched a surprise attack. In fact only three people were in the castle: the recently appointed constable Iain Dubh Matheson; the warden; and Duncan MacGillechriosd of the Clan Macrae, son of the former constable. MacGillechriosd arrived at the start of the attack, killing several MacDonalds at the postern gate. Matheson and the warden were both killed by enemy arrows, but MacGillechriosd managed to hit Donald Gorm with his last arrow, fatally wounding him, and the Macdonalds retreated. Duncan MacGillechriosd expected to be appointed as the new constable but was considered too headstrong: the local clergyman John MacMhurchaidh Dhuibh (John Murchison) was appointed as a compromise between rival Macrae and Maclennan interests. Furious at this treatment, MacGillechriosd left Kintail and joined the service of Lord Lovat, though he eventually returned to settle at Inverinate. Meanwhile MacMhurchaidh was apparently shot in the buttocks with an arrow by an aggrieved Maclennan.
MacGillechriosd's son Christopher Macrae became constable of Eilean Donan in turn, and held the castle during yet another clan feud, this time between the Mackenzies and the MacDonalds of Glengarry. Feuding broke out in 1580 and continued for almost 25 years. In around 1602 Eilean Donan was the base for a sea skirmish at the narrows of Kyle Rhea led by Christopher's son Duncan. During the action the MacDonalds were driven on to the Cailleach Rock at the eastern tip of Skye, and Angus the son of MacDonald of Glengarry was killed. Christopher was succeeded as constable by the Rev. Murdoch Murchison, minister of Kintail.
17th century 
The Rev. Farquhar Macrae, son of Christopher Macrae, was born at the castle in 1580. After attending Edinburgh University and taking holy orders, in 1618 he was appointed constable of the castle and minister of Kintail on the death of Murdoch Murchison. Colin Mackenzie of Kintail was created Earl of Seaforth in 1623. He lived mainly at Chanonry of Ross in Fortrose, but made regular visits to Eilean Donan where the constable was required to entertain him and his retinue of between 300 and 500 retainers, as well as the neighbouring lairds. In 1635 George Mackenzie, 2nd Earl of Seaforth, appointed Farquhar as tutor to his six-year-old son Kenneth, who was subsequently raised at Eilean Donan.
In the civil wars of the mid 17th century the Earl of Seaforth sided with Charles I. In 1650, after the king's execution, the Parliament of Scotland ordered a garrison to Eilean Donan, but they were not made welcome. When a party of 30 soldiers came out from the castle to request provisions from the local people, they were met by a band of 10 men who opposed their demands. An argument broke out, which led to the garrison men being driven off with several casualties. Shortly after the garrision departed. The following year the Earl's brother, Simon Mackenzie of Lochslin, was gathering troops for the royalist cause around Eilean Donan. For reasons unrecorded, he fell out with Farquhar Macrae and demanded his removal from the castle. Farquhar initially resisted, and despite interventions by the young Kenneth, had to be marched out by Lochslin and George Mackenzie (later Earl of Cromartie). He was finally persuaded to leave without violence, stating that he was too old to dwell in the cold castle. Farquhar was thus the last constable to dwell in Eilean Donan until its reconstruction, although he retained the ministry of Kintail until his death in 1662, at the age of 82.
After this time, the castle was briefly occupied by the Earl of Balcarres and his wife, who were in the Highlands in support of the Earl of Glencairn's royalist uprising, although Balcarres later disagreed with Glencairn and departed. In June 1654 General Monck, Oliver Cromwell's military governor in Scotland, marched through Kintail while suppressing the uprising. His troops destroyed much property, and stole 360 of Farquhar Macrae's cattle, though only one man was killed.
Jacobite rising and destruction of the castle 
In 1689 King James VII of the House of Stuart was declared to have forfeit the throne, and the crown was offered to William of Orange, in the so-called "Glorious Revolution". The revolution also established Presbyterianism in Scotland, although the Highlands generally remained Episcopalian and loyal to the Stuarts. A series of Jacobite Risings followed, leading to an increased military presence in Scotland as government forces attempted to penetrate and subdue the Highlands. In 1714 while surveying fortifications for the government, the military engineer Lewis Petit made the only surviving drawing of Eilean Donan. The sketch-elevation and carefully drawn plan show a dilapidated castle, largely roofless but for a small building by the entrance.
The next major Jacobite uprising took place in 1715. Led by the Earl of Mar, it was an attempt to restore the exiled James Stuart, the "Old Pretender", to the throne. William Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Seaforth, joined the Jacobite army, leading out men of the Clan Mackenzie and Clan Macrae. The Macraes mustered at Eilean Donan, and are said to have danced on the roof of the castle before setting out to the Battle of Sheriffmuir where 58 Macraes were among the Jacobite dead. The battle was indecisive and the rising collapsed soon after.
Following the failure of the rising of 1715, the Jacobites found new support from Spain, now opposing both Britain and France in the War of the Quadruple Alliance. The Duke of Ormonde led the main invasion fleet from Spain, while an advance party of 300 Spanish soldiers under George Keith, 10th Earl Marischal arrived in Loch Duich in April 1719, and occupied Eilean Donan Castle. The expected uprising of Highlanders did not occur, and the main Spanish invasion force never arrived. At the beginning of May, the Royal Navy sent ships to the area. Early in the morning on Sunday 10 May, HMS Worcester, HMS Flamborough, and HMS Enterprise anchored off Eilean Donan and sent a boat ashore under a flag of truce to negotiate. When the Spanish soldiers in the castle fired at the boat, it was recalled and all three ships opened fire on the castle for an hour or more. The next day the bombardment continued while a landing party was prepared. In the evening under the cover of an intense cannonade, the ships' boats went ashore and captured the castle against little resistance. According to Worcester's log, in the castle were "an Irishman, a captain, a Spanish lieutenant, a serjeant, one Scotch rebel and 39 Spanish soldiers, 343 barrels of powder and 52 barrels of musquet shot." The naval force spent the next two days demolishing the castle, which took 27 barrels of gunpowder. The Spanish prisoners were put on board Flamborough and taken to Edinburgh. The remaining Spanish troops were defeated on 10 June at the Battle of Glen Shiel.
Restoration and reuse 
The castle was rebuilt in the years between 1919 and 1932 by Lt. Col. John MacRae-Gilstrap. The restoration included the construction of an arched bridge to give easier access to the castle. The restoration of the castle also included the establishment of a war memorial dedicated to the men of the Macrae clan who died in the First World War. The memorial is adorned with lines from John McCrae's poem In Flanders Fields, and is flanked by grey field guns from the war. Eilean Donan was opened to the public in 1955, and has since become a popular attraction: over 314,000 people visited in 2009, making it the third most-visited castle in Scotland. In 1983 ownership of the castle was transferred to the Conchra Charitable Trust, established by the Macrae family to maintain and restore the castle, and a purpose-built visitor centre was opened on the landward side of the bridge in 1998.
The castle is regularly described as one of the most photographed monuments in Scotland, and is a recognised Scottish icon, frequently appearing on packaging and advertising for shortbread, whisky and other products. Eilean Donan has made several appearances in films, beginning with Bonnie Prince Charlie in 1948 and The Master of Ballantrae in 1953. It featured prominently in Highlander (1986), and in 1999 served as Sean Connery's home in Entrapment as well as the Scottish headquarters of MI6 in The World Is Not Enough. In Elizabeth: The Golden Age Eilean Donan stood in for Fotheringhay Castle in England.
Architectural development 
Eilean Donan Castle went through several phases of development from the earliest fortifications of the 13th century through to its destruction in 1719, and the subsequent reconstruction in the 20th century. The first phase comprised a curtain wall enclosing much of the island, with a tower house added in the 14th century. In the 14th or 15th century the outer wall was abandoned and a smaller enclosure built around the tower house. More development within this courtyard took place in the 16th century, as well as the addition of a defences on the eastern side. The castle was almost totally destroyed in 1719, after which almost 200 years passed before reconstruction began. Although some archaeological evidence has been recovered from the island, much material was lost during the reconstruction works making it difficult to build a clear picture of the early castle. Very little historical evidence survives. Mapmaker Timothy Pont (c. 1565–1614) left a description:
"The castell of Ylen Donen is composed of a strong and fair dungeon [i.e. a donjon or keep] upon a rock, with another tower compasd with a fair barmkin wall, with orchards and trees, al within ane yland of the lenth of twa pair of butts [i.e. archery butts] almost round. It is sayd of old that castel consisted of seven tours."
The only drawing of the castle prior to its destruction was made in 1714 by Lewis Petit (c.1665–1720), a military engineer with the Board of Ordnance who came to Scotland in 1714 to survey Fort William and other defences in the area. Among the drawings he produced are a plan and elevation of Eilean Donan, which clearly show that the castle was largely derlict by this time, with only a building at the south-east corner being roofed.
The early enclosure 
In the 13th century a curtain wall or wall of enceinte was constructed around the island, enclosing most of the area above the high tide line. Scant remains of these walls can be traced on the ground, running around the northern end of the island. The eastern and southern segments of this wall are largely obscured by later development, although the enclosure is assumed to have contained an area of around 3,000 square metres (32,000 sq ft). At the northern point of the wall the foundations of a large tower survive, measuring around 12 by 13 metres (39 by 43 ft) and the remains of foundations suggest further towers at the north-east and south-west corners of the enclosure. The enclosure was accessed via a sea-gate in the north-west curtain wall, where a small beach would have allowed boats to be drawn up. Another beach to the south-west may have formed a second access. Archaeological excavations in 2008 and 2009 confirmed the presence of these walls, and also found evidence that metalworking was taking place in the northern part of the castle. A tower house or keep was built against the curtain wall at the high point of the island, probably in the 14th century. The tower measured 16.5 by 12.4 metres (54 by 41 ft), with walls 3 metres (9.8 ft) thick. The vaulted ground floor was originally divided in two, with a stair in the north wall giving access to the first-floor hall. Above this were probably another two storeys, including a garret. The tower, according to Petit's later drawing, was topped by crowstep gables, and surrounded by a walkway and bartizans (small turrets) at the corners.
The reduced castle 
At an unknown period, probably in the later 14th century or early 15th century, the outer wall was abandoned in favour of a smaller defensive enclosure, around 25 metres (82 ft) square. The entrance to this smaller courtyard was from the east. The reasons for this change are unclear, though it is suggested that the smaller area would have been easier to defend. During the 16th century two buildings were added to the southern periphery of the enclosure. A small house was constructed within the south-east angle of the wall, with a circular stair-tower on its northern side giving access to the walkway along the eastern curtain wall. Located just inside the gate, this is likely to have served as a house for the castle's constable or keeper, and is the only building shown with a roof on Petit's survey. At the south-west corner of the enclosure an L-plan block was put up, possibly as late as the early 17th century. The southern part is sited outside the line of the inner curtain wall, with a northern wing, which may have been a slightly later addition, inside the wall.
The hornwork 
In the later 16th century the castle was extended eastward to create a bastion or "hornwork", providing a more securely defended entrance. The hornwork comprises a pair of walls enclosing a triangular courtyard, linking the east wall of the castle with an irregular hexagonal (or heptagonal) structure. This structure, 11.5 metres (38 ft) across, contains a well at its lowest level, 5 metres (16 ft) across and 10 metres (33 ft) deep. This led MacGibbon and Ross to describe the structure as a water tower or cistern. However, the presence of a door on its eastern side is shown in 19th century photographs, indicating that it was built as the main entrance to the castle. The water-filled interior would have been crossed by a removable bridge, presenting an obstacle to attackers. From the bridge, access to the castle would have been up a flight of steps, into the triangular courtyard, and through the gate in the east curtain wall. It is possible that the hexagonal bastion was roofed to serve as an artillery position. Dredging of the reservoir in 1893 recovered two brass guns, referred to as "double hagbuts", and measuring around 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) long with a bore of around 25 millimetres (0.98 in). Also recovered was a yett, an iron gate, probably installed in the east door to the bastion, but now on display inside the castle. At some point in the 17th century this elaborate access was abandoned and a more convenient entrance opened in the south wall of the hornwork. By 1714, Lewis Petit's drawing clearly shows that the castle was largely derlict, with only the house at the south-east corner being roofed. Four years later it was completely demolished, and by 1912 very little of the castle was still standing.
The modern castle 
The present castle buildings are entirely the result of 20th-century reconstruction and, although the rebuilding followed the extant ground plan, the details of the present castle differ from its original appearance. The survey drawings by Lewis Petit were not rediscovered until the restoration was almost complete, and the restorers therefore were forced to rely on less accurate interpretations such as the work of MacGibbon and Ross, who attempted a plan of the remains in the late 19th century. Indeed the clerk of works, Farquhar Macrae, is said to have based the reconstruction on a dream in which he saw the restored Eilean Donan. Rather than a genuinely medieval castle, Eilean Donan is described as "a romantic reincarnation in the tradition of early 20th-century castle revivals." John Gifford, analysing the building against the Petit survey, notes a "fussy elaboration of what was probably plain originally, and an omission of decoration where it once existed", and describes the interior as "a rubbly Edwardian stage-set for life in the Middle Ages".
The castle is today entered from the south, via a modern portal complete with a portcullis. Above the door is a Gaelic inscription which in translation reads: "As long as there is a Macrae inside, there will never be a Fraser outside", referring to a bond of kinship between the two clans, and a similar inscription which once adorned the Fraser's home at Beaufort Castle. Above this is carved the coat of arms of John Macrae-Gilstrap. The portal gives access to the courtyard, the level of which has been lowered exposing the bedrock around the tower house. The present buildings at the south-east of the castle reflect the form of the earlier structures, including the circular stair tower, but are larger in extent. To the south-west only the southern portion of the L-shaped block was reconstructed, as a plain three-storey house, while in place of the northern wing is an open platform giving views over the loch. A small tower occupies the north-west angle. The keep itself follows the original dimensions, though the formerly subdivided ground floor is now a single room: the tunnel-vaulted Billeting Hall. Above on the first floor is the Banqueting Hall with an oak ceiling, and decorated with coats of arms and 15th-century style fireplace. Small mural chambers within the walls are accessed from each hall.
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