Einar Gerhardsen

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Einar Gerhardsen
Einar Gerhardsen 1945.jpeg
Prime Minister of Norway
In office
25 September 1963 – 12 October 1965
Monarch Olav V
Preceded by John Lyng
Succeeded by Per Borten
In office
22 January 1955 – 28 August 1963
Monarch Haakon VII
Olav V
Preceded by Oscar Torp
Succeeded by John Lyng
In office
25 June 1945 – 9 November 1951
Monarch Haakon VII
Preceded by Johan Nygaardsvold
Succeeded by Oscar Torp
Personal details
Born Einar Gerhardsen
(1897-05-10)10 May 1897
Asker, Akershus
Died 19 November 1987(1987-11-19) (aged 90)
Nationality Norwegian
Political party Labour Party
Spouse(s) Werna Gerhardsen
Profession Civil servant, road worker
Religion Lutheranism (Church of Norway)

About this sound Einar Henry Gerhardsen  (10 May 1897 – 19 September 1987) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party of Norway. He was Prime Minister for three periods, 1945–1951, 1955–1963 and 1963–1965. With 17 years in office, he is the longest serving Prime Minister in Norway since the introduction of parliamentarism. Many Norwegians often refer to him as "Landsfaderen" (Father of the Fatherland); he is generally considered one of the main architects of the rebuilding of Norway after World War II.

Early life[edit]

Einar Gerhardsen was born in the municipality of Asker, in the county of Akershus. His parents were Gerhard Olsen (1867–1949) and Emma Hansen (1872–1949). He was married to Werna and they had two sons Truls and Rune Gerhardsen and a daughter Torgunn. His brother was Rolf Gerhardsen and with him Einar Gerhardsen also had a lifelong working relationship. From the age of 17, Gerhardsen went to meetings in the Labour party's youth movement.[1]

Political work, imprisonment[edit]

Originally a road worker, Gerhardsen became politically active in the socialist labour movement during the 1920s. He was convicted several times of taking part in subversive activities until he, along with the rest of the Labour party, gradually moved from communism to democratic socialism.[citation needed] He participated in the Left Communist Youth League's military strike action of 1924. He was convicted for assisting in this crime and sentenced to 75 days of prison.[2]

By the middle of the 1930s Labour was a major force on the national political scene, with Gerhardsen as the Mayor of Oslo and Johan Nygaardsvold as Prime Minister of a minority cabinet. During World War II, Gerhardsen took part in the organised resistance against Nazi occupation and was arrested on 11 September 1941 and interned in concentration camps at Grini in Norway and at Sachsenhausen in Germany in August 1944.[3] After the war, Gerhardsen formed the interim government which sat from the end of the occupation in May 1945 until the elections held in October the same year. The elections gave Labour an absolute majority in Parliament, the Storting, which it retained until 1961. Gerhardsen served as President of the Storting from 10 January 1954 to 22 January 1955.

Present[edit]

Einar Gerhardsen in 1983

During and after his periods in office he was greatly respected by the people, even those not sharing his social democratic views. The administrations he led forged an eclectic economic policy in which government regulation of commerce, industry and banking was combined with market economics. Abject poverty and unemployment were sharply reduced by his government's policies of industrialisation and redistribution of wealth through progressive taxation, together with the creation of a comprehensive social security system.[4] In foreign policy, he aligned Norway with the Western powers at the end of the 1940s after some initial hesitation within the governing party, and Norway became a founding member of NATO.

Documents from 1958 reveal that the Gerhardsen's government knew that Israel was going to use heavy water supplied by Noratom for plutonium production, making it possible for Israel to produce nuclear weapons.

In November 1962 an accident in which 21 miners died occurred in the Kings Bay coal mine on Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago. In the aftermath, the Gerhardsen government was accused of not complying with laws enacted by parliament. In the summer of 1963 a vote of no confidence passed with the support of the Socialist People's Party and a centre-right minority coalition government was formed, under John Lyng. Although this new government lasted only three weeks, until the Socialist People's Party realigned itself with Labour, it formed the basis for an opposition victory under the leadership of Per Borten at the 1965 elections. Gerhardsen retired from national politics in 1969 but continued to influence public opinion through writing and speeches.

Gerhardsen's political legacy is still an important force in Norwegian politics,[citation needed] especially within his own party,[5] although some of the social policies of his government have been revised. (See also Economy of Norway)

Pasttime[edit]

He inherited a hut (from his father); it was called Kristi Rolighet and it was located next to Dælivannet in Bærum.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nrk.no/underholdning/store_norske/4347691.html
  2. ^ Maurseth, Per (1987). Gjennom kriser til makt 1920-1935. Volume three of Arbeiderbevegelsens historie i Norge (in Norwegian). Oslo: Tiden. p. 502. ISBN 82-10-02753-0. 
  3. ^ http://eavis.aftenposten.no/aftenposten/41867/20/?query=gerhardsen
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Jens Stoltenberg:Vi bygger landet Speech April 22, 2010, Office of the Prime Minister, retrieved September 18, 2012
Political offices
Preceded by
Trygve Nilsen
Mayor of Oslo
1940
Succeeded by
Rolf Stranger
Preceded by
Rolf Stranger
Mayor of Oslo
1945
Succeeded by
Rolf Stranger
Preceded by
Johan Nygaardsvold1
Prime Minister of Norway
1945–1951
Succeeded by
Oscar Torp
Preceded by
Oscar Torp
Prime Minister of Norway
1955–1963
Succeeded by
John Lyng
Preceded by
John Lyng
Prime Minister of Norway
1963–1965
Succeeded by
Per Borten
Party political offices
Preceded by
Martin Tranmæl
Party secretary of the Labour Party
1923–1925
Succeeded by
Martin Tranmæl
Preceded by
Martin Tranmæl
Party secretary of the Labour Party
1936–1939
Succeeded by
Ole Øisang
Preceded by
Oscar Torp
Chairman of the Labour Party
1945–1965
Succeeded by
Trygve Bratteli