|Time zone||EST (UTC+2)|
El Alamein (or Al 'Alameen) (Arabic: العلمين, IPA: [elʕælæˈmeːn], literally "the two flags") is a town in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egypt. Located on the Mediterranean Sea, it lies 106 kilometres (66 mi) west of Alexandria and 240 kilometres (149 mi) northwest of Cairo. As of 2007, it has a local population of 7,397 inhabitants.
El Alamein has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh), in common with most of the Middle East and north Africa. However, like the rest of the northern coast of Egypt, its climate is slightly less hot, compared to the rest of Egypt, because of the prevailing Mediterranean Sea winds.
Alamein is also known for its unpolluted environment, air, and beaches.
|Climate data for El Alamein|
|Average high °C (°F)||17.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.4
|Average low °C (°F)||7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||29
El Alamein war museum
El Alamein has a war museum with collectibles from "the civil war" and other North African battles.
Visitors can also go to the Italian and German Military Cemetery on Tel el-Eisa Hill just outside the town. The German cemetery is an ossuary with the remains of 4,200 German soldiers, built in the style of a medieval fortress.
The Italian cemetery is a mausoleum containing 5.200 tombs. Many tombs bear the soldier's name; many are simply marked "IGNOTO", i.e. unknown.
There is a separate Greek cemetery at El Alamein.
Commonwealth of Nations
There is also a Commonwealth war cemetery, built and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, with graves of soldiers from various countries who fought on the Allied side. Buried here are 6,425 identified Commonwealth service personnel and 815 unidentified ones, besides 102 of other nationalities. These include four Victoria Cross recipients:
- Private Percival Gratwick, Australian Imperial Force
- Private Arthur ('Stan') Gurney, Australian Imperial Force
- Sergeant William ('Bill') Kibby, Australian Imperial Force
- Private Adam Wakenshaw, Durham Light Infantry
Others buried here include:
- Squadron Leader George Barclay, RAF - Battle of Britain fighter pilot
- Major Henry Rew, Royal Tank Regiment - England rugby international
This has monuments commemorating Greek, New Zealand, Australian, South African, Indian and Canadian forces. The cemetery entrance is through the Alamein Memorial and there is also a separate Alamein Cremation Memorial to 603 Commonwealth service personnel who died in Egypt and Libya and were cremated in line with their religion.
The cemetery was designed by Sir J. Hubert Worthington
World War II
Two important World War II battles were fought in the area.
- At the First Battle of El Alamein (1 – 27 July 1942) the advance of Axis troops on Alexandria was blunted by the Allies, when the German Panzers tried to outflank the allied position.
- At the Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 4 November 1942) Allied forces broke the Axis line and forced them all the way back to Tunisia. Winston Churchill said of this victory: "Now this is not the end; it is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning." After the war, he wrote: "Before Alamein we never had a victory. After Alamein, we never had a defeat."
- Marina El Alamein (tourist resort)
- Enham Alamein (village in Hampshire in England, renamed after the battle)
- El Alamein Fountain (war memorial commemorating the battle, in Sydney, Australia)
- First Battle of El Alamein
- Second Battle of El Alamein
- "Al ‘Alamayn at encarta". Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
- "Climate: El Alamein - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". climate-data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- CWGC Cemetery Report, El Alamein War Cemetery.
- Burial locations of VC holders in Egypt.
- CWGC Casualty record Richard George Arthur Barclay.
- CWGC Casualty record Henry Rew.
- CWGC Cemetery Report, Alamein Cremation Memorial.
- "Monuments, World Wars I and II". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to El Alamein.|
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Al `Alamayn, Egypt". Retrieved 29 March 2008.
- Matteo Ferrari. "El Alamein photos: Commonwealth war cemetery, Italian and German memorial, El Alamein war museum, Egypt". Retrieved 4 September 2011.