Elastic properties of the elements (data page)

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Young's modulus[edit]

E/(GPa)
number symbol name use WEL CRC
3 Li lithium 4.9 4.9
4 Be beryllium 287 287
11 Na sodium 10 10
12 Mg magnesium 45 45
13 Al aluminium 70 70
14 Si silicon 47 47
20 Ca calcium 20 20
21 Sc scandium 74.4 74 74.4
22 Ti titanium 116 116
23 V vanadium 128 128
24 Cr chromium 279 279
25 Mn manganese 198 198
26 Fe iron 211 211
27 Co cobalt 209 209
28 Ni nickel 200 200
29 Cu copper 130 130
30 Zn zinc 108 108
33 As arsenic 8 8
34 Se selenium 10 10
37 Rb rubidium 2.4 2.4
39 Y yttrium 63.5 64 63.5
40 Zr zirconium 68 68
41 Nb niobium 105 105
42 Mo molybdenum 329 329
44 Ru ruthenium 447 447
45 Rh rhodium 275 275
46 Pd palladium 121 121
47 Ag silver 83 83
48 Cd cadmium 50 50
49 In indium 11 11
50 Sn tin 50 50
51 Sb antimony 55 55
52 Te tellurium 43 43
55 Cs caesium 1.7 1.7
56 Ba barium 13 13
57 La lanthanum (α form) 36.6 37 (α form) 36.6
58 Ce cerium (γ form) 33.6 34 (γ form) 33.6
59 Pr praseodymium (α form) 37.3 37 (α form) 37.3
60 Nd neodymium (α form) 41.4 41 (α form) 41.4
61 Pm promethium (α form) est. 46 46 (α form) est. 46
62 Sm samarium (α form) 49.7 50 (α form) 49.7
63 Eu europium 18.2 18 18.2
64 Gd gadolinium (α form) 54.8 55 (α form) 54.8
65 Tb terbium (α form) 55.7 56 (α form) 55.7
66 Dy dysprosium (α form) 61.4 61 (α form) 61.4
67 Ho holmium 64.8 65 64.8
68 Er erbium 69.9 70 69.9
69 Tm thulium 74.0 74 74.0
70 Yb ytterbium (β form) 23.9 24 (β form) 23.9
71 Lu lutetium 68.6 69 68.6
72 Hf hafnium 78 78
73 Ta tantalum 186 186
74 W tungsten 411 411
75 Re rhenium 463 463
77 Ir iridium 528 528
78 Pt platinum 168 168
79 Au gold 78 78
81 Tl thallium 8 8
82 Pb lead 16 16
83 Bi bismuth 32 32
90 Th thorium 79 79
92 U uranium 208 208
94 Pu plutonium 96 96

Poisson ratio[edit]

μ, dimensionless
number symbol name use WEL CRC
4 Be beryllium 0.032 0.032
12 Mg magnesium 0.29 0.29
13 Al aluminium 0.35 0.35
20 Ca calcium 0.31 0.31
21 Sc scandium 0.279 0.28 0.279
22 Ti titanium 0.32 0.32
23 V vanadium 0.37 0.37
24 Cr chromium 0.21 0.21
26 Fe iron 0.29 0.29
27 Co cobalt 0.31 0.31
28 Ni nickel 0.31 0.31
29 Cu copper 0.34 0.34
30 Zn zinc 0.25 0.25
34 Se selenium 0.33 0.33
38 Sr strontium 0.28 0.28
39 Y yttrium 0.243 0.24 0.243
40 Zr zirconium 0.34 0.34
41 Nb niobium 0.40 0.40
42 Mo molybdenum 0.31 0.31
44 Ru ruthenium 0.30 0.30
45 Rh rhodium 0.26 0.26
46 Pd palladium 0.39 0.39
47 Ag silver 0.37 0.37
48 Cd cadmium 0.30 0.30
50 Sn tin 0.36 0.36
57 La lanthanum (α form) 0.280 0.28 (α form) 0.280
58 Ce cerium (γ form) 0.24 0.24 (γ form) 0.24
59 Pr praseodymium (α form) 0.281 0.28 (α form) 0.281
60 Nd neodymium (α form) 0.281 0.28 (α form) 0.281
61 Pm promethium (α form) est. 0.28 0.28 (α form) est. 0.28
62 Sm samarium (α form) 0.274 0.27 (α form) 0.274
63 Eu europium 0.152 0.15 0.152
64 Gd gadolinium (α form) 0.259 0.26 (α form) 0.259
65 Tb terbium (α form) 0.261 0.26 (α form) 0.261
66 Dy dysprosium (α form) 0.247 0.25 (α form) 0.247
67 Ho holmium 0.231 0.23 0.231
68 Er erbium 0.237 0.24 0.237
69 Tm thulium 0.213 0.21 0.213
70 Yb ytterbium (β form) 0.207 0.21 (β form) 0.207
71 Lu lutetium 0.261 0.26 0.261
72 Hf hafnium 0.37 0.37
73 Ta tantalum 0.34 0.34
74 W tungsten 0.28 0.28
75 Re rhenium 0.30 0.30
76 Os osmium 0.25 0.25
77 Ir iridium 0.26 0.26
78 Pt platinum 0.38 0.38
79 Au gold 0.44 0.44
81 Tl thallium 0.45 0.45
82 Pb lead 0.44 0.44
83 Bi bismuth 0.33 0.33
90 Th thorium 0.27 0.27
92 U uranium 0.23 0.23
94 Pu plutonium 0.21 0.21

Bulk modulus[edit]

K/(GPa)
number symbol name use WEL CRC other
3 Li lithium 11 11
4 Be beryllium 130 130
5 B boron (β form) 185 320 β 185(7) GPa, α 224(15) GPa [1]
6 C carbon 33 33
11 Na sodium 6.3 6.3
12 Mg magnesium 45 45
13 Al aluminium 76 76
14 Si silicon 100 100
15 P phosphorus 11 11
16 S sulfur 7.7 7.7
17 Cl chlorine (liquid) 1.1
19 K potassium 3.1 3.1
20 Ca calcium 17 17
21 Sc scandium 56.6 57 56.6
22 Ti titanium 110 110
23 V vanadium 160 160
24 Cr chromium 160 160
25 Mn manganese 120 120
26 Fe iron 170 170
27 Co cobalt 180 180
28 Ni nickel 180 180
29 Cu copper 140 140
30 Zn zinc 70 70
33 As arsenic 22 22
34 Se selenium 8.3 8.3
35 Br bromine 1.9
37 Rb rubidium 2.5 2.5
39 Y yttrium 41.2 41 41.2
41 Nb niobium 170 170
42 Mo molybdenum 230 230
44 Ru ruthenium 220 220
45 Rh rhodium 380 380
46 Pd palladium 180 180
47 Ag silver 100 100
48 Cd cadmium 42 42
50 Sn tin 58 58
51 Sb antimony 42 42
52 Te tellurium 65 65
53 I iodine 7.7 7.7
55 Cs caesium 1.6 1.6
56 Ba barium 9.6 9.6
57 La lanthanum (α form) 27.9 28 (α form) 27.9
58 Ce cerium (γ form) 21.5 22 (γ form) 21.5
59 Pr praseodymium (α form) 28.8 29 (α form) 28.8
60 Nd neodymium (α form) 31.8 32 (α form) 31.8
61 Pm promethium (α form) est. 33 33 (α form) est. 33
62 Sm samarium (α form) 37.8 38 (α form) 37.8
63 Eu europium 8.3 8.3 8.3
64 Gd gadolinium (α form) 37.9 38 (α form) 37.9
65 Tb terbium (α form) 38.7 38.7 (α form) 38.7
66 Dy dysprosium (α form) 40.5 41 (α form) 40.5
67 Ho holmium 40.2 40 40.2
68 Er erbium 44.4 44 44.4
69 Tm thulium 44.5 45 44.5
70 Yb ytterbium (β form) 30.5 31 (β form) 30.5
71 Lu lutetium 47.6 48 47.6
72 Hf hafnium 110 110
73 Ta tantalum 200 200
74 W tungsten 310 310
75 Re rhenium 370 370
76 Os osmium 462 462 [2]
77 Ir iridium 320 320
78 Pt platinum 230 230
79 Au gold 180 180
80 Hg mercury 25
81 Tl thallium 43 43
82 Pb lead 46 46
83 Bi bismuth 31 31
90 Th thorium 54 54
92 U uranium 100 100

Shear modulus[edit]

G/(GPa)
number symbol name use WEL CRC
3 Li lithium 4.2 4.2
4 Be beryllium 132 132
11 Na sodium 3.3 3.3
12 Mg magnesium 17 17
13 Al aluminium 26 26
19 K potassium 1.3 1.3
20 Ca calcium 7.4 7.4
21 Sc scandium 29.1 29 29.1
22 Ti titanium 44 44
23 V vanadium 47 47
24 Cr chromium 115 115
26 Fe iron 82 82
27 Co cobalt 75 75
28 Ni nickel 76 76
29 Cu copper 48 48
30 Zn zinc 43 43
34 Se selenium 3.7 3.7
38 Sr strontium 6.1 6.1
39 Y yttrium 25.6 26 25.6
40 Zr zirconium 33 33
41 Nb niobium 38 38
42 Mo molybdenum 120 120
44 Ru ruthenium 173 173
45 Rh rhodium 150 150
46 Pd palladium 44 44
47 Ag silver 30 30
48 Cd cadmium 19 19
50 Sn tin 18 18
51 Sb antimony 20 20
52 Te tellurium 16 16
56 Ba barium 4.9 4.9
57 La lanthanum (α form) 14.3 14 (α form) 14.3
58 Ce cerium (γ form) 13.5 14 (γ form) 13.5
59 Pr praseodymium (α form) 14.8 15 (α form) 14.8
60 Nd neodymium (α form) 16.3 16 (α form) 16.3
61 Pm promethium (α form) est. 18 18 (α form) est. 18
62 Sm samarium (α form) 19.5 20 (α form) 19.5
63 Eu europium 7.9 7.9 7.9
64 Gd gadolinium (α form) 21.8 22 (α form) 21.8
65 Tb terbium (α form) 22.1 22 (α form) 22.1
66 Dy dysprosium (α form) 24.7 25 (α form) 24.7
67 Ho holmium 26.3 26 26.3
68 Er erbium 28.3 28 28.3
69 Tm thulium 30.5 31 30.5
70 Yb ytterbium (β form) 9.9 9.9 (β form) 9.9
71 Lu lutetium 27.2 27 27.2
72 Hf hafnium 30 30
73 Ta tantalum 69 69
74 W tungsten 161 161
75 Re rhenium 178 178
76 Os osmium 222 222
77 Ir iridium 210 210
78 Pt platinum 61 61
79 Au gold 27 27
81 Tl thallium 2.8 2.8
82 Pb lead 5.6 5.6
83 Bi bismuth 12 12
90 Th thorium 31 31
92 U uranium 111 111
94 Pu plutonium 43 43

Notes[edit]

All values from CRC refer to room temperature. All values from WebElements presumably are also at room temperature.

References[edit]

WEL[edit]

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

  • A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.
  • G.W.C. Kaye and T. H. Laby in Tables of physical and chemical constants, Longman, London, UK, 15th edition, 1993.
  • G.V. Samsonov (Ed.) in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA, 1968.
  • D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.

CRC[edit]

As quoted in an online version of:

  • David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Physical Properties of the Rare Earth Metals

which further refers to:

  • Scott, T., in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 1, Gschneidner, K.A., Jr. and Eyring, L., Eds., North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam, 1978, 591.

See also[edit]