|— City —|
|Nickname(s): The City of Flowing Wells|
|Coffee County and the state of Alabama|
|Incorporated||April 13, 1853|
|• Type||City Council/Mayor|
|• Mayor||James E. Grimes|
|• Total||15.5 sq mi (40 km2)|
|• Land||15.4 sq mi (39.8 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)|
|Elevation||194 ft (59 m)|
|• Density||270/sq mi (104.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||0117908|
Elba is a city in Coffee County, Alabama. At the time of the 2000 U.S. census, its population was 4,185. Elba is the official county seat of Coffee County, though Coffee County has two County Courthouses, with the other one being located in the town of Enterprise. Such arrangements are not unusual in the United States, with Jefferson County, Alabama, also having two, and the tall, narrow, Brevard County, Florida, having four, with ones in Cocoa, Titusville, Melbourne, and Rockledge.
The town which eventually became Elba originated near a ferry across the Pea River in the early 1830s. Originally called Bridgeville, a U.S. Post Office was established in the town by 1841. In 1851, a lottery to determine a new name for the town was held. One citizen had been reading a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte, and his suggestion of "Elba" as its name was the winner when it was drawn from a hat before any of the other suggestions. Elba became the county seat of Coffee County in 1852.
A logging railroad first reached Elba, Alabama on March 20, 1892, with the first permanent rail line arriving in October 1898. The "Dorsey Trailer Company" was constructed at the end of this railroad line, and this company manufactured the highway trailers that served on railroads and highways starting with the piggyback railroad or containerized cargo boom of the second half of the 20th century. The new railroad line ended in West Elba, where the "New Town" industrial section of the town was located. The Seaboard System Railroad ceased all railroad service to Elba, including freight service, on November 27, 1984.
The Pea River is an essential component of the history of Elba. The river was originally called the Talakatchee River by the Creek Indians (In the Creek language, talak means pea and hatchee means small river.) The Pea River frequently flooded, causing great damage to the town. The Lincoln flood of 1865, named for the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in the same year, was the first to destroy the town. Another devastating flood occurred in 1929 when the river crested at a depth of 43.5 feet (13.3 m) early on March 15. Airplanes were used to drop supplies to the completely inundated town. There was only one death from the flood, an African-American man named "Phoe" Larkins. A child born at the Elba Hotel during this flood was named "Noah Tucker" after the biblical character Noah. Vivian Harper received the Theodore N. Vail Silver Medal for her heroic actions during the flood.
A levee was built around the town in 1930. Flood gates were erected and drainage systems improved. Floods continued, however, with especially severe inundations in 1938, 1959 and 1975. The worst flood ever recorded in Elba occurred in 1990, with a river crest of 48 feet (15 m). The levee broke and Whitewater Creek overflowed into the town. Elba was completely flooded for four days, and the town was nearly destroyed. More floods struck Elba in 1994 and 1998.
Elba is located at .(31.417263, -86.077442)
Elba is located beside the banks of the Pea River.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,185 people, 1,593 households, and 1,099 families residing in the city. The population density was 272.3 inhabitants per square mile (105.1 /km2). There were 1,873 housing units at an average density of 121.9 per square mile (47.1 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 63.92% White, 34.29% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, and 0.91% from two or more races. 1.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,593 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.0% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $24,021, and the median income for a family was $29,563. Males had a median income of $25,756 versus $21,052 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,382. About 25.8% of families and 30.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.7% of those under age 18 and 18.5% of those age 65 or over.
Public Education is provided by the Elba City Public School District. There are two schools in the city:
- Elba High School (grades 7 through 12)
- Elba Elementary School (grades K through 6)
- Radio stations
Notable residents 
- Robert D. Bullard, "Father of Environmental Justice"; Dean, School of Public Affairs, Texas Southern University
- James E. "Big Jim" Folsom, only Coffee County native to become governor of Alabama.
- Ronald McKinnon, National Football League player.
- Cornelia Ellis Wallace(1939–2009), the second wife of Governor George C. Wallace, Jr. and the First Lady of Alabama from 1971–1978.
- "Fact Sheet- Elba city, Alabama". American Fast Facts. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- Sanford, William (September 23, 2009). "Elba". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- "History of Elba". City of Elba Web site. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Geographic Comparison Table- Alabama". American Fast Facts. United States Census Bureau.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.