|• Mayor||Katja Wolf|
|• Total||103.84 km2 (40.09 sq mi)|
|Elevation||220 m (720 ft)|
|• Density||400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located 50 kilometres (31 miles) W of Erfurt, 70 km (43 miles) SE of Kassel and 150 km (93 miles) NE of Frankfurt. It is the main urban centre of western Thuringia and bordering north-eastern Hessian regions, situated near the former Inner German border. An important sight is the Wartburg castle, which has been designated as UNESCO world heritage in 1999. Nevertheless, the medieval city centre hosts further interesting sights.
Eisenach has been an early capital of Thuringia in 12th and 13th century, as the Ludowingians had their seat at Wartburg castle resp. the city. The holy Elizabeth lived at their court between 1211 and 1228. Later, Martin Luther came to Eisenach and translated the Bible into German here which was an important step both for the German Reformation and the development of a consistent German standard language. In 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach, one of the world's most famous composers, was born here. During the early-modern period, Eisenach has been a residence of the Ernestine Wettins. In 1869, the SDAP, one of the two precursors of the SPD was founded in Eisenach by August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht.
The city's economy is based on car production. The Automobilwerk Eisenach was founded in 1896 and taken over by BMW, which was prior a sheer motor producer and joined the car production in Eisenach with the Dixi, in 1928. During the GDR period, the Wartburg was the produced car in Eisenach. Since 1990, the factories belong to Opel (General Motors) and Bosch.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and demographics
- 3 Culture, sights and cityscape
- 4 Economy and infrastructure
- 5 Politics
- 6 Personalities
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Eisenach's origin and early history is unknown. An 8th century Frankish settlement near Petersberg hill is regarded as first basis of Eisenach, nevertheless, there are no written sources about that early period. According to a legend, Louis the Springer began in 1067 to establish Wartburg castle above the settlement and in 1080, this castle was first mentioned in a Saxon chronicle. Eisenach itself followed in an 1150 document. During the 1180s, the city was established by the construction of three independent market settlements around the Saturday's market (today's Karlsplatz), the Wednesday's market (today's Frauenplan) and the Monday's market (today's Marktplatz). Due to its convenient location at a bottleneck between the Thuringian Forest in the south and the Hainich mountains in the north, Eisenach benefitted from broad west-eastern trade along Via Regia from Frankfurt to Erfurt and Leipzig and became a rich traders town. During the second half of the 12th century, the city walls were erected (the Nikolaitor is an important relict of this wall) and Eisenach got a planned grid of streets and alleys. In late 12th century, the Wartburg became the main residence of the Ludowingians, making Eisenach to a leading place in today's western Thuringia and northern Hesse, which also belonged to the Ludowingian landgraviate. In 1207, the legendary Sängerkrieg shall took place at Wartburg castle. Between 1211 and 1228, the holy Elizabeth lived as Louis' IV wife in Eisenach resp. at Wartburg castle. Later, she became the patroness of Thuringia and Hesse.
In 1247, the Ludowingians died out which led to the War of the Thuringian Succession between the Wettins and Sophie of Brabant. As consequence, the landgraviate was divided. Eisenach and the eastern parts went to the Wettins, what became today's Thuringia and Kassel, Marburg and the western parts went to Sophie, what became today's Hesse. Eisenach kept a leading position among the Wettin's Thuringian cities by becoming their Oberhof (leading court), so that their law had to be derived from Eisenach's municipal law and controversials had the be clarified here. The confidend citizens of Eisenach fought against the Wettin's rule to become a free imperial city between 1306 and 1308, but lost. The later 14th century led to various crises: in 1342, a big town fire destroyed nearly all the buildings and the Black Death killed many inhabitants in 1349 and 1393. Since 1406, Eisenach was no longer a Wettin's residence, which led to a decline in urban development.
Between 1498 and 1501, the young Martin Luther attended the St. George's Latin school in Eisenach in preparation of his following studies at the University of Erfurt. In 1521/22 he was hidden by Frederick the Wise at Wartburg castle to protect him from the Imperial ban. In that time, Luther translated the New Testament into German, what was an important step both for the German Reformation and the development of a consistent German standard language. In 1528, the Lutheran Reformation was implemented in Eisenach. In 1596, Eisenach became a ducal residence again (Saxe-Eisenach).
Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach in 1685. His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach worked as musician in that time. Other famous composers and musicians of Eisenach in that time were Johann Pachelbel, Johann Christoph Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann. As the Eisenach dukes died out in 1741, the city and the state became part of Saxe-Weimar, nevertheless, the cultural life stayed unimpaired. The coterie around the poetess Julie von Bechtolsheim met up with famous personalities like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Christoph Martin Wieland in Eisenach.
In 1817, the Wartburg Festival took place in Eisenach, a studental meeting and step to liberal and national movement against the monarchy, claiming the Unification of Germany. The industrial revolution started relatively early in Eisenach, already in the first half of the 19th century, the first factories were found. In 1847, Eisenach got connected by the Thuringian Railway to Erfurt and Halle/Leipzig in the east and in 1849 to Kassel and Frankfurt in the west. In 1858, the Werra Railway to Lichtenfels (and further to Nuremberg) was opened.
In 1869, the leading social democrats August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht founded the SDAP, one of the two predecessors of today's SPD in Eisenach. The Eisenach Program fixed their main demands during the following years. The late 19th and early 20th century was the period with the fastest urban growth in Eisenach. The Automobilwerk Eisenach, basis of car production in Eisenach, was founded in 1896, the first trams ran in 1897, the Burschenschaftsdenkmal (Fraternity monument) was erected in 1902 and the J. S. Bach museum opened in 1907. The tourism started also in this period, because of the pleasurable landscape around and the various sights within the city.
Between the 1860s and 1938, Eisenach hosts one of the biggest Jewish communities in Thuringia with nearly 500 members around 1900. Many Jews migrated from the Rhön area around Stadtlengsfeld to Eisenach after their liberation in early 19th century. The new synagogue was built in 1885 and destroyed during Kristallnacht in 1938 by the Nazis. The most Jews emigrated in that time, others were deported to the concentration camps and murdered there. In preparation of World War II, new barracks were established in Eisenach and the car industry started the production of military equipment. Since 1940, approx. 4,000 forced labourers (most of them from Soviet Union) were pressed to work in the city's factories, where some of them died caused by the bad working conditions. The bombings during the war destroyed about 2,000 flats and big parts of the car factories, furthermore some historic buildings in the city centre, which were rebuilt soon after the war. The US Army arrived in Eisenach on 6 April 1945, the Soviets assumed the city on 1 July 1945.
Eisenach was part of the GDR since 1949. The Inner German border ran only ten kilometres west of Eisenach and was closed in 1952, what cut off parts of Eisenach's traditional hinterland. The location near the border inhibited the further development during the next 40 years and the population declined trough that period. Nevertheless, Eisenach remained an important industrial location. The BMW car factory got socialized and produced with the new name EMW the Wartburg, the "Mercedes of the East". The deteroriating condition of many historic houses led to housing shortage during the 1970s. The government fought this by demolishing some historic quarters (e. g. at Jakobstraße) and rebuilding them with Plattenbau settlements. The biggest Plattenbau district was built at the northern periphery of Eisenach between 1978 and 1985 with nearly 4,000 flats. In 1975, the tramway system was ceased.
After the reunification in 1990, the economic situation changed. The car factory was taken over by Opel, whereas many other factories got closed. On the other hand, Eisenach moved from the inner German border to the centre of the reunificated country. Tourism saw a significant growth and the Wartburg castle was designated as UNESCO world heritage in 1999. Nevertheless, the financial situation of Eisenach is bad, unemployment stayed above average and the car business weakened by the homemade crisis of Opel company.
Geography and demographics
Eisenach is situated at the northern edge of the Thuringian Forest, in an elevation of approx. 220 m. The terrain is hilly, to the south also mountainous (up to 460 m of elevation), with the central Hörsel valley, which crosses the city in east-western direction. The Nesse river enters the Hörsel river in Eisenach after forming a valley through the spur of Hörselberg mountains in the eastern municipal territory. The northern territory around the Neunkirchen, Stregda and Hötzelsroda districts is relatively flat and in agricultural use. Approximately 7 km (4 mi) west of the city centre runs the wide Werra valley, where the Hörsel river enters this bigger river near Hörschel district. The southern municipal territory is covered with forest, same as some smaller parts north of Hörsel river. The Hainich mountains begin 10 km (6 mi) north-east of Eisenach. There is Thuringia's only national park, the Hainich National Park, one of the ancient beech forests of Germany, designated as an UNESCO world nature heritage in 2011.
Eisenach has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Summers are warm and sometimes humid, winters are relatively cold. The city's topography creates a microclimate with mostly adequate air circulation along the west-eastern valley which made Eisenach to a resort at the end of 19th century. Annual precipitation is 831 millimeters (32.7 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long in the inner city valley.
Eisenach abuts the districts of Wartburgkreis (municipalities Krauthausen, Mihla, Lauterbach, Bischofroda and Berka vor dem Hainich in the north, Hörselberg-Hainich and Wutha-Farnroda in the east and Marksuhl, Wolfsburg-Unkeroda and Gerstungen in the south) and Werra-Meißner-Kreis (Hesse, municipality of Herleshausen in the west). The municipal border between Eisenach and Herleshausen has been part of the inner German border/Iron Curtain from 1949 to 1990.
The municipality of Eisenach includes beside the inner city the following rural districts (all of them got incorporated in 1994):
The village of Fischbach got incorporated in 1922 and is a part of the inner city today.
Eisenach has always been one of the bigger cities in Thuringia with 4,000 until 5,000 inhabitants during the Middle Ages. Until 1800, the population rose to 8,000 and further to 10,000 as industrialisation started around 1850. In 1875, the city had 16,000 inhabitants, 30,000 in 1900, 43,000 in 1925 and more than 50,000 in 1940, as the peak was reached. Like the most other east German mid-size cities, Eisenach has a shrinking population since 1950. It came back to 48,000 in 1990, 44,000 in 2000 and 42,000 in 2012. During the last few years (2009–2012), the annual change was -0.12%, whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Eisenach. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders.
The birth deficit was 240 in 2012, this is -5.7 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration rate was +6.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin of Eisenach migrants are rural areas of Thuringia as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria.
Like other eastern German cities, Eisenach has only a small amount of foreign population: circa 2.3% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 4.9% are migrants (according to 2011 EU census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Eisenach are Vietnamese people, Russians and Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved: the unemployment rate declined from 17% in 2005 to 9% in 2013. Due to the official atheism in former GDR, most of the population is non-religious. 23.0% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany and 4.4% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census).
Culture, sights and cityscape
The Wartburg castle is by far the most popular tourist attraction. Further sights are:
Eisenach hosts some interesting museums:
- The Bachhaus at Frauenplan was the first museum worldwide to be dedicated to the life and work of Johann Sebastian Bach in 1906. It was established through the Neue Bachgesellschaft. The house is over 600 years old and stands near the place of the house where Bach was born on 21 March 1685. Today, the museum holds several artifacts and a variety of 18th and 19th century music instruments.
- The Lutherhaus at Lutherplatz is one of the oldest and most picturesque half-timbered buildings remaining in Eisenach. Martin Luther is said to have lived here as a pupil during his school days in Eisenach from 1498 to 1501. Currently, this house is a museum featuring multimedia exhibits relating to the period. The museum is split into five parts illustrating Luther's life and times as well as his teachings.
- The Automobile Welt at Friedrich-Naumann-Straße exhibits the tradition of car production in Eisenach since 1896.
- The Thüringer Museum inside the palace at Marktplatz is the art-historical museum of Eisenach and shows a collection with porcelaine and art handicraft in focus.
- The Reuter-Wagner-Museum at Reuterweg hosts an exhibition about the poet Fritz Reuter and Richard Wagner, whose Tannhäuser opera is set on Wartburg castle. Built by Ludwig Bohnstedt between 1866 and 1868, this neo-classical house was the home of Fritz Reuter, a famous poet of the Low German dialect. After his death his home was acquired by the town and now the building also contains the second-largest Richard Wagner exhibition in the world.
- The museum inside the Predigerkirche at Predigerplatz hosts the medieval art division of the Thüringer Museum.
- The Goldener Löwe at Marienstraße hosts an historical exhibition of the German's social democracy. On 7 August 1869 the Social Democratic Worker's Party (later to become the Social-Democratic Party of Germany) was founded at this site. There are three permanent exhibitions as well as an archival library that may be visited by visitors. The August Bebel Society offers lectures and seminars on topics of historical and current political interest.
The city of Eisenach developed during the Middle Ages at the exit of Mariental valley, opening to the Hörsel valley around Marktplatz, Karlsplatz and Frauenplan in a triangle structure. The early-modern period brought extensions to the west (Katharinenstraße), to the north (Jakobstraße) and to the east (in front of Nikolaitor gate). The construction boom between 1850 and 1914 led to a strict division in urban development. South of the historic centre, many mansion colonies established on the hillsides of Mariental valley, where the rich factory owners, rentiers and other upper-class people lived. These colonies belong to the most important examples of this urban type in Germany. North of the historic centre, next to the railway and Hörsel river, the factories and worker quarters established. Nevertheless, they also host some examples of interesting Gründerzeit architecture. After World War I, the city extended further to the north on the other bank of Hörsel river, where some new settlements developed until 1990.
- Karlsplatz: adjoins the Nikolaikirche (Church of St. Nicholas) and the Nikolaitor ( St. Nicholas Gate), the only surviving city gate in the town.
- Marktplatz: the market square with the Georgenkirche (the Church of St. George), the town hall, the Baroque city castle, as well as a number of highly decorative administration buildings and merchants' houses. It also features the gilded market fountain designed by Hans Leonardt in 1549, of St George, the patron saint of Eisenach.
- Jakobsplan: named after a chapel destroyed by fire in the Middle Ages. Jakobsplan comprises a monument to St George in the centre of the square, part of the old town walls (including one of the look-out towers, and the Goethe Garden
- Frauenplan: a small courtyard-type square that takes its name from the "Church of Our Lady". The church was demolished for local defence strategies in 1306. Today Frauenplan is the location of the Bachhaus and the Bach Monument in front of it.
Sights and architectural heritage
- The St. George's Church at the market square was first built in the 12th century and later reconstructed in Baroque style (the tower was added even later in 1902). Historically, the holy Elizabeth was married there to Landgrave Louis IV in 1221, and Johann Sebastian Bach was baptized in the church in the 17th century.
- The St. Nicholas' Church, located on the Karlsplatz, served as the parish for the Benedictine convent located in the area. This triple-naved basilica was built in 1180 and is considered the latest example of the Romanesque architecture in Thuringia.
- The Preacher's Church at Predigerplatz is a former Dominican monastery, today used as a museum.
- The St. Elizabeth's Church at Sophienstraße is the catholic parish church of Eisenach, built in neo-Gothic style in 1880s.
- The St. Anne's Church at Georgenstraße was found together with a hospital by the holy Elizabeth in 1226.
- The St. Clement's Chapel at Clemensstraße is a small 13th century Romanesque chapel.
- The Holy Cross Church at the old cemetery was built in 1690s.
Castles and palaces
- The most important castle is the Wartburg above the city. For further information, see: Wartburg.
- The Stadtschloss (town palace) is situated at the north end of the Market place and was built between 1742 and 1745. This palace was constructed to the plans of Gottfried Heinrich Krohne, architect of Ernst August I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Later Johann Wolfgang von Goethe frequently stayed here in his capacity as Weimar prime minister from 1777 on. Today the Stadtschloss acts as a venue for special exhibitions and as a museum for artistic and historical artifacts from Thuringia.
- The Hellgrevenhof at Georgenstraße is part of a former inner-city castle, built in 13th century.
- The Bechtolsheim Palace at Jakobsplan is a classicistic palace, built in late 18th century.
- The Schloss Fischbach in Fischbach district is a small 17th-century castle.
- The Jagdschloss Hohe Sonne is a hunting lodge south of the city in the Thuringian Forest. It was built in mid 18th century (Baroque).
- The Alte Residenz at Esplanade is the relict of the former ducal residence, rebuilt in Renaissance style after older predecessors.
- The Bach monument was constructed in 1884 by Adolf von Donndorf. Financed by other well-known musicians, the more-than-life-size figure portrays Johann Sebastian Bach in his St. Thomas's choir-master's clothes and wig. It is situated on the Frauenplan next to the Bachhaus.
- The Martin Luther monument at Karlsplatz was designed by Adolf von Donndorf and was dedicated on 4 May 1895 on the 374th anniversary of Luther's arrival at Wartburg Castle. The more-than-life-size statue of Martin Luther on a pedestal also has reliefs depicting several events in his life leading up to and including his stay in Eisenach as well as the title of one of his most famous hymns, "A Mighty Fortress is Our God."
- The Monument to the Student Fraternities (Burschenschaftsdenkmal) at Göpelskuppe hill was built in 1902. The monument stands on a hill opposite the Wartburg Castle in memory of the members of the student movement and others who were killed in the struggle for a united Germany between 1864 to 1871. The monument, that reaches a height of 33 meters and proclaims "Honour, Freedom, and Fatherland," was dedicated on 22 May 1902 and was extended in 1933 to honour those who fell in World War I. Since unification, fraternities continue to meet in Eisenach in memory of the demonstrations held at the Wartburg Castle.
- The city walls were built during the 13th century and demolished in 19th century. Artefacts are the Nikolaitor and the Glockenturm.
- The Kartausgarten is all that remains of the original Carthusian monastery, that was consecrated to St. Elizabeth in 1380. In 1700 it became a royal kitchen garden and around 1800 was changed into a park of natural beauty. Today visitors are attracted by its variety of trees, manicured paths and flower beds. The "Wandelhalle" (covered walk and foyer) was originally intended as a pump room to a spa planned for Eisenach that never materialised.
- The town hall at Marktplatz was a former wine cellar and became the townhall of Eisenach in 1596. The building, having been destroyed by fire in 1636, was rebuilt in 1641. The southern part of the complex suffered considerable damage in a bombing raid in 1945 during World War II. It was renovated in 1996 and it now houses the city administration offices and is connected to a savings bank.
- The state theatre was established by Julius von Eichel-Streiber in 1879 and constructed to the design of the Leipzig architect Karl Weichardt. It was later renovated in 1993. This theatre holds an audience of 600 and has two balconies. The theatre has a full schedule of plays, concerts, operas, and ballets.
- The narrow house is believed to be the narrowest half-timbered house in Germany. It was built before 1750 and is only 2.05 meters wide. Inside visitors can view a small variety of pictures, sculptures and historical furniture. Notably, it is where Bach composed several sonnets. He liked the acoustics of the house.
Economy and infrastructure
Agriculture, industry and services
Agriculture isn't important in Eisenach, because of the hilly terrain, the – compared to central Thuringia in the east – not that fertile soil and the relatively humid climate. 43% of the municipal territory are in agricultural use, mostly as maize and rapeseed fields and as cattle pasture.
The industry is relatively monostructural organized with car production in focus. The German automaker Opel built an entirely new plant in the northwest of the town, after the Wartburg cars plant had ceased operations in 1989. The plant opened in 1992 and was toured by President Clinton, accompanied by Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl in May 1998 as a token of American support in the redevelopment of the Eastern part of Germany. The most other big companies in Eisenach serve as supplier for Opel, among them Bosch with the biggest factory. BMW owns a supplier factory in the neighbouring municipality of Krauthausen. Another supplier, owned by Roger Penske, is Truck-Lite Europe. In 2012, there were althogether 19 industrial companies with more than 20 workers, employing 5,600 persons and generating a turnover of more than 1,8 billion Euro. Solely 3,000 of them work in two companies (Opel and Bosch), clarifying the dependence of Eisenach to the automobile industry.
Services in Eisenach are focused on tourism with 166,000 visitors and 311,000 overnight stays in hotels in 2012 and a large number of German one-day visitors as well as regional supplies like retail, hospitals, theatre, cinema etc.
Eisenach is connected by the Thuringian Railway to Erfurt and Halle/Leipzig to the east plus Kassel and Frankfurt to the west. Furthermore, there is the Werra Railway, a former main-line railway between north and south Germany from Eisenach via Meiningen to Eisfeld, which serves only for regional transport since the German division after World War II. At the former inner German border, it is still interrupted between Eisfeld and Coburg, but rebuilding is in discussion. The Eisenach station is a stop of all long-distance trains from Frankfurt to Leipzig/Dresden, running once an hour. Local trains, also once an hour, start in Eisenach to Halle via Erfurt, to Sonneberg via Meiningen and Eisfeld and to Bebra via Gerstungen. Freight transport is important at Eisenach's Opel factory using an own terminal. Further local passenger stations are Eisenach West, Eisenach Opelwerk and Hörschel.
Eisenach is located on the Bundesautobahn 4 from Frankfurt in the west to Erfurt and Dresden in the east. Since 2010, the Autobahn has a new line more away from the city to protect the residents and the environment against noise and air pollution. Moreover, it was not possible to expand the old course because of its mountainous topography. After 2010, parts of the old course became a city highway, whereas other parts were renaturalized. A second Autobahn between Eisenach and Kassel is in construction (Bundesautobahn 44). There are four Bundesstraßen connecting Eisenach: The Bundesstraße 7 runs to Kassel in the north-west, whereas its eastern branch to Gotha was annulled in 2010. The Bundesstraße 19 leads to Meiningen in the south, the Bundesstraße 84 to Bad Langensalza in the north-east and to Fulda via Vacha in the south-west and the Bundesstraße 88 is a connection to Ilmenau in the south-east. Furthermore, there are two important secondary roads to Mühlhausen via Mihla in the north and to Herleshausen in the west through Hörsel valley. The inner-city traffic is concentrated at the Rennbahn street, which leads often to congestions because of the high commuter rate of Eisenach and the city's narrow topography.
The next local airports are the Erfurt-Weimar Airport, approx. 50 km (31 mi) to the east and the Kassel Calden Airport, approx. 90 km (56 mi) to the north-west. Both serve for holiday flights to touristic regions. The next major airport is the Frankfurt Airport, approx. 200 km (124 mi) to the south-west. The Kindel Airfield, 12 km (7 mi) east of Eisenach, is a former Soviet military base, used for private aviation today.
Biking is getting more and more popular since the construction of quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. For tourism serve the Werra track, the Rennsteig track and the Thuringian city string track (Radweg Thüringer Städtekette). All connect points of tourist interest, the first along the Werra valley from Thuringian Forest to Weser river in Hann. Münden, second through the Thuringian Forst along its crest to the Saale river near Hof and third near to medieval Via Regia from Werra valley/Eisenach via Gotha, Erfurt and Weimar to Altenburg. For inner city every-day traffic exist some cycle lanes along several main streets. Nevertheless there are – in comparison to other cities in Germany – deficits, also the terrain is relatively hilly hampering the use of bicycles.
Public transport is carried out by a bus network running on inner city lines same as to the neighbouring towns and villages. The three-line tramway system of Eisenach was in operation between 1897 and 1975.
After the reunification, the educational system was realigned. In 1998, the Berufsakademie Eisenach was founded. The approx. 600 students can graduate the Bachelor there, either in economics or in technics. Furthermore, there are two state-owned and one evangelical Gymnasiums in Eisenach.
Mayor and city council
There were four free elected mayors since 1990. Since 2012, Katja Wolf (The Left) is the first female mayor in Eisenach's history. She followed Matthias Doht (SPD), who was in office since 2006 and then not re-elected in 2012.
The last municipal election was held in 2009 with the result:
|Party||Percentage||Seats in council|
|The Left (post-socialistic left)||20.6||7|
|SPD (social democratic)||17.3||6|
|Bürger für Eisenach (citizen-oriented/populist)||8.3||3|
|FDP (classical liberal)||4.7||2|
|Eisenacher Aufbruch (communist far-left)||3.2||1|
Eisenach is twinned with:
- Marburg an der Lahn, Germany, since 1988
- Sedan, France, since 1991
- Waverly, Iowa, USA, since 1992, home of Wartburg College
- Skanderborg, Denmark, since 1993
- Mahilyow, Belarus, since 1996
- Ernst Abbe (1840-1905)
- Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
- Harry Lange (film designer) (1930–2008)
- Heinrich Liebe (1908-1997)
- Martin Luther (1483–1546)
- Christian Franz Paullini (1643-1712)
- Hermann Wislicenus (1825-1899)
- "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, erfüllenden Gemeinden und Verwaltungsgemeinschaften nach Geschlecht in Thüringen". Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik (in German). 13 July 2013.
- Kottek, M.; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. (direct: Final Revised Paper)
- According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
- According to the Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Eisenach.|
- Official website (German) (English)
- Info-Portal EisenachOnline (German)
- Burschenschaftsdenkmal (German)
- Lokalradio Wartburg-Radio 96,5 (German)
- Landestheater Eisenach (German)
|Marburg — Bad Hersfeld||Gotha — Erfurt — Weimar|