Eisenstadt

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Eisenstadt
Kismarton légifotó3.jpg
Coat of arms of Eisenstadt
Coat of arms
Eisenstadt is located in Austria
Eisenstadt
Eisenstadt
Location within Austria
Coordinates: 47°51′N 16°31′E / 47.850°N 16.517°E / 47.850; 16.517Coordinates: 47°51′N 16°31′E / 47.850°N 16.517°E / 47.850; 16.517
Country Austria
State Burgenland
District Statutory City
Government
 • Mayor Andrea Fraunschiel (ÖVP)
Area
 • Total 42.91 km2 (16.57 sq mi)
Elevation 182 m (597 ft)
Population (1 January 2014)[1]
 • Total 13,485
 • Density 310/km2 (810/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 7000
Area code 02682
Vehicle registration E
Website www.eisenstadt.at

Eisenstadt (German pronunciation: [ˈaɪ̯zn̩ʃtat]; Hungarian: Kismarton, Croatian: Željezni grad, Željezno, Slovene: Železno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland. It has a population of about 13,165 (2012). In the Habsburg monarchy, Kismarton (Eisenstadt) was the seat of the Eszterházy Hungarian noble family. The composer Joseph Haydn lived there as Hofkapellmeister under Esterházy patronage.

Geography[edit]

Eisenstadt lies on a plain leading down to the river Wulka, at the south foot of the Leitha Mountains, about 12 kilometres (7 miles) from the Hungarian border.

Kleinhöflein im Burgenland at the foot of the Leitha Mountains

Subdivisions[edit]

Eisenstadt is divided into three districts (Stadtbezirke):

The city is divided into five Katastralgemeinden:

  • Eisenstadt-Stadt
  • Oberberg, or Oberberg-Eisenstadt (Hungarian: Felsőkismartonhegy; Croatian: Železno Brig) - the northern area of Eisenstadt from the Jewish quarter, Jewish cemetery
  • Unterberg, or Unterberg-Eisenstadt (Alsókismartonhegy; Železno Dolnji Brig) - the southern area of Eisenstadt from Kalvarienbergplatz, Ruster Strasse
  • Kleinhöflein im Burgenland
  • St. Georgen am Leithagebirge

Other informal areas of the city include Wiesäcker and Lobäcker which lie south of the Eisbach, a tributary of the Wulka. The city is surrounded by the district (Bezirk) of Eisenstadt-Umgebung.

The city previously included the districts (Ortsteile) of Eisenstadt-Stadt, Eisenstadt-Oberberg, Eisenstadt-Unterberg, and Eisenstadt-Schloßgrund (Kismartonváralja).

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Eisenstadt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
19.7
(67.5)
27.4
(81.3)
27.2
(81)
30.8
(87.4)
36.1
(97)
36.4
(97.5)
37.0
(98.6)
33.7
(92.7)
26.4
(79.5)
21.9
(71.4)
19.8
(67.6)
37.0
(98.6)
Average high °C (°F) 2.8
(37)
5.3
(41.5)
10.4
(50.7)
15.3
(59.5)
20.6
(69.1)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.7
(78.3)
20.9
(69.6)
14.8
(58.6)
7.7
(45.9)
4.0
(39.2)
14.7
(58.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
1.3
(34.3)
5.5
(41.9)
9.9
(49.8)
15.1
(59.2)
18.1
(64.6)
20.2
(68.4)
19.8
(67.6)
15.3
(59.5)
9.8
(49.6)
4.3
(39.7)
1.1
(34)
10.0
(50)
Average low °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
1.9
(35.4)
5.5
(41.9)
10.1
(50.2)
13.2
(55.8)
15.2
(59.4)
15.1
(59.2)
11.4
(52.5)
6.5
(43.7)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −21.6
(−6.9)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.7
(38.7)
6.2
(43.2)
3.8
(38.8)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
−12.3
(9.9)
−17.8
(0)
−21.6
(−6.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33.7
(1.327)
29.7
(1.169)
45.1
(1.776)
51.9
(2.043)
62.6
(2.465)
71.2
(2.803)
66.7
(2.626)
59.8
(2.354)
58.8
(2.315)
43.7
(1.72)
53.6
(2.11)
41.2
(1.622)
618.0
(24.331)
Snowfall cm (inches) 12.0
(4.72)
8.8
(3.46)
6.4
(2.52)
0.8
(0.31)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
5.0
(1.97)
14.1
(5.55)
47.1
(18.54)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.1 5.9 8.1 7.7 8.5 9.3 8.5 8.2 7.0 5.9 7.8 6.9 89.9
Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 12.3 7.6 2.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 6.8 32.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.9 105.8 136.1 188.0 237.1 232.5 252.3 244.0 176.2 136.3 70.4 50.1 1,897.7
Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[2]

Origin of the name[edit]

The present city name, meaning "Iron City", was first recorded in 1118 as "castrum ferrum" and refers to the history of iron mining and iron trade in the area. The first written mention of the town took place in 1264 as "minor Mortin", matching the Hungarian name, Kismarton, which is recalling Saint Martin, the patron saint of the main church.

History[edit]

Archeological finds prove that the Eisenstadt area was already settled in the Hallstatt period. Celts and Romans settled somewhat later. During the Migration Period, the area was settled by different Germanic tribes and the Huns. Around 800, during the reign of Charlemagne, settlement by the Bavarii began.

The fortress built on the original earth works was destroyed by the troops of Leopold III, Margrave of Austria. In 1241, it was destroyed by the Mongol invaders. In 1373, the town came into the possession of the Kanizsai family, who rebuilt the walls surrounding the town and built a fortress at the site of the present day castle between 1388 and 1392. In 1388, Eisenstadt was given the right to hold markets by Emperor Sigismund.

In 1445 Archduke Albert VI of Austria acquired the town. In 1451 it was ceded to Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor by Matthias Corvinus in return for the Holy Crown of Hungary. Matthias Corvinus reconquered it by force in 1482, but Maximilian I acquired it again in 1490. It remained under Habsburg rule until 1622. In 1529 and 1532 the Ottoman Empire conquered Eisenstadt with their advance on the city of Vienna (see Ottoman wars in Europe). It was captured by the army of Imre Thököly in 1683, and it saw the defeat of the kuruc army of Sándor Károlyi by the Habsburgs in 1704. A royal town since 1648, it was destroyed by fire in 1589 and 1776.

In 1648, it passed under the rule of the Esterházy family. These Hungarian princes permanently changed the face of the city due to their extensive construction especially on their castle, Schloss Esterházy. The appointment of Joseph Haydn as the prince's Hofkapellmeister (court orchestra director, composing and performing music) began the great artistic period in the city's history. In 1809, Eisenstadt was occupied by French troops during the Napoleonic Wars; in 1897, it was joined to the railway network.

Until the end of World War I, it was the seat of Kismarton district in Sopron county in the Kingdom of Hungary. Without plebiscite, the city and the entire Hungarian territory of Burgenland (with the exception of the city of Sopron where the only plebiscite was held) was transferred to Austria by the Saint-Germain and Treaties of Trianon in 1921. Since 30 April 1925, Eisenstadt is seat of the Burgenland state government and thus the state capital. During World War II, Eisenstadt was heavily bombarded. In 1945, it was occupied by the Red Army, and the city remained until 1955 under Soviet occupation. In 1960, Eisenstadt became the see of its own Roman Catholic diocese.

Politics[edit]

The current mayor of Eisenstadt is Mag. Thomas Steiner ÖVP.

The district council is composed as follows (as of 2007):

Main sights[edit]

Castles and palaces[edit]

Religious edifices[edit]

The Old Town Hall

Buildings[edit]

Museums[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Culture[edit]

Eisenstadt hosts a Haydn festival, the Haydnfestspiele.

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Eisenstadt is twinned with:

Nearby municipalities[edit]

Natives[edit]

Other residents[edit]

As a surname[edit]

Eisenstadt (also Ajzenstat, Eisenstaedter, Asch, etc.), a Jewish surname, derives from this city. Some people with this surname or its variants include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Statistik Austria - Bevölkerung zu Jahres- und Quartalsanfang, 2014-01-01.
  2. ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971 - 2000 - Eisenstadt" (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Retrieved January 23, 2013. 
  3. ^ [1], [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ "Schalom" (in German). Österreichisches Jüdisches Museum. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 

External links[edit]